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Examples of Ecotones and Paragenese in the Vegetation Cover of the Baikalian Siberia  [PDF]
Alexander P. Sizykh, Svetlana V. Sizykh
Natural Science (NS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.615107
Abstract: Changes in vegetation structure in environments contact community characterize the ecotones and paragenese inside zonal vegetation site or altitude belt as of concrete environments while differences of cenotic structures of communities between zones or between altitude belts as well. The aim of this work was research of structural-dynamic organization of phytocenoses forming under the conditions of environments contact and mountain tundra, forests (zonal taiga) and extrazonal steppes, zonal forest steppes of some areas at the Baikalian Siberia, Eastern Siberia of Russia.
Current vegetation dynamics of the “forest-mountain tundra” ecotones of Lake Baikal coastal ranges  [PDF]
Alexander Sizykh, Victor Voronin
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.52029
Abstract:

During last decades, new trends appeared in the ecotones of the upper boundary of forests at the ridges surroundingLakeBaikal(Khamar-Daban and Baikal’sky Ridge): ones to advance of wood species (Pinus sibirica Du Tour, Abies sibirica Ledeb., Larix sibirica Ledeb., Larix dahurica Lawson) out of timber stands into the area of subgoltsy with Pinus pumila (Pallas) Regel. up to mountain tundras. In average, this is from 100 to 200 - 300 meters (maximum up to500 m) in linear distance from the margin of dense timber stand. A burst of forests renewal occurred in 1989-1995, it resulted probably from a high productivity of the seeds of wood species due to warmer winters in 1980ies-1990ies which favoured the formation of favourable climate-edaphic conditions for the development of forest communities above the forests boundary on the ridges surrounding Lake Baikal.

The structure of the plant communities in the different environment contact sites on the base of the soil-geobotanic profiling in the changing climate of Lake Baikal region  [PDF]
Alexander Sizykh, Victor Voronin, Alexander Griczenuk, Svetlana Sizykh
Natural Science (NS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2012.410101
Abstract: The results of studies of the peculiarities of formation of phytocenoses in environments contact sites of the western and eastern coasts of the Lake Baikal has been showed in this paper. On the base of geobotanic profiling combined with soil one, the structure and dynamics of phytocenoses forming under the conditions of mutual development of light-coniferous taiga forest and of extra zonal steppes. Edaphic conditions and placement of phytocenoses are main trigger factors determining the ways of plant cover development in this part of Lake Baikal basin. We discuss the characteristics properties inherent in the linkage of the dynamics and spatial variability of the vegetation with the change of climate in the Baikal region. The regional conditions of the physiogeographic environment had given rise to structurally highly contrasting plant communities in this region. The increase in yearly mean summertime amounts of rainfall, combined with the rise of yearly mean winter temperatures over the last years were conducive to changes in the spatial structure of vegetation. The boundary between the types of vegetation undergoes smoothing. The upper boundary of forest is altered because of changes of the environment that are responsible for the zonality and properties of vertical zonality of the vegetation on the mountains surrounding Lake Baikal. Changes in the vegetation serve as indicators of climate change as well as providing diagnostic tools for the genesis of the Baikal region’s natural environment.
Paragenese of the vegetation in ecosystems contact zones (in Lake Baikal basin)  [PDF]
Alexander Sizykh, Victor Voronin, Michail Azovsky, Svetlana Sizykh
Natural Science (NS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2012.45039
Abstract: Phytocenoses in the ecosystems contact zones are characterized by a rather complex structural and dynamical more than one features and by specific development characters under definite physical and geographical conditions. Unlike zonal vegetation, such phytocenoses respond to all environment changes more rapidly. The structure of such phytocenoses allows to determine the way this or that scenarios of climate change would develop at any level of more than one ecosystems. A possibility to use the notion “paragenese” for characterization of phytocenoses under contrast conditions is considered. Paragenese is the development of phytocenoses which are not related to zonal vegetation types by their composition and structure. Probably, the communities from ecosystems contact zones are to be related to a particular “type” of vegetation. Phytocenoses in the contact of light coniferous taiga and extrazonal steppes, as well as relations between zonal forest-steppe at main areas of Lake Baikal basin served as examples for justification of use of the notion “paragenese” to characterize the development of such communities.
Arealogical and Ecotypological Compositions of the Flora of Plant Communities at Environment Contact Sites (Based on Some Pre-Baikal Sites)  [PDF]
Alexander Sizykh
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102823
Abstract:
The study of phytocenoses of transitional environmental conditions in the Pre-Baikal Region enabled to reveal modern tendencies of vegetation development in different Pre-Baikal sites. Such cenoses can serve as a regional model for indication of existing processes and of changes in vegetation structure which occurred under different environmental conditions. It is found out that ecotones and cenoses reflecting the paragenese in vegetation structure indicate structural-dynamic peculiarities of the organization of Pre-Baikalian vegetation cover as a whole. They are valid for classification and characterize intrazonal differences in vegetation structure at vaste territories. Ecotones and paragenese in the vegetation structure in the studied area reflect physical and geographical conditions of their formation for a definite time period.
Ecotones and Paragenese (Object) as Indicators of Structure-Dynamical Organization of Vegetation on the Background of Climate Dynamics (The Lake Baikal Basine as an Example)  [PDF]
Alexander Sizykh
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103310
Abstract:
Usage of methods for determination of long-time trends in the dynamics of vegetation formation on the background of climate changes becomes more important at modern stage of the assessment of natural systems development. Solution of such a task results inevitably in necessity to correct the understanding of existing processes occurring in the vegetation cover. It allows establishing a direction of their development in system of natural factors of any territory. The aim of this study is to find peculiarities of spatial and temporal organization of phytocenoses-ecotones between altitudinal belts, zonal forest- steppe and zonal steppe, as well as one of phytocenoses reflecting paragenese as indicators of structural and dynamical organization of vegetation for different areas of Lake Baikal basine (Pre-Baikal).
Mapping Studies of Phytocenoses in Environment Interfaces (as Methodical Approach)  [PDF]
Alexander P. Sizykh
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102206
Abstract: Mapping studies of phytocenoses at environmental interface require a set of approaches and methods providing obtaining of detailed information on vegetation structure and dynamics under contrast environmental conditions. Phytocenoses at environmental interface can be a regional model for indication of current processes and of past changes in vegetation structure under different environmental conditions. Mapping of environmental interface cenoses allows revealing the peculiarities of phytocenoses structure and formation at regional and topological level of plants organization. This is, in turn, an information basis for identification of current processes within zonal vegetation type (environmental zone). In the present article, the results of large-scale mapping of phytocenoses under the conditions of interdependence of development of zonal taiga and extra-zonal steppe at Lake Baikal western coast are presented. We use a study method combination of geobotanical survey with large-scale schematic mapping and vegetation mapping on the base of field deciphering of aerospace pictures made in different years together with phytocenoses monitoring during different seasons and years forming at the interface of zonal forests and extra-zonal steppe.
Afforestation of Extrazonal Steppes in the Baikal Region  [PDF]
Alexander P. Sizykh
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102362
Abstract: The published paper presents the results characterizing structural-dynamical changes and anthropogenic destructions of forests, which form in the zones of contact between taiga and extrazonal steppe of Barguzin and Tunka Depressions (the Baikal Region). We have used perennial (for 22 years) geobotanical descriptions of model sites and made inventory large-scale geobotanical schematic maps on the base of field deciphering of aerophotographs of different years (1974- 2002). Soil-geobotanical profiling allowed revealing some links of edaphic conditions with structural-dynamical characteristics of forest cenoses of the above-mentioned areas of Pre-Baikal. The subject of studies is determination of the trends of forest cenoses development in the zones of contact between forest and extrazonal steppe. Such cenoses reflect structurally and dynamically changes occurring in natural zones on the background of climatic fluctuations under anthropogenic impact much more rapidly than zonal vegetation.
Formation of an Ecotone at the Boundary of Forest and Mountain Tundra—Morskoy Ridge as an Example, Middle Part of Eastern Coast of Lake Baikal  [PDF]
Alexander P. Sizykh
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102357
Abstract: During last decades, new trends appeared in the ecotones of the upper boundary of forests at the ridges surrounding Lake Baikal: ones to advance of wood species (Pinus sibirica Du Tour, Abies sibirica Ledeb., Larix sibirica Ledeb.) out of timber stands into the area of sub-goltsy with Pinus pumila (Pallas) Regel. up to mountain tundras. In average, this is from 100 to 200 - 300 meters in linear distance from the margin of dense timber stand. A burst of forests renewal occurred in 1989-1995, it resulted probably from a high productivity of the seeds of wood species due to warmer winters in 1980ies-1990ies which favoured the formation of favourable climate-edaphic conditions for the development of forest communities above the forests boundary on the ridges surrounding Lake Baikal.
Phytocenoses at Environments Contact Sites as Proxies of Climate Dynamics with Time (East Siberia, Russia)  [PDF]
Alexander P. Sizykh
Natural Science (NS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2016.83014
Abstract: Usage of methods for determination of long-term trends of the dynamics of vegetation formation on the background of climate changes becomes more and more important at modern stage of the assessment of natural systems development. This causes to researchers a series of problems from choice of conceptual base to notions and terms of the processes identified and of state of vegetation of different environments. Solution of such a task results inevitably in necessity to correct the understanding of existing processes occurring in the vegetation cover. It allows establishing a direction of their development in the system of natural factors of any territory. As a result, we have base for determination of age, site and role of current state of phytocenoses in successional systems. It is necessary for this to reveal the peculiarities of phytocenoses composition and formation due to climate dynamics and to determine a period of ecosystems homeostasis, especially for phytocenoses of contact natural conditions. Optimal values of phytocenoses diversity, like one of whole biosystems, depend on the amount of resource in the environment, on stability degree and on evolutional development of cenoses due to ecological, micro-evolutional and evolutional processes.
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