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Book Review: MORAIS, Artur G. de; ALBUQUERQUE, Eliana B. C. de; LEAL, Telma F. Alfabetiza o: apropria o do sistema de escrita alfabética. Belo Horizonte: Autêntica, 2005.
Marcia Aparecida Alferes
Práxis Educativa , 2007,
Abstract:
Forma o Continuada de Professores Alfabetizadores: uma avalia o do Programa Pró-Letramento
Márcia Aparecida Alferes,Jefferson Mainardes
Meta : Avalia??o , 2012,
Abstract: Este artigo apresenta uma análise da concep o e gest o do Programa Pró-Letramento, implantado pelo Governo Federal a partir de 2005. O referido Programa destina-se à forma o continuada de professores alfabetizadores nas áreas de Alfabetiza o/Linguagem e Matemática. O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar, em uma perspectiva crítica, os principais aspectos relacionados à concep o e gest o do programa e as concep es nele subjacentes. Utilizou-se como referencial teórico a abordagem do ciclo de políticas (BOWE; BALL; GOLD, 1992; BALL, 1994) e contribui es de autores que fundamentam concep es de alfabetiza o e letramento em uma perspectiva crítica (SOARES, 1998, 2002). Argumenta-se que o Programa Pró-Letramento é uma medida necessária, mas n o suficiente para uma promo o efetiva da qualidade da educa o oferecida às classes trabalhadoras, que demanda o encaminhamento de uma série de outras a es que ultrapassam a forma o continuada dos professores.
Transaction Logic with (Complex) Events
Ana Sofia Gomes,José Júlio Alferes
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: This work deals with the problem of combining reactive features, such as the ability to respond to events and define complex events, with the execution of transactions over general Knowledge Bases (KBs). With this as goal, we build on Transaction Logic (TR), a logic precisely designed to model and execute transactions in KBs defined by arbitrary logic theories. In it, transactions are written in a logic-programming style, by combining primitive update operations over a general KB, with the usual logic programming connectives and some additional connectives e.g. to express sequence of actions. While TR is a natural choice to deal with transactions, it remains the question whether TR can be used to express complex events, but also to deal simultaneously with the detection of complex events and the execution of transactions. In this paper we show that the former is possible while the latter is not. For that, we start by illustrating how TR can express complex events, and in particular, how SNOOP event expressions can be translated in the logic. Afterwards, we show why TR fails to deal with the two issues together, and to solve the intended problem propose Transaction Logic with Events, its syntax, model theory and executional semantics. The achieved solution is a non-monotonic extension of TR, which guarantees that every complex event detected in a transaction is necessarily responded.
Competitividad y ventajas comparativas de la producción de maíz en México
González Estrada, Adrián;Alferes Varela, Mario;
Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas , 2010,
Abstract: the economic depression of 2008 highlighted the controversies on commercial liberalization, strengthening the idea that the agricultural sector is disastrous and that maize is the most troublesome crop, due to the removal of protectionist quotas and tariffs. this is why an evaluation of national maize production is required, 22 years after the commercial deregulation in 1986 with the inclusion of mexico in the general agreement on tariffs and trade (gatt), 15 years after the signing of north american free trade agreement (nafta) and after the elimination of quotas and tariffs on the imports of that grain. the aim of this research is to show how competitiveness and the comparative advantages of maize production in mexico have evolved. the methodology hereby used is based on the policy analysis matrix with a few modifications, applied to the statistical information of 2007. the conclusion is that 85% of maize production in mexico has private competitiveness and only 43.2% of the total production has comparative advantages. since 1990 in mexico, both private competitiveness and comparative advantages for maize production have grown, and they could continue to grow if a comprehensive and efficient agricultural policy were implemented, focused on the sustainable intensification of agriculture and the growth of partial and total factor productivity mostly throughout research and development activities.
Competitividad y ventajas comparativas de la producción de maíz en México Competitiveness and comparative advantages in maize production of Mexico
Adrián González Estrada,Mario Alferes Varela
Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas , 2010,
Abstract: La depresión económica de 2008 acentúo los cuestionamientos a la liberalización comercial, fortaleciendo con ello la idea que el campo es un desastre y el maíz es el cultivo que exhibe más dificultades y problemas, a consecuencia de la desaparición de los aranceles y cuotas proteccionistas. Por ello se requiere evaluar la producción nacional de maíz, después de 22 a os de la liberalización comercial en 1986 con la entrada de México al Acuerdo General de Aranceles y Comercio (GATT), a 15 a os de la firma del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN) y después de la eliminación de aranceles y cuotas a las importaciones de ese grano. El objetivo de esta investigación es mostrar de qué manera han evolucionado la competitividad y las ventajas comparativas de la producción de maíz en México. La metodología utilizada se basa en la matriz de análisis de políticas, con algunas modificaciones aplicada a la información estadística de 2007. Se concluyó que 85% de la producción de maíz en México tiene competitividad privada y que tan sólo 43.2% de la producción total tiene ventajas comparativas. Desde 1990, ha crecido tanto la competitividad privada como las ventajas comparativas de México para producir maíz, y que podrían crecer, si se instrumentara una política agrícola integral y eficiente, dirigida a la intensificación sustentable de la agricultura y el crecimiento de la productividad parcial y total de los factores, principalmente a través de actividades de investigación y desarrollo. The economic depression of 2008 highlighted the controversies on commercial liberalization, strengthening the idea that the agricultural sector is disastrous and that maize is the most troublesome crop, due to the removal of protectionist quotas and tariffs. This is why an evaluation of national maize production is required, 22 years after the commercial deregulation in 1986 with the inclusion of Mexico in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 15 years after the signing of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and after the elimination of quotas and tariffs on the imports of that grain. The aim of this research is to show how competitiveness and the comparative advantages of maize production in Mexico have evolved. The methodology hereby used is based on the policy analysis matrix with a few modifications, applied to the statistical information of 2007. The conclusion is that 85% of maize production in Mexico has private competitiveness and only 43.2% of the total production has comparative advantages. Since 1990 in Mexico, both private competitiven
Abduction in Well-Founded Semantics and Generalized Stable Models
José Júlio Alferes,Lu\'?s Moniz Pereira,Terrance Swift
Computer Science , 2003,
Abstract: Abductive logic programming offers a formalism to declaratively express and solve problems in areas such as diagnosis, planning, belief revision and hypothetical reasoning. Tabled logic programming offers a computational mechanism that provides a level of declarativity superior to that of Prolog, and which has supported successful applications in fields such as parsing, program analysis, and model checking. In this paper we show how to use tabled logic programming to evaluate queries to abductive frameworks with integrity constraints when these frameworks contain both default and explicit negation. The result is the ability to compute abduction over well-founded semantics with explicit negation and answer sets. Our approach consists of a transformation and an evaluation method. The transformation adjoins to each objective literal $O$ in a program, an objective literal $not(O)$ along with rules that ensure that $not(O)$ will be true if and only if $O$ is false. We call the resulting program a {\em dual} program. The evaluation method, \wfsmeth, then operates on the dual program. \wfsmeth{} is sound and complete for evaluating queries to abductive frameworks whose entailment method is based on either the well-founded semantics with explicit negation, or on answer sets. Further, \wfsmeth{} is asymptotically as efficient as any known method for either class of problems. In addition, when abduction is not desired, \wfsmeth{} operating on a dual program provides a novel tabling method for evaluating queries to ground extended programs whose complexity and termination properties are similar to those of the best tabling methods for the well-founded semantics. A publicly available meta-interpreter has been developed for \wfsmeth{} using the XSB system.
A Goal-Directed Implementation of Query Answering for Hybrid MKNF Knowledge Bases
Ana Sofia Gomes,Jose Julio Alferes,Terrance Swift
Computer Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1017/S1471068412000439
Abstract: Ontologies and rules are usually loosely coupled in knowledge representation formalisms. In fact, ontologies use open-world reasoning while the leading semantics for rules use non-monotonic, closed-world reasoning. One exception is the tightly-coupled framework of Minimal Knowledge and Negation as Failure (MKNF), which allows statements about individuals to be jointly derived via entailment from an ontology and inferences from rules. Nonetheless, the practical usefulness of MKNF has not always been clear, although recent work has formalized a general resolution-based method for querying MKNF when rules are taken to have the well-founded semantics, and the ontology is modeled by a general oracle. That work leaves open what algorithms should be used to relate the entailments of the ontology and the inferences of rules. In this paper we provide such algorithms, and describe the implementation of a query-driven system, CDF-Rules, for hybrid knowledge bases combining both (non-monotonic) rules under the well-founded semantics and a (monotonic) ontology, represented by a CDF Type-1 (ALQ) theory. To appear in Theory and Practice of Logic Programming (TPLP)
Query-driven Procedures for Hybrid MKNF Knowledge Bases
José Júlio Alferes,Matthias Knorr,Terrance Swift
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: Hybrid MKNF knowledge bases are one of the most prominent tightly integrated combinations of open-world ontology languages with closed-world (non-monotonic) rule paradigms. The definition of Hybrid MKNF is parametric on the description logic (DL) underlying the ontology language, in the sense that non-monotonic rules can extend any decidable DL language. Two related semantics have been defined for Hybrid MKNF: one that is based on the Stable Model Semantics for logic programs and one on the Well-Founded Semantics (WFS). Under WFS, the definition of Hybrid MKNF relies on a bottom-up computation that has polynomial data complexity whenever the DL language is tractable. Here we define a general query-driven procedure for Hybrid MKNF that is sound with respect to the stable model-based semantics, and sound and complete with respect to its WFS variant. This procedure is able to answer a slightly restricted form of conjunctive queries, and is based on tabled rule evaluation extended with an external oracle that captures reasoning within the ontology. Such an (abstract) oracle receives as input a query along with knowledge already derived, and replies with a (possibly empty) set of atoms, defined in the rules, whose truth would suffice to prove the initial query. With appropriate assumptions on the complexity of the abstract oracle, the general procedure maintains the data complexity of the WFS for Hybrid MKNF knowledge bases. To illustrate this approach, we provide a concrete oracle for EL+, a fragment of the light-weight DL EL++. Such an oracle has practical use, as EL++ is the language underlying OWL 2 EL, which is part of the W3C recommendations for the Semantic Web, and is tractable for reasoning tasks such as subsumption. We show that query-driven Hybrid MKNF preserves polynomial data complexity when using the EL+ oracle and WFS.
Domínios de investiga??o, orienta??es metodológicas e autores nas revistas portuguesas de psicologia
Alferes,Valentim Rodrigues; Bidarra,Maria Da Gra?a; Lopes,Cláudia Abreu; Mónico,Lisete Dos Santos;
Análise Psicológica , 2009,
Abstract: the domains of research, the methods, and the authors of 2070 articles published during the last four decades of the 20th century in eight portuguese journals of psychology (análise psicológica; cadernos de consulta psicológica; psicologia; psicologia, educa??o e cultura; psicologia: teoria, investiga??o e prática; psychologica; revista de psicologia e de ciências da educa??o; and revista portuguesa de psicologia) were classified and compared with the thematic and methodological orientations of the articles indexed in psycinfo database. the study main conclusion points to an underrepresentation of core psychology contents (basic psychological processes), whereas general psychology/psychometrics and applied psychology were the primary fields of research. simultaneously, there is a focus on literature review and synthesis at the expense of empirical research. these trends are the major distinguishing characteristics relative to international standards, as they are documented in the records of psycinfo. the 2070 articles were signed by 3193 authors. the contributions of men were higher than those of women, despite the quasi-parity in the nineties. internal strategies of publication - a typical feature of low intensity scientific communication networks - were predominant, though marked by signs of a progressive culture of cooperation, expressed in the systematic increase of co-authorship.
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