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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19867 matches for " Alexander Schilke "
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Photonic properties of one-dimensionally-ordered cold atomic vapors under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency
Alexander Schilke,Claus Zimmermann,William Guerin
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.86.023809
Abstract: We experimentally study the photonic properties of a cold-atom sample trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency. We show that such a medium has two photonic band gaps. One of them is in the transparency window and gives rise to a Bragg mirror, which is spectrally very narrow and dynamically tunable. We discuss the advantages and the limitations of this system. As an illustration of a possible application we demonstrate a two-port all-optical switch.
Optical parametric oscillation with distributed feedback in cold atoms
Alexander Schilke,Claus Zimmermann,Philippe W. Courteille,William Guerin
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2011.320
Abstract: There is currently a strong interest in mirrorless lasing systems, in which the electromagnetic feedback is provided either by disorder (multiple scattering in the gain medium) or by order (multiple Bragg reflection). These mechanisms correspond, respectively, to random lasers and photonic crystal lasers. The crossover regime between order and disorder, or correlated disorder, has also been investigated with some success. Here, we report one-dimensional photonic-crystal lasing (that is, distributed feedback lasing) with a cold atom cloud that simultaneously provides both gain and feedback. The atoms are trapped in a one-dimensional lattice, producing a density modulation that creates a strong Bragg reflection with a small angle of incidence. Pumping the atoms with auxiliary beams induces four-wave mixing, which provides parametric gain. The combination of both ingredients generates a mirrorless parametric oscillation with a conical output emission, the apex angle of which is tunable with the lattice periodicity.
Photonic Band Gaps in One-Dimensionally Ordered Cold Atomic Vapors
Alexander Schilke,Claus Zimmermann,Philippe W. Courteille,William Guerin
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.223903
Abstract: We experimentally investigate the Bragg reflection of light at one-dimensionally ordered atomic structures by using cold atoms trapped in a laser standing wave. By a fine tuning of the periodicity, we reach the regime of multiple reflection due to the refractive index contrast between layers, yielding an unprecedented high reflectance efficiency of 80%. This result is explained by the occurrence of a photonic band gap in such systems, in accordance with previous predictions.
Evolution of complex organic molecules in hot molecular cores: Synthetic spectra at (sub-)mm wavebands
Rumpa Choudhury,Peter Schilke,Gwendoline Stéphan,Edwin A. Bergin,Thomas M?ller,Anika Schmiedeke,Alexander Zernickel
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201424499
Abstract: Hot molecular cores (HMCs) are intermediate stages of high-mass star formation and are also known for their rich emission line spectra at (sub-)mm wavebands. The observed spectral feature of HMCs such as total number of emission lines and associated line intensities are also found to vary with evolutionary stages. We developed various 3D models for HMCs guided by the evolutionary scenarios proposed by recent empirical and modeling studies. We then investigated the spatio-temporal variation of temperature and molecular abundances in HMCs by consistently coupling gas-grain chemical evolution with radiative transfer calculations. We explored the effects of varying physical conditions on molecular abundances including density distribution and luminosity evolution of the central protostar(s). The time-dependent temperature structure of the hot core models provides a realistic framework for investigating the spatial variation of ice mantle evaporation as a function of evolutionary timescales. With increasing protostellar luminosity, the water ice evaporation font ($\sim$100K) expands and the spatial distribution of gas phase abundances of these COMs also spreads out. We simulated the synthetic spectra for these models at different evolutionary timescales to compare with observations. A qualitative comparison of the simulated and observed spectra suggests that these self-consistent hot core models can reproduce the notable trends in hot core spectral variation within the typical hot core timescales of 10$^{5}$ year. These models predict that the spatial distribution of various emission line maps will also expand with evolutionary time. The model predictions can be compared with high resolution observation that can probe scales of a few thousand AU in high-mass star forming regions such as from ALMA.[Abridged]
A contracting circumbinary molecular ring with an inner cavity of about 140 AU around Ori 139-409
Luis A. Zapata,Peter Schilke,Paul Ho
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.16051.x
Abstract: Sensitive and subarcsecond resolution ($\sim$ 0.7\arcsec) CH$_3$OH(7$_{-2,6}$ $\to$ 6$_{-2,5}$) line and 890 $\mu$m continuum observations made with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) towards the hot molecular circumbinary ring associated with the young multiple star Ori 139-409 are presented. The CH$_3$OH(7$_{-2,6}$ - 6$_{-2,5}$) emission from the ring is well resolved at this angular resolution revealing an inner cavity with a size of about 140 AU. A LTE model of a Keplerian disk with an inner cavity of the same size confirms the presence of this cavity. Additionally, this model suggests that the circumbinary ring is contracting with a velocity of V$_{inf}$ $\sim$ 1.5 km s$^{-1}$ toward the binary central compact circumstellar disks reported at a wavelength of 7 mm. {\bf The inner central cavity seems to be formed by the tidal effects of the young stars in the middle of the ring.} The ring appears to be not a stationary object. Furthermore, the infall velocity we determine is about a factor of 3 slower than the free-fall velocity corresponding to the dynamical mass. This would correspond to a mass accretion rate of about 10$^{-5}$ M$_\odot$/yr. We found that the dust emission associated with Ori 139-409 appears to be arising from the circumstellar disks with no strong contribution from the molecular gas ring. A simple comparison with other classical molecular dusty rings (e.g. GG Tau, UZ Tau, and UY Aur) suggests that Ori 139-409 could be one of the youngest circumbinary rings reported up to date. Finally, our results confirm that the circumbinary rings are actively funneling fresh gas material to the central compact binary circumstellar disks, i.e. to the protostars in the very early phases of their evolution.
From Massive Protostars to a Giant HII Region: Submillimeter Imaging of the Galactic Mini-starburst W43
Frederique Motte,Peter Schilke,Darek C. Lis
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/344538
Abstract: We have carried out a submillimeter continuum and spectroscopic study of the W43 main complex, a massive star-forming region, which harbors a giant HII region. The maps reveal a filamentary structure containing ~50 fragments with masses of 40-4000 Msun and typical diameters of 0.25 pc. Their large sizes, large non-thermal velocities (Dv ~ 5 km/s), and high densities (n_H2 ~ 10^6 cm^-3) suggest that they are protoclusters and excellent sites to form massive stars. Follow-up observations are necessary, but we have already identified three protoclusters to be very good candidates for containing very young massive protostars. The starburst cluster, that excites the giant HII region has a large impact on the molecular complex. However, it remains unclear if this first episode of star formation is triggering the formation of new massive stars, through ionization shocks crossing the closeby molecular clouds. W43 is thus an ideal laboratory to investigate massive star formation from the protostellar phase to that of giant HII regions. Moreover, the very active star-forming complex W43 may be considered a Galactic mini-starburst region that could be used as a miniature model of starburst galaxies.
Multiple outflows in IRAS 19410+2336
H. Beuther,P. Schilke,T. Stanke
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20030795
Abstract: PdBI high-spatial resolution CO observations combined with near-infrared H2 data disentangle at least 7 (maybe even 9) molecular outflows in the massive star-forming region IRAS19410+2336. Position-velocity diagrams of the outflows reveal Hubble-like relationships similar to outflows driven by low-mass objects. Estimated accretion rates are of the order 10^-4 Msun/yr, sufficiently high to overcome the radiation pressure and form massive stars via disk-mediated accretion processes. The single-dish large-scale mm continuum cores fragment into several compact condensations at the higher spatial resolution of the PdBI which is expected due to the clustering in massive star formation. While single-dish data give a simplified picture of the source, sufficiently high spatial resolution resolves the structures into outflows resembling those of low-mass star-forming cores. We interpret this as further support for the hypothesis that massive stars do form via disk-accretion processes similar to low-mass stars.
eXtended CASA Line Analysis Software Suite (XCLASS)
T. M?ller,C. Endres,P. Schilke
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The eXtended CASA Line Analysis Software Suite (XCLASS) is a toolbox for the Common Astronomy Software Applications package (CASA) containing new functions for modeling interferometric and single dish data. Among the tools is the myXCLASS program which calculates synthetic spectra by solving the radiative transfer equation for an isothermal object in one dimension, whereas the finite source size and dust attenuation are considered as well. Molecular data required by the myXCLASS program are taken from an embedded SQLite3 database containing entries from the Cologne Database for Molecular Spectroscopy CDMS) and JPL using the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center (VAMDC) portal. Additionally, the toolbox provides an interface for the model optimizer package Modeling and Analysis Generic Interface for eXternal numerical codes (MAGIX), which helps to find the best description of observational data using myXCLASS (or another external model program), i.e., finding the parameter set that most closely reproduces the data.
Hot gas and dust in a protostellar cluster near W3(OH
Friedrich Wyrowski,Peter Schilke,C. Malcolm Walmsley,Karl M. Menten
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/311934
Abstract: We used the IRAM Interferometer to obtain sub-arcsecond resolution observations of the high-mass star-forming region W3(OH) and its surroundings at a frequency of 220 GHz. With the improved angular resolution, we distinguish 3 peaks in the thermal dust continuum emission originating from the hot core region about 6 arcsec (0.06 pc) east of W3(OH). The dust emission peaks are coincident with known radio continuum sources, one of which is of non-thermal nature. The latter source is also at the center of expansion of a powerful bipolar outflow observed in water maser emission. We determine the hot core mass to be 15 solar masses based on the integrated dust continuum emission. Simultaneously many molecular lines are detected allowing the analysis of the temperature structure and the distribution of complex organic molecules in the hot core. From HNCO lines, spanning a wide range of excitation, two 200 K temperature peaks are found coincident with dust continuum emission peaks suggesting embedded heating sources within them.
H2CO and CH3OH maps of the Orion Bar photodissociation region
S. Leurini,B. Parise,P. Schilke,J. Pety,R. Rolffs
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200912484
Abstract: A previous analysis of methanol and formaldehyde towards the Orion Bar concluded that the two molecular species may trace different physical components, methanol the clumpy material, and formaldehyde the interclump medium. To verify this hypothesis, we performed multi-line mapping observations of the two molecules to study their spatial distributions. The observations were performed with the IRAM-30m telescope at 218 and 241 GHz, with an angular resolution of ~11''. Additional data for H2CO from the Plateau de Bure array are also discussed. The data were analysed using an LVG approach. Both molecules are detected in our single-dish data. Our data show that CH3OH peaks towards the clumps of the Bar, but its intensity decreases below the detection threshold in the interclump material. When averaging over a large region of the interclump medium, the strongest CH3OH line is detected with a peak intensity of ~0.06K. Formaldehyde also peaks on the clumps, but it is also detected in the interclump gas. We verified that the weak intensity of CH3OH in the interclump medium is not caused by the different excitation conditions of the interclump material, but reflects a decrease in the column density of methanol. The abundance of CH3OH relative to H2CO decreases by at least one order of magnitude from the dense clumps to the interclump medium.
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