Abstract:
Relying on the known two-term quasiclassical asymptotic formula for the trace of the function $f(A)$ of a Wiener-Hopf type operator $A$ in dimension one, in 1982 H. Widom conjectured a multi-dimensional generalization of that formula for a pseudo-differential operator $A$ with a symbol $a(\bx, \bxi)$ having jump discontinuities in both variables. In 1990 he proved the conjecture for the special case when the jump in any of the two variables occurs on a hyperplane. The present paper gives a proof of Widom's Conjecture under the assumption that the symbol has jumps in both variables on arbitrary smooth bounded surfaces.

Abstract:
For self-adjoint operators $A, B$, a bounded operator $J$, and a function $f:\mathbb R\to\mathbb C$ we obtain bounds in quasi-normed ideals of compact operators for the difference $f(A)J-Jf(B)$ in terms of the operator $AJ-JB$. The focus is on functions $f$ that are smooth everywhere except for finitely many points. A typical example is the function $f(t) = |t|^\gamma$ with $\gamma \in (0, 1)$. The obtained results are applied to derive a two-term quasi-classical asymptotic formula for the trace $tr f(S)$ with $S$ being a Wiener-Hopf operator with a discontinuous symbol.

Abstract:
Let $A$ be an infinite Toeplitz matrix with a real symbol $f$ defined on $[-\pi, \pi]$. It is well known that the sequence of spectra of finite truncations $A_N$ of $A$ converges to the convex hull of the range of $f$. Recently, Levitin and Shargorodsky, on the basis of some numerical experiments, conjectured, for symbols $f$ with two discontinuities located at rational multiples of $\pi$, that the eigenvalues of $A_N$ located in the gap of $f$ asymptotically exhibit periodicity in $N$, and suggested a formula for the period as a function of the position of discontinuities. In this paper, we quantify and prove the analog of this conjecture for the matrix $A^2$ in a particular case when $f$ is a piecewise constant function taking values $-1$ and $1$.

Abstract:
In 1986 A. Ancona showed, using the Koebe one-quarter Theorem, that for a simply-connected planar domain the constant in the Hardy inequality with the distance to the boundary is greater than or equal to 1/16. In this paper we consider classes of domains for which there is a stronger version of the Koebe Theorem. This implies better estimates for the constant appearing in the Hardy inequality.

Abstract:
Under a perturbation by a decaying electric potential, the Landau Hamiltonian acquires some discrete eigenvalues between the Landau levels. We study the perturbation by an "expanding" electric potential $V(t^{-1}x)$, $t>0$, and derive a quasi-classical formula for the counting function of the discrete spectrum as $t\to \infty$.

Abstract:
The leading asymptotic large-scale behavior of the spatially bipartite entanglement entropy (EE) of the free Fermi gas infinitely extended in multidimensionsal Euclidean space at zero absolute temperature, T=0, is by now well understood. Here, we announce and discuss the first rigorous results for the corresponding EE of thermal equilibrium states at T>0. The leading large-scale term of this thermal EE turns out to be twice the leading finite-size correction to the infinite-volume thermal entropy (density). Not surprisingly, this correction is just the thermal entropy on the boundary surface of the bipartition. However, it is given by a rather complicated analytical expression derived from semiclassical functional calculus and differs, at least at high temperature, from simpler expressions previously obtained by arguments based on conformal field theory. In the zero-temperature limit, the leading large-scale term of the thermal EE considerably simplifies and displays a ln(1/T)-singularity which one may identify with the known logarithmic correction at T=0 to the so-called area-law scaling. Our results extend to the whole one-parameter family of (quantum) R\'enyi entropies.

Abstract:
In a remarkable paper [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 100503 (2006)], Dimitri Gioev and Israel Klich conjectured an explicit formula for the leading asymptotic growth of the spatially bi-partite von-Neumann entanglement entropy of non-interacting fermions in multi-dimensional Euclidean space at zero temperature. Based on recent progress by one of us (A.V.S.) in semi-classical functional calculus for pseudo-differential operators with discontinuous symbols, we provide here a complete proof of that formula and of its generalization to R\'enyi entropies of all orders $\alpha>0$. The special case $\alpha=1/2$ is also known under the name logarithmic negativity and often considered to be a particularly useful quantification of entanglement. These formulas, exhibiting a "logarithmically enhanced area law", have been used already in many publications.

Abstract:
We study the existence of fixed points to a parameterized Hammertstain operator $\cH_\beta,$ $\beta\in (0,\infty],$ with sigmoid type of nonlinearity. The parameter $\beta<\infty$ indicates the steepness of the slope of a nonlinear smooth sigmoid function and the limit case $\beta=\infty$ corresponds to a discontinuous unit step function. We prove that spatially localized solutions to the fixed point problem for large $\beta$ exist and can be approximated by the fixed points of $\cH_\infty.$ These results are of a high importance in biological applications where one often approximates the smooth sigmoid by discontinuous unit step function. Moreover, in order to achieve even better approximation than a solution of the limit problem, we employ the iterative method that has several advantages compared to other existing methods. For example, this method can be used to construct non-isolated homoclinic orbit of a Hamiltionian system of equations. We illustrate the results and advantages of the numerical method for stationary versions of the FitzHugh-Nagumo reaction-diffusion equation and a neural field model.

Abstract:
The kinetics of the oxidation of molybdenyte, pyrite and sphalerite in solutions of nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite was studied by the rotating disk method. The influence of the molar concentration of reagent, pH of solution, temperature, disk rotation frequency, and duration of measurements on the specific rate of hydrochemical oxidation of sulpfides was determined. The kinetic models allowing to calculate the dissolution rate of sulphides when these parameters change simultaneously were obtained. The conditions of kinetically and diffusion-controlled processes were detected. The details of mechanism of the studied processes were revealed. The nature of intermediate solid products, the reasons and the conditions of their formation as well as the character of their influence on the kinetics of dissolution processes were determined. The probable schemes of interactions corresponding to the observable kinetic dependences were offered. The conditions of the effective and selective molybdenum leaching directly from ore without its concentration were found.