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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19738 matches for " Alexander Dilthey "
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Multi-Population Classical HLA Type Imputation
Alexander Dilthey ,Stephen Leslie ,Loukas Moutsianas,Judong Shen,Charles Cox,Matthew R. Nelson,Gil McVean
PLOS Computational Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002877
Abstract: Statistical imputation of classical HLA alleles in case-control studies has become established as a valuable tool for identifying and fine-mapping signals of disease association in the MHC. Imputation into diverse populations has, however, remained challenging, mainly because of the additional haplotypic heterogeneity introduced by combining reference panels of different sources. We present an HLA type imputation model, HLA*IMP:02, designed to operate on a multi-population reference panel. HLA*IMP:02 is based on a graphical representation of haplotype structure. We present a probabilistic algorithm to build such models for the HLA region, accommodating genotyping error, haplotypic heterogeneity and the need for maximum accuracy at the HLA loci, generalizing the work of Browning and Browning (2007) and Ron et al. (1998). HLA*IMP:02 achieves an average 4-digit imputation accuracy on diverse European panels of 97% (call rate 97%). On non-European samples, 2-digit performance is over 90% for most loci and ethnicities where data available. HLA*IMP:02 supports imputation of HLA-DPB1 and HLA-DRB3-5, is highly tolerant of missing data in the imputation panel and works on standard genotype data from popular genotyping chips. It is publicly available in source code and as a user-friendly web service framework.
Psoriasis Patients Are Enriched for Genetic Variants That Protect against HIV-1 Disease
Haoyan Chen,Genki Hayashi,Olivia Y. Lai,Alexander Dilthey,Peter J. Kuebler,Tami V. Wong,Maureen P. Martin,Marcelo A. Fernandez Vina,Gil McVean,Matthias Wabl,Kieron S. Leslie,Toby Maurer,Jeffrey N. Martin,Steven G. Deeks,Mary Carrington,Anne M. Bowcock,Douglas F. Nixon,Wilson Liao
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002514
Abstract: An important paradigm in evolutionary genetics is that of a delicate balance between genetic variants that favorably boost host control of infection but which may unfavorably increase susceptibility to autoimmune disease. Here, we investigated whether patients with psoriasis, a common immune-mediated disease of the skin, are enriched for genetic variants that limit the ability of HIV-1 virus to replicate after infection. We analyzed the HLA class I and class II alleles of 1,727 Caucasian psoriasis cases and 3,581 controls and found that psoriasis patients are significantly more likely than controls to have gene variants that are protective against HIV-1 disease. This includes several HLA class I alleles associated with HIV-1 control; amino acid residues at HLA-B positions 67, 70, and 97 that mediate HIV-1 peptide binding; and the deletion polymorphism rs67384697 associated with high surface expression of HLA-C. We also found that the compound genotype KIR3DS1 plus HLA-B Bw4-80I, which respectively encode a natural killer cell activating receptor and its putative ligand, significantly increased psoriasis susceptibility. This compound genotype has also been associated with delay of progression to AIDS. Together, our results suggest that genetic variants that contribute to anti-viral immunity may predispose to the development of psoriasis.
Protection of Environment from Damaged Nuclear Station and Transparent Inflatable Blanket for Cities—Protection from Radioactive Dust and Chemical, Biological Weapons  [PDF]
Alexander Bolonkin
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.24037
Abstract: The author, in a series of previous articles, designed the “AB Dome” made of transparent thin film supported by a small additional air overpressure for the purpose of covering a city or other important large installations or sub-regions. In present article the author offers a variation in which a damaged nuclear station can be quickly covered by such a cheap inflatable dome. By containing the radioactive dust from the damaged nuclear station, the danger zone is reduced to about 2 km2 rather than large regions which requires the resettlement of huge masses of people and which stops indus-try in large areas. If there is a big city (as Tokyo) near the nuclear disaster or there is already a dangerous amount of radioactive dust near a city, the city may also be covered by a large inflatable transparent Dome. The building of a gi-gantic inflatable AB Dome over an empty flat surface is not difficult. The cover is spread on a flat surface and a venti-lator (fan system) pumps air under the film cover and lifts the new dome into place but inflation takes many hours. However, to cover a city, garden, forest or other obstacle course in contrast to an empty, mowed field, the thin film cannot be easily deployed over building or trees without risking damage to it by snagging and other complications. This article proposes a new method which solves this problem. The design is a double film blanket filled by light gas such as, methane, hydrogen, or helium - although of these, methane will be the most practical and least likely to leak. Sections of this AB Blanket are lighter than air and will rise in the atmosphere. They can be made on a flat area serving as an as-sembly area and delivered by dirigible or helicopter to station at altitude over the city. Here they connect to the already assembled AB Blanket subassemblies, cover the city in an AB Dome and protect it from bad weather, chemical, bio-logical and radioactive fallout or particulates. After assembly of the dome is completed, the light gas can be replaced by (heavier but cheaper) air. Two projects for Tokyo (Japan) and Moscow (Russia) are used in this paper for sample computation.
Filters and Ultrafilters as Approximate Solutions in the Attainability Problems with Constraints of Asymptotic Character  [PDF]
Alexander Chentsov
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2010.29062
Abstract: Abstract problems about attainability in topological spaces are considered. Some nonsequential version of the Warga approximate solutions is investigated: we use filters and ultrafilters of measurable spaces. Attrac- tion sets are constructed. AMS (MOS) subject classification. 46A, 49 K 40.
Using of High Altitude Wind Energy  [PDF]
Alexander Bolonkin
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2011.22010
Abstract: Ground based, wind energy extraction systems have reached their maximum capability. The limitations of current de-signs are: wind instability, high cost of installations, and small power output of a single unit. The wind energy industry needs of revolutionary ideas to increase the capabilities of wind installations. This article suggests a revolutionary innovation which produces a dramatic increase in power per unit and is independent of prevailing weather and at a lower cost per unit of energy extracted. The main innovation consists of large free-flying air rotors positioned at high altitude for power and air stream stability, and an energy cable transmission system between the air rotor and a ground based electric generator. The air rotor system flies at high altitude up to 14 km. A stability and control is provided and systems enable the changing of altitude. This article includes six examples having a high unit power output (up to 100 MW). The proposed examples provide the following main advantages: 1) Large power production capacity per unit—up to 5,000 - 10,000 times more than conventional ground-based rotor designs; 2) The rotor operates at high altitude of 1 - 14 km, where the wind flow is strong and steady; 3) Installation cost per unit energy is low; 4) The installation is environmentally friendly (no propeller noise).
Production of Freshwater and Energy from Earth’s Atmosphere  [PDF]
Alexander Bolonkin
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2011.22011
Abstract: The author offers a new, cheap method for the extraction of freshwater from the Earth’s atmosphere. The suggested method is fundamentally dictinct from all existing methods that extract freshwater from air. All other industrial methods extract water from a saline water source (in most cases from seawater). This new method may be used at any point in the Earth except the Polar Zones. It does not require long-distance freshwater transportation. If seawater is not utilized for increasing its productivity, this inexpensive new method is very environmentally-friendly. The author’s method has two working versions: 1) In the first variant warm (or hot) atmospheric air is lifted by the inflatable tube in a high altitude and atmospheric water vapor is condensed into freshwater: 2) in the second version, the warm air is pumped 20-30 meters under the sea-surface. In the first version, wind and solar heating of air are used for causing air flow. In version 2) wind and fans are used for causing air movment. The first method does not need energy, the second needs a small amount. Moreover, in variant 1) the freshwater has a high pressure (> 30 or more atm) and can be used for production of energy such as electricity and in that way the freshwater cost is lower. For increasing the productivity the seawater is injected into air and a solar air heater may be used. The solar air heater produces a huge amount of electricity as a very powerful electrical generation plant. The offered electricity installation is 100 - 200 times cheaper than any common electric plant of equivalent output.
Radial Electric Field in Tokamak Plasmas as a Physical Consequence of Ehrenfest’s Paradox  [PDF]
Romannikov Alexander
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.330201
Abstract: A simplified form and some possible theoretical resolutions of the so-called Ehrenfest’s Paradox are described. A relation between physical consequences of this relativistic paradox and charge density ρ of tokamak plasma is shown. Plasma experiments which could resolve the Ehrenfest’s Paradox are presented.
Ageing related events at nuclear power plants  [PDF]
Alexander Duchac
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.51005
Abstract: This paper presents main results of a comprehensive study performed by the European Clearinghouse on Operating Experience Feedback of NPP with the support of IRSN (Institut de S?reté Nucléaire et de Radioprotection) and GRS (Gesellschaft für Anlagen und Reaktorsi-cherheit mbH). Physical ageing mechanisms of structure, systems and components that eventually lead to ageing related systems and components failures at nuclear power plants were the main focus of this study. The analysis of ageing related events involved operating experience reported by NPP operators in France, Germany, USA and to the IAEA/NEA International Reporting system, on operating experience for the past 20 years (i.e. 1990-2009). A list of ageing related events was populated. Each ageing related event contained in the list was analyzed and results of analysis were summarized for each commodity group for which the ageing degradation appeared to be a dominant contributor or direct cause. The most common degradation mechanisms/ageing effects for each specific component/commodity group, their risk significance and consequences to the plant performance are described. This paper provides insights into ageing related operating experience as well as recommendations to deal with the physical ageing of nuclear power plant SSC important to safety.
Against Phase Veloсities of Elastic Waves in Thin Transversely Isotropic Cylindrical Shell  [PDF]
Alexander Kleshchev
Open Journal of Acoustics (OJA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oja.2013.33011
Abstract: This paper receives the characteristic equation for the determine of wave numbers of phase velocities of elastic waves, in the thin cylindrical shell with the help of the dynamic theory of the elasticity for the transversely isotropic medium and of the hypothesis of thin shells.
Higher Genus Characters for Vertex Operator Superalgebras on Sewn Riemann Surfaces  [PDF]
Alexander Zuevsky
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.410A3006
Abstract:

We review our recent results on computation of the higher genus characters for vertex operator superalgebras modules. The vertex operator formal parameters are associated to local parameters on Riemann surfaces formed in one of two schemes of (self- or tori- ) sewing of lower genus Riemann surfaces. For the free fermion vertex operator superalgebra we present a closed formula for the genus two continuous orbifold partition functions (in either sewings) in terms of an infinite dimensional determinant with entries arising from the original torus Szeg? kernel. This partition function is holomorphic in the sewing parameters on a given suitable domain and possesses natural modular properties. Several higher genus generalizations of classical (including Fay’s and Jacobi triple product) identities show up in a natural way in the vertex operator algebra approach.

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