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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 209571 matches for " Alexander G. Chiu "
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O papel das medica es tópicas no tratamento da rinossinusite cr nica The role of topical therapies in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis
Jeffrey D. Suh,Vijay Ramakrishnan,Alexander G. Chiu
Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/s1808-86942011000600001
Abstract:
Fungal Rhinosinusitis: A Retrospective Microbiologic and Pathologic Review of 400 Patients at a Single University Medical Center
Kathleen T. Montone,Virginia A. Livolsi,Michael D. Feldman,James Palmer,Alexander G. Chiu,Donald C. Lanza,David W. Kennedy,Laurie A. Loevner,Irving Nachamkin
International Journal of Otolaryngology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/684835
Abstract: Fungal Rhinosinusitis (FRS) is a well known entity, but only in more recent times have the types of FRS been more fully defined. In this study, we evaluate the diagnosis of FRS in a single medical center. Cases were divided into 2 main categories, non-invasive and invasive. Non-invasive FRS included fungus ball (FB) and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS). Invasive FRS included acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFRS), chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (CIFRS), and chronic invasive granulomatous fungal rhinosinusitis (CGFRS). Fungal culture data, if available was reviewed. 400 patients with FRS were identified. 87.25% were non-invasive (45% AFRS, 40% FB, and 2% combined AFRS and FB and 12.5% were invasive 11% AIFRS 1.2% CIFRS 0.5% CGFRS. One patient (0.25%) had combined FB/CGFRS. Aspergillus sp. or dematiaceous species were the most common fungi isolated in AFS while Aspergillus sp. was most common in FB and AIFRS. In our experience, most FRS is non-invasive. In our patient population, invasive FRS is rare with AIFRS representing >90% of cases. Culture data supports that a variety of fungal agents are responsible for FRS, but Aspergillus sp. appears to be one of the most common organisms in patients with FRS.
Fungal Rhinosinusitis: A Retrospective Microbiologic and Pathologic Review of 400 Patients at a Single University Medical Center
Kathleen T. Montone,Virginia A. Livolsi,Michael D. Feldman,James Palmer,Alexander G. Chiu,Donald C. Lanza,David W. Kennedy,Laurie A. Loevner,Irving Nachamkin
International Journal of Otolaryngology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/684835
Abstract: Fungal Rhinosinusitis (FRS) is a well known entity, but only in more recent times have the types of FRS been more fully defined. In this study, we evaluate the diagnosis of FRS in a single medical center. Cases were divided into 2 main categories, non-invasive and invasive. Non-invasive FRS included fungus ball (FB) and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS). Invasive FRS included acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFRS), chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (CIFRS), and chronic invasive granulomatous fungal rhinosinusitis (CGFRS). Fungal culture data, if available was reviewed. 400 patients with FRS were identified. 87.25% were non-invasive (45% AFRS, 40% FB, and 2% combined AFRS and FB and 12.5% were invasive 11% AIFRS 1.2% CIFRS 0.5% CGFRS. One patient (0.25%) had combined FB/CGFRS. Aspergillus sp. or dematiaceous species were the most common fungi isolated in AFS while Aspergillus sp. was most common in FB and AIFRS. In our experience, most FRS is non-invasive. In our patient population, invasive FRS is rare with AIFRS representing >90% of cases. Culture data supports that a variety of fungal agents are responsible for FRS, but Aspergillus sp. appears to be one of the most common organisms in patients with FRS. 1. Introduction Fungal rhinosinusitis (FRS) has been a known medical entity for several hundred years but only in more recent times the entity has been further defined. FRS comprises a variety of different disease processes which vary in presentation, histologic appearances, and clinical significance. Disease is most commonly classified as being non-invasive or invasive based on whether the fungi have invaded into the sinonasal submucosal tissue resulting in tissue necrosis and destruction [1–3]. Entities which are considered non-invasive FRS include fungal ball (FB (an entangled mass of fungus without significant surrounding sinonasal inflammatory reaction) and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) (a complex entity characterized by the presence of allergic mucin with histologic similarities to those reported in Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis). Non-invasive FRS often requires surgical intervention and/or medical therapy. Invasive disease is characterized as either acute or chronic based on the length the time symptoms are present before presentation. Patients with acute invasive disease (AIFRS) are usually immunosuppressed and, by definition, present with symptoms of less than one-month duration. This entity is characterized by the presence of fungal forms invading into the sinonasal submucosal with frequent angioinvasion and
Tobacco Smoke Mediated Induction of Sinonasal Microbial Biofilms
Natalia Goldstein-Daruech,Emily K. Cope,Ke-Qing Zhao,Katarina Vukovic,Jennifer M. Kofonow,Laurel Doghramji,Bernardo González,Alexander G. Chiu,David W. Kennedy,James N. Palmer,Jeffery G. Leid,James L. Kreindler,Noam A. Cohen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015700
Abstract: Cigarette smokers and those exposed to second hand smoke are more susceptible to life threatening infection than non-smokers. While much is known about the devastating effect tobacco exposure has on the human body, less is known about the effect of tobacco smoke on the commensal and commonly found pathogenic bacteria of the human respiratory tract, or human respiratory tract microbiome. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common medical complaint, affecting 16% of the US population with an estimated aggregated cost of $6 billion annually. Epidemiologic studies demonstrate a correlation between tobacco smoke exposure and rhinosinusitis. Although a common cause of CRS has not been defined, bacterial presence within the nasal and paranasal sinuses is assumed to be contributory. Here we demonstrate that repetitive tobacco smoke exposure induces biofilm formation in a diverse set of bacteria isolated from the sinonasal cavities of patients with CRS. Additionally, bacteria isolated from patients with tobacco smoke exposure demonstrate robust in vitro biofilm formation when challenged with tobacco smoke compared to those isolated from smoke na?ve patients. Lastly, bacteria from smoke exposed patients can revert to a non-biofilm phenotype when grown in the absence of tobacco smoke. These observations support the hypothesis that tobacco exposure induces sinonasal biofilm formation, thereby contributing to the conversion of a transient and medically treatable infection to a persistent and therapeutically recalcitrant condition.
Regulation of Virulence Gene Expression Resulting from Streptococcus pneumoniae and Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Interactions in Chronic Disease
Emily K. Cope, Natalia Goldstein-Daruech, Jennifer M. Kofonow, Lanette Christensen, Bridget McDermott, Fernando Monroy, James N. Palmer, Alexander G. Chiu, Mark E. Shirtliff, Noam A. Cohen, Jeff G. Leid
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028523
Abstract: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common inflammatory disease of the sinonasal cavity mediated, in part, by polymicrobial communities of bacteria. Recent molecular studies have confirmed the importance of Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) in CRS. Here, we hypothesize that interaction between S. pneumoniae and NTHi mixed-species communities cause a change in bacterial virulence gene expression. We examined CRS as a model human disease to validate these polymicrobial interactions. Clinical strains of S. pneumoniae and NTHi were grown in mono- and co-culture in a standard biofilm assay. Reverse transcriptase real-time PCR (RTqPCR) was used to measure gene expression of key virulence factors. To validate these results, we investigated the presence of the bacterial RNA transcripts in excised human tissue from patients with CRS. Consequences of physical or chemical interactions between microbes were also investigated. Transcription of NTHi type IV pili was only expressed in co-culture in vitro, and expression could be detected ex vivo in diseased tissue. S. pneumoniae pyruvate oxidase was up-regulated in co-culture, while pneumolysin and pneumococcal adherence factor A were down-regulated. These results were confirmed in excised human CRS tissue. Gene expression was differentially regulated by physical contact and secreted factors. Overall, these data suggest that interactions between H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae involve physical and chemical mechanisms that influence virulence gene expression of mixed-species biofilm communities present in chronically diseased human tissue. These results extend previous studies of population-level virulence and provide novel insight into the importance of S. pneumoniae and NTHi in CRS.
Deviations from Beta Radioactivity Exponential Drop  [PDF]
Alexander G. Parkhomov
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.211162
Abstract: At long-term count rate measurements of beta sources 3H, 56Mn, 32Si, 36Cl, 60Co, 137Cs, 90Sr-90Y and decay products of 226Ra the rhythmic changes with amplitude 0.1% 0.3% from average magnitude and period 1 year, and up to 0.01 % with period about one month are detected. Magnitude of diurnal oscillations did not exceed 0.003%. Analysis of measurements data for alpha radioactive sources 238Pu and 239Pu did not reveal any statistically reliable periodic patterns. Sporadic drops in the count rate were detected while registering the activity of 54Mn, 60Co and 90Sr-90Y sources. Bursts in the count rate were registered when scanning the celestial sphere by a reflecting telescope with 60Co or 40K radioactive sources at the focus point. Possible factors underlying these deviations in beta-radioactivity are discussed.
Constraints of Asymptotic Character and Attainability Problems  [PDF]
Alexander G. Chentsov
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2017.95011
Abstract: The attainability problem with “asymptotic constraints” is considered. Concrete variants of this problem arise in control theory. Namely, we can consider the problem about construction and investigation of attainability domain under perturbation of traditional constraints (boundary and immediate conditions; phase constraints). The natural asymptotic analog of the usual attainability domain is attraction set, for representation of which, the Warga generalized controls can be applied. More exactly, for this, attainability domain in the class of generalized controls is constructed. This approach is similar to methods for optimal control theory (we keep in mind approximate and generalized controls of J. Warga). But, in the case of attainability problem, essential difficulties arise. Namely, here it should be constructed whole set of limits corresponding to different variants of all more precise realization of usual solutions in the sense of constraints validity. Moreover, typically, the above-mentioned control problems are infinite-dimensional. Real possibility for investigation of the arising limit sets is connected with extension of control space. For control problems with geometric constraints on the choice of programmed controls, procedure of this extensions was realized (for extremal problems) by J. Warga. More complicated situation arises in theory of impulse control. It is useful to note that, for investigation of the problem about constraints validity, it is natural to apply asymptotic approach realized in part of perturbation of standard constraints. And what is more, we can essentially generalize self notion of constraints: namely, we can consider arbitrary systems of conditions defined in terms of nonempty families of sets in the space of usual controls. Thus, constraints of asymptotic character arise.
Rhythmic and Spоradic Changes in the Rate of Beta Decays: Possible Reasons  [PDF]
Alexander G. Parkhomov
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2018.98101
Abstract: In a number of experiments, when detecting particles emitted in beta decays, periodic oscillations of count rate with an amplitude up to tenths of a percent and short bursts vastly exceeding the usual count rate are found. At the same time, several experiments did not detect any differences from the “normal” course of beta decays greater than 0.01%. The article shows that the inconsistency of the experimental results is due to different measurement technique. The assumption is made of the possible participation in the beta decay processes of cosmic slow neutrinos, which makes it possible to explain in a comprehensive manner not only periodic and sporadic changes in the beta decay rate, but also a number of other incomprehensible phenomena associated with beta radioactivity. On the basis of the experiments carried out, an estimate is made of the flux density of slow cosmic neutrinos.
A Preclinical Evaluation of Antrodia camphorata Alcohol Extracts in the Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Using Non-Invasive Molecular Imaging
Jeng-Feng Chiou,Alexander T. H. Wu,Wei-Tin Wang,Tsu-Hsiang Kuo,Juri G. Gelovani,I-Hsin Lin,Chih-Hsiung Wu,Wen-Ta Chiu,Win-Ping Deng
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep228
Abstract: This study was carried out to provide a platform for the pre-clinical evaluation of anti-cancer properties of a unique CAM (complementary and alternative medicine) agent, Antrodia camphorata alcohol extract (ACAE), in a mouse model with the advantageous non-invasive in vivo bioluminescence molecular imaging technology. In vitro analyses on the proliferation, migration/invasion, cell cycle and apoptosis were performed on ACAE-treated non-small cell lung cancer cells, H441GL and control CGL1 cells. In vivo, immune-deficient mice were inoculated subcutaneously with H441GL followed by oral gavages of ACAE. The effect of ACAE on tumor progression was monitored by non-invasive bioluminescence imaging. The proliferation and migration/invasion of H441GL cells were inhibited by ACAE in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, ACAE induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis in H441GL cells as shown by flow cytometric analysis, Annexin-V immunoflourescence and DNA fragmentation. In vivo bioluminescence imaging revealed that tumorigenesis was significantly retarded by oral treatment of ACAE in a dose-dependent fashion. Based on our experimental data, ACAE contains anti-cancer properties and could be considered as a potential CAM agent in future clinical evaluation.
Treating and Preventing Influenza in Aged Care Facilities: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial
Robert Booy, Richard I. Lindley, Dominic E. Dwyer, Jiehui K. Yin, Leon G. Heron, Cameron R. M. Moffatt, Clayton K. Chiu, Alexander E. Rosewell, Anna S. Dean, Timothy Dobbins, David J. Philp, Zhanhai Gao, C. Raina MacIntyre
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046509
Abstract: Background Influenza is an important cause of morbidity and mortality for frail older people. Whilst the antiviral drug oseltamivir (a neuraminidase inhibitor) is approved for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza during outbreaks, there have been no trials comparing treatment only (T) versus treatment and prophylaxis (T&P) in Aged Care Facilities (ACFs). Our objective was to compare a policy of T versus T&P for influenza outbreaks in ACFs. Methods and Findings We performed a cluster randomised controlled trial in 16 ACFs, that followed a policy of either “T”—oseltamivir treatment (75 mg twice a day for 5 days)—or “T&P”—treatment and prophylaxis (75 mg once a day for 10 days) for influenza outbreaks over three years, in addition to enhanced surveillance. The primary outcome measure was the attack rate of influenza. Secondary outcomes measures were deaths, hospitalisation, pneumonia and adverse events. Laboratory testing was performed to identify the viral cause of influenza-like illness (ILI) outbreaks. The study period 30 June 2006 to 23 December 2008 included three southern hemisphere winters. During that time, influenza was confirmed as the cause of nine of the 23 ILI outbreaks that occurred amongst the 16 ACFs. The policy of T&P resulted in a significant reduction in the influenza attack rate amongst residents: 93/255 (36%) in residents in T facilities versus 91/397 (23%) in T&P facilities (p = 0.002). We observed a non-significant reduction in staff: 46/216 (21%) in T facilities versus 47/350 (13%) in T&P facilities (p = 0.5). There was a significant reduction in mean duration of outbreaks (T = 24 days, T&P = 11 days, p = 0.04). Deaths, hospitalisations and pneumonia were non-significantly reduced in the T&P allocated facilities. Drug adverse events were common but tolerated. Conclusion Our trial lacked power but these results provide some support for a policy of “treatment and prophylaxis” with oseltamivir in controlling influenza outbreaks in ACFs. Trail Registration Australian Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12606000278538
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