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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1553 matches for " Alfred Chikweto "
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Prevalence of Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in Pigs in Grenada, West Indies  [PDF]
Ravindra Nath Sharma, Keshaw Tiwari, Alfred Chikweto, Claude DeAllie, Muhammad Iqbal Bhaiyat
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2015.56019
Abstract: The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and Neospora caninum (N. caninum) in pigs in Grenada, West Indies. T. gondii is a serious zoonosis affecting the unborn fetus and immunocompromized individuals. N. caninum is a similar coccidian parasite, which is not zoonotic, but is the cause of abortion and neonatal mortality in livestock similar to T. gondii. An earlier study conducted in Grenada and using a modified agglutination test (MAT) revealed seropositivity to T. gondii in pigs. No information is available on N. caninum infection of pigs in the Caribbean islands including Grenada. Serum samples from 185 pigs in Grenada, West Indies were tested for antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum using an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 24.3% of pigs (95% confidence interval (CI): 18.12% to 30.48%) as all the tested pigs were negative for antibodies to N. caninum. Although, seroprevalence for T. gondii was higher in females (25.75%) than in males (20.70%), this result was statistically insignificant (p = 0.57). The results were similar to a previous study in Grenada confirming the continuity of infection in pigs. Human Toxoplasmosis is transmitted mainly through ingestion of tissue cysts in contaminated raw or undercooked meat or sporulated oocysts in soil, water or vegetables. Education of farmers and the Grenadian community on epidemiology of these parasites is warranted to prevent infection in pigs and in humans. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of N. caninum in pigs in the Caribbean region.
Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in Sheep and Goats from Grenada, West Indies  [PDF]
Ravindra Nath Sharma, Jehna Bush, Keshaw Tiwari, Alfred Chikweto, Muhammad Iqbal Bhaiyat
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2015.511029
Abstract: Neospora caninum (N. caninum), an intracellular protozoan parasite, causes abortion and neonatal mortality in many herbivores including sheep and goats. The aim of this study was to estimate the Seroprevalence of N. caninum in sheep and goats in Grenada, West Indies. Sera were collected from 138 sheep and 138 goats from all six parishes of Grenada and Carriacou, a small island within Grenada. Animals were identified by gender. Sera were tested for antibodies for N. caninum using an indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) multispecies Kit from Pourquire Laboratorie (IDvet, France). Antibodies to N. caninum were detected in 18 of 138 sheep (13%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 7.39% to 18.61%) and 8 of 138 goats (5.8%, 95% CI: 1.9% to 9.7%). Although seropositivity was high in female sheep and in male goats, there was no statistical difference in seropositivity of males and females in both species of animals (p > 0.05, χ2). The results of this study revealed that sheep and goats in Grenada were exposed to N. caninum and dogs might be considered as a source of infection. There was a need to educate the farmers, possessing small ruminants, about the transmission cycle of N. caninum and methods of prevention, to minimize the exposure of their flocks. This is the first report on seroprevalence of N. caninum in Grenada, West Indies.
Seroprevalence of Bluetongue Virus Antibody in Ruminants from Grenada  [PDF]
Ravindra Nath Sharma, Sureni Beckford, Keshaw Tiwari, Elodie Vinet, Derek Thomas, Claude de Allie, Alfred Chikweto
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2016.66013
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies to bluetongue virus (BTV) among domestic ruminants of Grenada. Sera samples from cattle (133), goat (314) and sheep (481) were tested using competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Of the total of 928 samples tested, the overall BTV seroprevalence was 78.4% (95% confidence interval (CI ± 2.65). The seropositivity of ovine, caprine and bovine was found to be 71.7% (95% CI, 67.67% to 75.73%), 80.2% (95% CI, 75.79% to 84.61%) and 98.5% (95% CI, 96.43% to 100.57%), respectively. There was statistical significance in the seroprevalence of BTV among bovine, caprine and ovine (p < 0.05). It is evident from this study that blue tongue virus is endemic in Grenada.
Prevalence of Canine Heartworm Disease in Stray Dogs of Grenada, West Indies  [PDF]
Melissa C. Brown, Alfred Chikweto, Keshaw P. Tiwari, Claude DeAllie, Muhammad Iqbal Bhaiyat, Ravindra N. Sharma
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2017.711018
Abstract: Dirofilariasis (heartworm disease) has been reported in Grenadian dogs. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in stray dogs (n = 523) from the six Parishes of Grenada. Necropsy records were reviewed; information on the distribution and lesions of Dirofilaria immitis was recorded. A total of 144 from 523 dogs (27.5%; 95% CI: 23.9% to 31.5%) were positive for Dirofilaria immitis on necropsy. This study shows that heartworm disease is prevalent in stray dogs in all the Parishes of mainland Grenada. This is a progressive, life-threatening disease and thus, there is a need to screen and prevent it within the stray dog population of Grenada.
Genital and Extragenital Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor in Dogs in Grenada, West Indies  [PDF]
Alfred Chikweto, Sachin Kumthekar, Hugh Larkin, Claude Deallie, Keshaw P. Tiwari, Ravindra N. Sharma, Muhammad I. Bhaiyat
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2013.32018
Abstract:

Transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) is a widely reported transplantable tumor in dogs, with no breed or sex predilection and with a low metastatic rate. This retrospective study conducted from 2005 and 2011 sought to evaluate the total number of TVT cases, and to report extragenital TVT lesions in dogs from the small tropical island of Grenada, West Indies. Evaluation of the biopsy and necropsy specimens from dogs with TVT was carried out by cytological and histopathological methods. In the present study, we observed a total of 78 dogs with TVT, comprising 40 male and 38 female dogs. Most cases were from dogs between 3 and 6 years; less frequently from older dogs (over 6 years) or younger dogs (1 - 2 years of age). In the present study, we report 15 cases (19.2%) of dogs with TVT in extragenital sites. Tumors were noted in the nasal cavity, eye orbit, spleen, liver, skin, ribs, subcutaneous, and submandibular, cervical and inguinal lymph nodes. There was also evidence of metastasis to the ovaries in 2 dogs. The most interesting finding was the presence of extragenital lesions without primary genital involvement in 4 cases (5.1%). Our findings emphasize the need to consider TVT on the list of differential diagnosis for masses in extragenital sites in dogs from geographic regions where TVT is prevalent.

Exposure to Zoonotic Abortifacients among Sheep and Goats in Grenada
Diana M. Stone,Sachin Kumthekar,Alfred Chikweto,Derek Thomas
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of exposure to the zoonotic abortifacients Brucella spp, Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydophila abortus among sheep and goats in the Caribbean Tri-Island state of Grenada. Documentation of exposure to these important bacterial pathogens will facilitate instituting appropriate prevention and control measures. Serum samples were collected from 582 animals from the islands of Grenada and Carriacou during 2009-2010. Sera were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for determination of antibodies to smooth lipopolysaccharides (s-LPS) of B. abortus strain S-99, inactivated C. abortus antigens and to C. burnetii phase I and II purified antigens. None of the animals examined tested positive for antibody to C. burnetii. Evidence of Brucella exposure was noted in 13 (3.6%) of 362 sheep, representing animals from both islands of Grenada and Carriacou, whereas none of the 220 goats examined tested positive. Exposure to either Brucella abortus or B. melitensis could account for the detected antibody to Brucella s-LPS antigens. Antibody to C. abortus was detected in 6.0% of animals tested (24 sheep and 10 goats), representing animals from Carriacou and all 6 parishes of Grenada. Taken together, our results indicate moderate widespread exposure of small ruminants to the zoonotic abortifacients Brucella spp and Chlamydophila abortus in the tri-island state of Grenada and is the first report documenting such exposures in any animal species in this region of the Caribbean.
Evaluation of Sensitivity and Positive Predictive Values of Cytopathologic Diagnosis of Solid Masses in Dogs  [PDF]
Richard M. Kabuusu, Tracy Volger, Sachin Kumthekar, Keshaw Tiwari, Alfred Chikweto, Muhammad I. Bhaiyat, Claude De Allie, Ruth Alexander, Carla Richards, Ravindra N. Sharma
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2016.66012
Abstract: In this retrospective study, a total of 275 solid masses were examined for cytopathologic diagnosis. Twenty four percent (67/275) of these cytologic samples were followed by surgical biopsy and histopathologic diagnosis, allowing for comparisons. On average, the cutaneous and subcutaneous solid masses were recognized when the dogs were aged between 6 and 9 years old. The origins of the solid masses included connective tissue tumors 37.1% (23/62), epithelial tissue tumors 33.9% (21/62), round cell tumors 19.4% (12/62), masses of inflammatory lesions 4.8% (3/62) and lesions due to other causes 4.8% (3/62). The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of cytopathology in the diagnosis of solid masses were 93% (62/67) and 97% (62/64), respectively. Generally, neo-plasms were over diagnosed by cytopathology as was indicated by the positive predictive value. Both the sensitivity and the PPV of cytopathology comparative to histopathology in the diagnosis of inflammatory processes were 100% (3/3). The inflammatory lesions were eventually confirmed as necrotizing myositis, necro-suppurative cystitis and endocrine inflammatory dermatopathy based on histopathology. Less than 8% (5/67) of samples were incorrectly diagnosed by cytology. The study showed high accuracy between cytological and histopathological examination of solid masses in dogs, and thus a reliable diagnostic tool in patient care.
The Phylogeography of Rabies in Grenada, West Indies, and Implications for Control
Ulrike Zieger,Denise A. Marston,Ravindra Sharma,Alfred Chikweto,Keshaw Tiwari,Muzzamil Sayyid,Bowen Louison,Hooman Goharriz,Katja Voller,Andrew C. Breed,Dirk Werling,Anthony R. Fooks ,Daniel L. Horton
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003251
Abstract: In Grenada, West Indies, rabies is endemic, and is thought to be maintained in a wildlife host, the small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) with occasional spillover into other hosts. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to improve understanding of rabies epidemiology in Grenada and to inform rabies control policy. Mongooses were trapped island-wide between April 2011 and March 2013 and examined for the presence of Rabies virus (RABV) antigen using the direct fluorescent antibody test (dFAT) and PCR, and for serum neutralizing antibodies (SNA) using the fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test (FAVN). An additional cohort of brain samples from clinical rabies suspects submitted between April 2011 and March 2014 were also investigated for the presence of virus. Two of the 171 (1.7%) live-trapped mongooses were RABV positive by FAT and PCR, and 20 (11.7%) had SNAs. Rabies was diagnosed in 31 of the submitted animals with suspicious clinical signs: 16 mongooses, 12 dogs, 2 cats and 1 goat. Our investigation has revealed that rabies infection spread from the northeast to the southwest of Grenada within the study period. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the viruses from Grenada formed a monophyletic clade within the cosmopolitan lineage with a common ancestor predicted to have occurred recently (6–23 years ago), and are distinct from those found in Cuba and Puerto Rico, where mongoose rabies is also endemic. These data suggest that it is likely that this specific strain of RABV was imported from European regions rather than the Americas. These data contribute essential information for any potential rabies control program in Grenada and demonstrate the importance of a sound evidence base for planning interventions.
Primordial Open-System Thermodynamics and the Origin of a Biophysics Selection Principle  [PDF]
Alfred Bennun
Open Journal of Biophysics (OJBIPHY) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2012.23010
Abstract: Mesons and baryons, according to their rest mass and half-life, show a tendency for de-confinement and re-confinement of energy, contributing to a continuous surge of enthalpy along the primordial chronology. The strong force opposes to the separation of the constitutive quarks of pions, which by self-multiplication, absorb the energy released by decay and pair-annihilation. The 1% of mass apported by quarks requires an additional 99% of energy from this decay to manifest as gluons-hadrons formation. Processes like oscillation neutron-proton and antineutron-antiproton cycles are capable to capture primordial radiation, and may have prevented a Universe immersed into residual gamma radiation.
Innovative Use of Light-Weight Radioisotopes in Therapeutics and the Engineering of Light-Power Generators  [PDF]
Alfred Bennun
Open Journal of Biophysics (OJBIPHY) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2013.31A011
Abstract:

Light weight radioisotope (LWR) 89Sr and 90Sr could be obtained from used rods in fission atomic plants. The economics of the disposal of nuclear bars indicate the convenience to develop added value applications. The difference in t1/2 allows 89Sr to deliver its energy at a rate 200 times higher than 90Sr. A large emission number of low penetrating power particles in a short time characterize 89Sr, which allows that these highly radioactive LWR involves a rather limited danger. Chemical similitude of calcium and strontium uptake has led to the use of 89Sr in treatment of bone cancer metastasis. 89Sr damages animal tissues because ionize water, but penetrates through the skin about: 5 to 8 mm. Hence, to obtain it in insoluble form, like obtaining 89Sr silicate, could make possible its wider use. Purifying 89Sr from contaminant 90Sr allows that after one year do not leave any contamination. LWR could be covered with scintillators substances, which by subtracting kinetic energy from beta-radiation, emit light and function as a major source of shielding. This treatment engineers Radioisotope Light Generators (RLG). Their light could activate photovoltaic cells (PV), which could lead to nano-devices without moving parts RLG-PV.

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