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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19794 matches for " Alexander NO Dodoo "
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Genetic polymorphisms in MDR1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes in a Ghanaian population: a plausible explanation for altered metabolism of ivermectin in humans?
William Kudzi, Alexander NO Dodoo, Jeremy J Mills
BMC Medical Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-11-111
Abstract: Using PCR-RFLP, relevant polymorphic alleles of MDR1 and CYP3A4 genes were analysed in 204 randomly selected individuals and in 42 ivermectin treated patients.We recorded significantly higher MDR1 (3435T) variant allele frequency in suboptimal responders (21%) than in patients who responded to treatment (12%) or the random population sample (11%). CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A5*6 alleles were detected at varied frequencies for the sampled Ghanaian population, responders and suboptimal responders to ivermectin. CYP3A5*1/CYP3A5*1 and CYP3A5*1/CYP3A5*3 genotypes were also found to be significantly different for responders and suboptimal responders. Haplotype (*1/*1/*3/*1) was determined to be significantly different between responders and suboptimal responders indicating a possible role of these haplotypes in treatment response with ivermectin.A profile of pharmacogenetically relevant variants for MDR1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes has been generated for a random population of 204 Ghanaians to address the scarcity of data within indigenous African populations. In 42 patients treated with ivermectin, difference in MDR1 variant allele frequency was observed between suboptimal responders and responders.P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a product of multidrug resistance gene (MDR1), is a member of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporter family. It is widely recognised as a component in the disposition of a large number of drugs [1,2]. P-gp is normally located in tissues with excretory (liver, kidney) and barrier (intestine, blood-brain, blood-testis blood-ovarian, and placenta) functions [3-5]. P-gp acts as a protective barrier to keep toxic substances out of the body and prevent the accumulation of drugs in sensitive organs. Several studies have identified genetic polymorphisms within the MDR1 gene with altered P-gp expression levels and functionality in tissues as well as effects on drug response and clinical outcomes [6,7]. These polymorphisms have been r
Characterisation of CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms in a Ghanaian population
William Kudzi, Alexander NO Dodoo, Jeremy J Mills
BMC Medical Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-10-124
Abstract: RFLP assays were used to genotype CYP2C8 (*2, *3, *4) variant alleles in 204 unrelated Ghanaians. CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C19 (*2 and *3) variants were determined by single-tube tetra-primer assays while CYP2C9 (*3, *4, *5 and *11) variants were assessed by direct sequencing.Allelic frequencies were obtained for CYP2C8*2 (17%), CYP2C8*3 (0%), CYP2C8*4 (0%), CYP2C9*2 (0%), CYP2C9*3 (0%), CYP2C9*4 (0%), CYP2C9*5 (0%), CYP2C9*11 (2%), CYP2C19*2 (6%) and CYP2C19*3 (0%).Allele frequency distributions for CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 among the Ghanaian population are comparable to other African ethnic groups but significantly differ from Caucasian and Asian populations. Variant allele frequencies for CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 are reported for the first time among indigenous Ghanaian population.Variant allele frequencies of many pharmacogenetically-relevant polymorphisms have been demonstrated to vary greatly between populations of different countries. However, some areas of the world especially indigenous African populations have scarcity information in the current pharmacogenetics research [1,2] Cytochrome P450 2C (CYP2C) subfamily of enzymes form 18-30% of human CYPs and metabolises nearly 20% of all therapeutic drugs commonly prescribed in clinical practice [3]. CYP2C gene is made up of four isoforms, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C18 and CYP2C19 which are located together on chromosome 10q24. This CYP2C subfamily of enzymes constitutes 15-20% of the CYP protein in the liver [3] and exhibit genetic polymorphisms leading to differences in activities of these enzymes. Genetic polymorphisms of this CYP2C subfamily of enzymes are thought to influence both efficacy of drugs and the likelihood of ADRs [4].CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 enzymes constitute 26%, 50%, and 16% respectively of the CYP2C subfamily [5]. They are polymorphically expressed with variable allele frequencies among different ethnic populations [2,6,7], Some of these CYP2C variant alleles have been associated with either an increased
A situational analysis of pharmacovigilance plans in the Global Fund Malaria and U.S. President's Malaria Initiative proposals
Andy Stergachis, Rebecca JK Bartlein, Alexander Dodoo, Jude Nwokike, S Patrick Kachur
Malaria Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-148
Abstract: The Global Fund - Malaria Round 8 proposals for the 26 countries and the PMI Malaria Operational Plans (MOPs) for fiscal year 2009 for the 15 countries that were approved and received funding from either the Global Fund - Malaria Round 8 or PMI were accessed through the programme websites. The analysis consisted of conducting word counts and key word in context analyses of each proposal and plan.Twelve out of 26 (46%) of the Global Fund proposals mentioned that established pharmacovigilance systems were present in their countries. Four of the fifteen PMI MOPs (27%) mentioned that established pharmacovigilance systems were present in their countries. Only seven of the 26 (27%) Global Fund proposals included a request for funding for new or current pharmacovigilance activities. Seven of 15 (47%) MOPs included a request for funding for pharmacovigilance activities.There were relatively few requests for funding for pharmacovigilance activities, demonstrating a lack of emphasis placed on pharmacovigilance systems in recipient countries. The findings stress the need for more active direction to strengthen active surveillance and passive adverse event reporting systems to augment the issuance of guidance documents.Malaria is a major global public health concern with over 250 million cases annually resulting in close to one million deaths, mostly among young children in sub-Saharan Africa [1]. This devastating disease can be prevented and managed through the proper use of anti-malarial medicines, long-lasting insecticide-treated nets, and indoor residual spraying. The evidence-base for each of these strategies has grown in recent years and has led to the adoption of country policies and guidelines intended to avert malaria cases and save lives [2]. Malaria control efforts have been strengthened by increased funding from numerous donor groups and agencies. Among the largest donor organizations in combating malaria are The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (
Historiography of International Law up to 1980
V Dodoo
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2008,
Abstract: Historiography is primarily concerned with the history of history writing and this includes a critical examination and evaluation of the methods and sources of data of the histories and their makers. International Law, on the other hand, is a youthful discipline with a problem of placement. It is a branch of International Relations which is, itself, a branch of Political Science. But as a branch of law, a problem is created as to whether it is not proper, in looking at the history and historiography of International Law, to do so as part of the larger field of legal history. The pioneer historians and historiographers of the discipline did not do that.
A Historian of World Society: A Study of the Historian Eric Hobsbawm and a Critique of His Age of Capital
V Dodoo
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2008,
Abstract: Professor Eric Hobsbawm may be described as a professional Marxist historian. The subjects he writes about include labour, artisans, peasants and the working class or, in short, the “forgotten majority” in the society. He regards himself as a historian of society and he practises dynamic history which is the interpretation of society with a view to changing it for the better. He has suggested that the pre-condition for history must be the existence of a total unit or system and has, accordingly, argued that world history – which he has undertaken in Age of Capital is only possible after 1848 when it became possible to think of the world as one unified economy.
The Demand for Human Rights in a Diverse Socio-Cultural World Society: Approaches and Tools
Vincent Dodoo
Journal of Politics and Law , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/jpl.v4n2p162
Abstract: The universality of human rights in a culturally diverse world and the approaches and tools for dealing with the problem is the subject of this paper. Since 1945, the United Nations accepted that human rights are rights applicable to all peoples on earth and, therefore, it became necessary to develop institutions to ensure that demands for such rights by peoples of the world can be met. A primary concern of this paper is to assess the institutions and machinery provided and to determine whether they are adequate and effective for meeting the demands. This paper is divided into three parts: the origins of the human rights agenda, approaches for meeting human rights demands and the tools and instruments needed to enforce the demands.
Pattern of drug utilization for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in urban Ghana following national treatment policy change to artemisinin-combination therapy
Alexander NO Dodoo, Carole Fogg, Alex Asiimwe, Edmund T Nartey, Augustina Kodua, Ofori Tenkorang, David Ofori-Adjei
Malaria Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-2
Abstract: Patients with diagnosis of uncomplicated malaria were recruited from pharmacies of health facilities throughout Accra in a cohort-event monitoring study. The main drug utilization outcomes were the relation of patient age, gender, type of facility attended, mode of diagnosis and concomitant treatments to the anti-malarial regimen prescribed. Logistic regression was used to predict prescription of nationally recommended first-line therapy and concomitant prescription of antibiotics.The cohort comprised 2,831 patients. Curative regimens containing an artemisinin derivative were given to 90.8% (n = 2,574) of patients, although 33% (n = 936) of patients received an artemisinin-based monotherapy. Predictors of first-line therapy were laboratory-confirmed diagnosis, age >5 years, and attending a government facility. Analgesics and antibiotics were the most commonly prescribed concomitant medications, with a median of two co-prescriptions per patient (range 1–9). Patients above 12 years were significantly less likely to have antibiotics co-prescribed than patients under five years; those prescribed non-artemisinin monotherapies were more likely to receive antibiotics. A dihydroartemisinin-amodiaquine combination was the most used therapy for children under five years of age (29.0%, n = 177).This study shows that though first-line therapy recommendations may change, clinical practice may still be affected by factors other than the decision or ability to diagnose malaria. Age, diagnostic confirmation and suspected concurrent conditions lead to benefit:risk assessments for individual patients by clinicians as to which anti-malarial treatment to prescribe. This has implications for adherence to policy changes aiming to implement effective use of ACT. These results should inform education of health professionals and rational drug use policies to reduce poly-pharmacy, and also suggest a potential positive impact of increased access to testing for malaria both within health facil
Lindane and propoxur residues in cocoa from Central region of Ghana
J Apau, DK Dodoo
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2010,
Abstract: Lindane and propoxur residue levels in cocoa samples taken from the Central Region of Ghana were determined. Propoxur and Lindane residues in cocoa were extracted by continuous soxhlet extraction with a 1:1 v/v acetone-chloroform and acetone-hexane (20:80 v/v) mixture for propoxur and lindane respectively for 12 h. The extracts were passed through preconditioned octadecyl (C-18) columns to clean up. The pesticides were then analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography using Flame Ionization Detector (FID) and Electron Capture Detector (ECD) for propoxur and lindane respectively. The concentration range for lindane in cocoa was 0.055 - 3.318 mg/kg. The concentration range for propoxur was 0.001 – 0.991 mg/kg. The mean of lindane in cocoa beans were: 0.411 mg/kg, pod 1.113 mg/kg, testa 0.609 mg/kg , placenta 0.905 mg/kg, leaves 0.892 mg/kg and bark 1.332 mg/kg. The mean concentrations of propoxur in cocoa were: beans 0.235 mg/kg, pod 0.235 mg/kg, placenta 0.276 mg/kg, leaves 0.104 mg/kg, bark 0.491 mg/kg. From the studies it may be preferable to use propoxur for control of pests in cocoa.
Minority Immigrants in the United States: Earnings Attributes and Economic Success
Dodoo, F. Nil-Amoo
Canadian Studies in Population , 1991,
Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Residues in Tropical Soils  [PDF]
John K. Bentum, David K. Dodoo, Peter K. Kwakye, David K. Essumang, George A. Adjei
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2016.64024
Abstract: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in tropical soil samples from the Central Region of Ghana, and their variation with the soil characteristics were assessed. The soil characteristics of seventy eight samples were first determined. The PCBs was extracted with (1:1) hexane:acetone mixture, and then the extract treated with concentrated H2SO4, 5% KMnO4 and copper. The extract was finally eluted from a silica gel column with hexane:dichloromethane (97:3 v/v), and the PCBs analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with 63Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD model CP 3800). The composition of PCBs homologous in the soils followed the order: hexa-PCBs (31.89%) > penta- PCBs (23.98%) > tri-PCBs (18.47%) > tetra-PCBs (13.67%) > hepta-PCBs (11.99%). The PCB congener profile in the study area was PCB 28 > PCB 153 > PCB 138 > PCB 52 > PCB 101 > PCB 180 > PCB 118. The mean concentration of the PCB congeners (dry matter basis) was PCB 28, 2.27 ± 2.436; PCB 52, 1.84 ± 2.27; PCB 101, 2.17 ± 2.52 μg/kg; PCB 118, 0.83 ± 0.89 μg/kg; PCB 138, 0.99 + 0.91 μg/kg; PCB 153, 1.18 ± 1.11 μg/kg and PCB 180, 1.18 ± 1.19 μg/kg. The mean concentrations of ΣPCBs were 9.15 ± 0.52 μg/kg for the surface soils (0 - 10 cm), 7.55 ± 0.56 μg/kg and 7.82 ± 0.55 μg/kg for the 10 - 20 cm and 20 - 30 cm sub-surface soils respectively. Significant but weak correlations were observed between PCBs and the soil pH, moisture, and exchangeable base. The coefficient of determination for all significant correlations was between 6.6% and 18.75%.
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