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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6021 matches for " Alfredo Bonfá "
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Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery
Murillo Villela Filho,Carlos Araujo,Alfredo Bonfá,Weber Porto
Enzyme Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/654596
Abstract: Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane. 1. Introduction In a market economy, corporations aim to maximize profit. Governments or society in general impose constraints on and regulate the maximization of profit. Product quality, operational safety, and respect for the environment all have to be fulfilled. To maximize profit, the chemical industry always seeks the most competitive feedstock. When competitive feedstock is available, opportunities for new processes and technologies arise. Technology for converting carbon dioxide into a feedstock source has been developed and used in Brazil since the inception of Pro-álcool, the Brazilian national alcohol program, in the 1970s [1]. Given the legislation, the market demand for sustainable products, and the progress being made in biotechnology and catalysis, developers are working on new processes, which are giving rise to a wide range of biobased products. The old sugar mills (engenhos) have become efficient industrial facilities (usinas) that produce sweeteners, ethanol, and bioenergy. Recent developments involve transforming sugar mills into biorefineries. Besides sweeteners, biofuel, and bioenergy, the biorefineries will be able to produce bioplastics and other chemicals by using the whole cane via alcohol chemistry and fermentative routes. This essay analyzes the industry’s historical response to new developments stemming from the rise of competitive feedstock and the opportunities that it creates. It focuses on sugar cane, its availability as a feedstock source, and the technologies that can turn sugar cane into an important starting point for chemistry of the future. Based on recent examples of processes and market developments, a new arrangement of integrated agroindustry, processing sugar cane and yielding higher value
Fuzzy Modelling and Control of the Air System of a Diesel Engine
S. Simani,M. Bonfè
Advances in Fuzzy Systems , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/450259
Abstract: This paper proposes a fuzzy modelling approach oriented to the design of a fuzzy controller for regulating the fresh airflow of a real diesel engine. This strategy has been suggested for enhancing the regulator design that could represent an alternative to the standard embedded BOSCH controller, already implemented in the Engine Control Unit (ECU), without any change to the engine instrumentation. The air system controller project requires the knowledge of a dynamic model of the diesel engine, which is achieved by means of the suggested fuzzy modelling and identification scheme. On the other hand, the proposed fuzzy PI controller structure is straightforward and easy to implement with respect to different strategies proposed in literature. The results obtained with the designed fuzzy controller are compared to those of the traditional embedded BOSCH controller.
There are Two Different Language Systems in the Brain  [PDF]
Alfredo Ardila
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2011.12005
Abstract: In this paper it is emphasized that human language has two rather different dimensions corresponding to two different language systems: lexical/semantic and grammatical. These two language systems are supported by different brain structures (temporal and frontal), and based in different learning strategies (declarative and procedural). In cases of brain pathology, each one can be independently impaired (Wernicke aphasia and Broca aphasia). While the lexical/semantic language system may have appeared during human evolution long before the contemporary man, the grammatical language system probably represents a relatively recent acquisition. Language grammar may be the departing ability for the development of the metacognitive executive functions and is probably based in the ability to internally represent actions.
The Light as Composed of Longitudinal-Extended Elastic Particles Obeying to the Laws of Newtonian Mechanics  [PDF]
Alfredo Bacchieri
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.59092

It is shown that the speed of longitudinal-extended elastic particles, emitted during an emission time T by a source S at speed u (escape speed toward the infinity due to all the masses in space), is invariant for any Observer, under the Newtonian mechanics laws. It is also shown that a cosmological reason implies the light as composed of such particles moving at speed u (function of the total gravitational potential). Compliance of c with Newtonian mechanics is shown for Doppler effect, Harvard tower experiment, gravitational red shift and time dilation, highlighting, for each of these subjects, the differences versus the relativity.

A Feasible Experiment Contrary to the 2nd Postulate of SR  [PDF]
Alfredo Bacchieri
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.69139
Abstract: Assuming the light as composed of longitudinal-extended elastic (and massive) particles emitted during an emission time T at speed c (=u) (with u the escape speed from all the masses, toward the infinity), it is shown that c is invariant (under the Newtonian mechanics laws), for an Observer fixed to the initial emission point Ep (the point where the emission starts), in spite of any motion of the source (of light) with respect to Ep. On the contrary, an Observer, in motion from Ep during the emission, will state (indirectly) a Galilean variation of c which can be proved and evaluated by an appropriate feasible experiment described here.
Evidences for a Unified Physics, in Full Accordance with the Newtonian Laws  [PDF]
Alfredo Bacchieri
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.715193
Abstract: We show that the speed of a longitudinal-extended, elastic (variable length), and massive particle, emitted by a source during an emission time T, at speed u (escape speed from all the masses in space), is invariant for every real measurement, (intending a measurement requiring an interaction light-matter), in spite of any reciprocal motion source-Observer. Thus we may argue that the light has to be composed of such particles (photons) moving at speed c = u. Compliance of these photons with Newtonian mechanics is shown for many effects, (like the Doppler effect, redshift, time dilation, etc.), highlighting the differences versus the Relativity. In the 2nd part, on the assumption that the electron charge can be considered as a point-particle fixed to the electron surface, always facing the atom nucleus during the electron revolution, we revised the light-matter interaction, showing that it only depends on the particular impacts between these photons and the circling electrons: for instance, on H atom, we found 137 circular orbits only, the last one being the ionization orbit, where the electron orbital speed becomes vi= c/1372. [Classical mechanics implies that orbiting electrons produce an electro-magnetic radiation causing their fall into the nucleus: on Section 3.5, the reason why the electron circular orbits are stable].
Three Conditions Leading to a Unified (Quasi-Newtonian) Physics  [PDF]
Alfredo Bacchieri
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2018.911129
Abstract: It is shown that the total escape speed u (i.e. from all the masses in space), which depends on the total gravitational potential U through the relation u = (2U)1/2, tends to c; then, under the 1st condition c = u, and assuming (as a 2nd condition) the light as composed of longitudinally-extended, elastic (i.e. variable length) and massive particles, (photons), emitted at speed u referred to the initial location (O) of their source, we show that c referred to O becomes invariant despite any motion of its source from O. We revised the Doppler effect for the light, the gravitational redshift cause, the time dilation, highlighting the differences with respect to the Relativity. In the 2nd part, considering (3rd condition) the electron charge as a point-particle fixed to the electron surface and facing the atom nucleus during the electron orbit, the light-matter interaction becomes a consequence of the particular impacts between these photons and the circling electrons: e.g., on H atom, we found 137 circular orbits only, the last one being the ionization orbit, where the electron orbital speed becomes v i= c/1372. [Classical physics, under the assumption that a circling electron should produce (like a macroscopic electric circuit), an electro-magnetic radiation, implies that this claimed effect has to cause the electron fall into its nucleus: on Section 2.5, we show that the e.m. radiation of a circling electron only happens between two circular orbits].
Mechanisms of Dyslipoproteinemias in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Eduardo F. Borba,Jozelio F. Carvalho,Eloísa Bonfá
Clinical and Developmental Immunology , 2006, DOI: 10.1080/17402520600876945
Abstract: Autoimmunity and inflammation are associated with marked changes in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in SLE. Autoantibodies and cytokines are able to modulate lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, a key enzyme in lipid metabolism, with a consequent “lupus pattern” of dyslipoproteinemia characterized by elevated levels of very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL) and triglycerides (TG) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels. This pattern favors an enhanced LDL oxidation with a subsequent deleterious foam cell formation. Autoantibodies and immunocomplexes may aggravate this oxidative injury by inducing accumulation and deposition of oxLDL in endothelial cells. Drugs and associated diseases usually magnify the close interaction of these factors and further promote the proatherogenic environment of this disease.
Design and Analysis of Robust Fault Diagnosis Schemes for a Simulated Aircraft Model
M. Benini,M. Bonfè,P. Castaldi,W. Geri,S. Simani
Journal of Control Science and Engineering , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/274313
Abstract: Several procedures for sensor fault detection and isolation (FDI) applied to a simulated model of a commercial aircraft are presented. The main contributions of the paper are related to the design and the optimisation of two FDI schemes based on a linear polynomial method (PM) and the nonlinear geometric approach (NLGA). The FDI strategies are applied to the aircraft model, characterised by tight-coupled longitudinal and lateral dynamics. The robustness and the reliability properties of the residual generators related to the considered FDI techniques are investigated and verified by simulating a general aircraft reference trajectory. Extensive simulations exploiting the Monte Carlo analysis tool are also used for assessing the overall performance capabilities of the developed FDI schemes, in the presence of turbulence, measurement, and model errors. Comparisons with other disturbance-decoupling methods for FDI based on neural networks (NNs) and unknown input kalman filter (UIKF) are finally reported.
O processo de implanta??o de diretrizes na prática médica
JATENE, Fabio B.;BERNARDO, Wanderley Marques;MONTEIRO-BONFá, Rosangela;
Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-76382001000200001
Abstract: traditionally, guidelines are developed by physicians to improve quality of health care, to provide practitioners with valuable medical information and to improve objectivity in medical decision making. determinant aspects of good guidelines, mainly, development methods, discussing, applicability factors such as costs, ethical and legal implications are approached in this article.
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