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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 209729 matches for " Alexander D. Klose "
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Computer Aided Interpretation Approach for Optical Tomographic Images
Christian D. Klose,Alexander D. Klose,Uwe Netz,Juergen Beuthan,Andreas H. Hielscher
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1117/1.3516705
Abstract: A computer-aided interpretation approach is proposed to detect rheumatic arthritis (RA) of human finger joints in optical tomographic images. The image interpretation method employs a multi-variate signal detection analysis aided by a machine learning classification algorithm, called Self-Organizing Mapping (SOM). Unlike in previous studies, this allows for combining multiple physical image parameters, such as minimum and maximum values of the absorption coefficient for identifying affected and not affected joints. Classification performances obtained by the proposed method were evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, and mutual information. Different methods (i.e., clinical diagnostics, ultrasound imaging, magnet resonance imaging and inspection of optical tomographic images), were used as "ground truth"-benchmarks to determine the performance of image interpretations. Using data from 100 finger joints, findings suggest that some parameter combinations lead to higher sensitivities while others to higher specificities when compared to single parameter classifications employed in previous studies. Maximum performances were reached when combining minimum/maximum-ratio and image variance with respect to ultra sound as benchmark. In this case, sensitivity and specificity of 0.94 and 0.96 respectively were achieved. These values are much higher than results reported when a) other classification techniques were applied or b) single parameter classifications were used, where sensitivities and specificities of 0.71 were achieved.
Evidence for Anthropogenic Surface Loading as Trigger Mechanism of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake
Christian D. Klose
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1007/s12665-011-1355-7
Abstract: Two and a half years prior to China's M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake of May 2008, at least 300 million metric tons of water accumulated with additional seasonal water level changes in the Minjiang River Valley at the eastern margin of the Longmen Shan. This article shows that static surface loading in the Zipingpu water reservoir induced Coulomb failure stresses on the nearby Beichuan thrust fault system at <17km depth. Triggering stresses exceeded levels of daily lunar and solar tides and perturbed a fault area measuring 416+/-96km^2. These stress perturbations, in turn, likely advanced the clock of the mainshock and directed the initial rupture propagation upward towards the reservoir on the "Coulomb-like" Beichuan fault with rate-and-state dependent frictional behavior. Static triggering perturbations produced up to 60 years (0.6%) of equivalent tectonic loading, and show strong correlations to the coseismic slip. Moreover, correlations between clock advancement and coseismic slip, observed during the mainshock beneath the reservoir, are strongest for a longer seismic cycle (10kyr) of M>7 earthquakes. Finally, the daily event rate of the micro-seismicity (M>0.5) correlates well with the static stress perturbations, indicating destabilization.
Gamma-Ray Bursts Trace UV Metrics of Star Formation over 3 < z < 5
Jochen Greiner,Derek B. Fox,Patricia Schady,Thomas Krühler,Michele Trenti,Aleksandar Cikota,Jan Bolmer,Jonathan Elliott,Corentin Delvaux,Rosalba Perna,Paulo Afonso,D. Alexander Kann,Sylvio Klose,Sandra Savaglio,Sebastian Schmidl,Tassilo Schweyer,Mohit Tanga,Karla Varela
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/809/1/76
Abstract: We present the first uniform treatment of long duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxy detections and upper limits over the redshift range 3-15.6 mag, and with extrapolations of the assumed Schechter-type LF well beyond this range. We review proposed astrophysical and observational biases for our sample, and find they are for the most part minimal. We therefore conclude, as the simplest interpretation of our results, that GRBs successfully trace UV metrics of cosmic star formation over the range 3
The Fast Evolution of SN 2010bh associated with XRF 100316D
Felipe Olivares E.,Jochen Greiner,Patricia Schady,Arne Rau,Sylvio Klose,Thomas Krühler,Paulo M. J. Afonso,Adria C. Updike,Marco Nardini,Robert Filgas,Ana Nicuesa Guelbenzu,Christian Clemens,Jonny Elliott,D. Alexander Kann,Andrea Rossi,Vladimir Sudilovsky
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201117929
Abstract: (...) Since 1998, only half a dozen spectroscopically confirmed associations have been discovered and XRF 100316D associated with the type-Ic SN 2010bh at z = 0.059 is among the latest. We began observations with GROND 12 hours after the GRB trigger and continued until 80 days after the burst. GROND provided excellent photometric data in six filter bands covering a wavelength range from approx. 350 to 1800 nm, significantly expanding the pre-existing data set for this event. Combining GROND and Swift data, the early broad-band SED is modelled with a blackbody and afterglow component attenuated by dust and gas absorption. The best-fit SED models imply moderate reddening along the line of sight through the host galaxy (A_V = 1.2 \pm 0.1 mag). The temperature and radius evolution of the thermal component are analysed and combined with earlier measurements available from the literature. This reveals a cooling envelope at an apparent initial radius of 7 \times 10^11 cm, which is compatible with a dense wind surrounding a Wolf-Rayet star. Multicolour templates of SN 1998bw are fitted to the SN to directly compare the light-curve properties. This shows that SN 2010bh is ~65% as bright as SN 1998bw. Reaching maximum brightness at ~8 days after the burst in the blue bands, SN 2010bh proves to be the most rapidly evolving GRB-SNe to date. Finally, a two-component parametrised model is fitted to the quasi-bolometric light curve, which delivers physical parameters of the explosion. This yields M_Ni = 0.21 \pm 0.03 M\bigodot and M_ej = 2.6 \pm 0.2 M\bigodot, typical of values within the GRB-SN population. The kinetic energy is 2.4 \pm 0.7 \times 10^52 erg, which is making this SN the second most energetic GRB-SN after SN 1998bw. This supernova has one of the earliest peaks ever recorded and thereafter fades more rapidly than other GRB-SNe, hypernovae, or typical type-Ic SNe. (...)
Can Self-Organizing Maps accurately predict photometric redshifts?
M. J. Way,C. D. Klose
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1086/664796
Abstract: We present an unsupervised machine learning approach that can be employed for estimating photometric redshifts. The proposed method is based on a vector quantization approach called Self--Organizing Mapping (SOM). A variety of photometrically derived input values were utilized from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's Main Galaxy Sample, Luminous Red Galaxy, and Quasar samples along with the PHAT0 data set from the PHoto-z Accuracy Testing project. Regression results obtained with this new approach were evaluated in terms of root mean square error (RMSE) to estimate the accuracy of the photometric redshift estimates. The results demonstrate competitive RMSE and outlier percentages when compared with several other popular approaches such as Artificial Neural Networks and Gaussian Process Regression. SOM RMSE--results (using $\Delta$z=z$_{phot}$--z$_{spec}$) for the Main Galaxy Sample are 0.023, for the Luminous Red Galaxy sample 0.027, Quasars are 0.418, and PHAT0 synthetic data are 0.022. The results demonstrate that there are non--unique solutions for estimating SOM RMSEs. Further research is needed in order to find more robust estimation techniques using SOMs, but the results herein are a positive indication of their capabilities when compared with other well-known methods.
Modeling of Work of Filling Granular Filter with Active Cooling  [PDF]
Alexander D. Rychkov
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2010.11004
Abstract: The solid propellant gas generators having high gas capacity are widely used for fast pressurization of elastic shells of saving devices of different applications. A typical example of such devices are safety system of automobile (airbags). After collision of an automobile with an obstacle the combustion products of gas generator fill the shell during 60 – 100 milliseconds. However the temperature of combustion products even of “low-temperature” fuel compositions of gas generators appears not below 1500К and to reduce of its it is necessary to apply a various types of porous and filling granular filters. There are passive and active granular filters. The passive filter can cool of combustion products as a result of absorption of heat only. The active cooling is evaporation of the granule material and in this case takes a place more intensive cooling of combustion products in the filter. The numerical modeling of cooling process of high- temperature combustion products at their movement in bulk of granular filter of active cooling is investigated. As the material of granules was used the carbonate of magnesium. At its heating takes a place process of gasification and formation of a porous slag shell which sublimates at higher temperature. The physical model of such spherical granule can be presented as the central part consisting of the carbonate magnesium surrounded with the porous slag spherical shell through which gaseous products of gasification of the central part are filtered. The problem of distribution of heat in each granule is Stefan problem when at the given temperature on the surface of sphere there is the front of gasification moving inside of the bulk of material. It is assumed that combustion products are the perfect gas moving in the filter. The upwind difference scheme of the second order of the accuracy with TVD properties was applied to calculation of the movement of gas. The results of calculations at various values of key parameters of the active and passive filters allow to draw a conclusion about enough high efficiency of active cooling filters.
Investigation of Element Profiles, Defects, Phase Composition and Physical and Mechanical Properties of Superhard Coatings Ti-Hf-Si-N  [PDF]
Alexander D. Pogrebnjak
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2013.44A004
Abstract:

This paper investigates the microstructure, physical, chemical and mechanical of superhard nanocomposite of Ti-Hf-Si-N. The coatings were grown by C-PVD method. Profiles of elements and vacancy-type defects (S-parameter measurements of the Doppler broadening of the annihilation peak DBAP) in the studied coatings were investigated. Defined and calculated the elastic modulus E, hardness H, friction, adhesion. Wear rate was determined as a function of the bias potential supplied to the substrate and the pressure in the chamber. The developed coatings have hardness of 37.8 to 48 GPa, the friction coefficient of 0.48 to 0.15, the grain size of the solid solution from 3.9 to 10.8 nm (depending on deposition conditions). It was found that positrons are trapped by defects at the junction of three or more nanograins interfaces. In some cases, there was formed two phases in coatings: a solid solution (Ti, Hf)N with different volume content of Hf in a solid solution, and an amorphous phase α-Si3N4 (the layer between the nanograins).

Carboxymethylcellulase Activity in Lettuce Seeds Prior to Germination  [PDF]
Alexander D. Pavlista
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.84049
Abstract: Does the endosperm pose a mechanical resistance on embryonic axis (radicle) growth for lettuce seed (achene) germination? To aid answering this question, the cell wall degrading enzyme, carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) was extracted and assayed from lettuce seeds imbibed for 0 to 12 h, prior to germination. Measuring the loss of viscosity of carboxymethylcellulose, CMCase activity was high in dry seeds, low after 6 h of imbibition, high after 9 and 10 h, and then reduced again after 12 h. Fractions from Sephadex columns showed CMCase activity in three peaks labeled E1, E2, E3. The greatest change in CMCase activity during imbibition was with E3 (molecular weight of about 40,000 Daltons) and some reduction in E2 (molecular weight about 280,000). The RNA synthesis inhibitor, 6-methyl purine, eliminated CMCase activity when present from 4.5 to 7 h of imbibition and the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, eliminated CMCase activity when present between 5.5 and 9 h. Imbibition in darkness lowered CMCase activity while 15 min of light at 3.5 h restored it and 30 min of far-red light at 3 h eliminated it. Increasing the imbibition temperature to 35°C under light reduced activity while under darkness, activity was eliminated under 24°C and 35°C. CMCase activity was localized in the endosperm surrounding the embryonic axis (micropylar end) of 9 h imbibed seeds. These observations showed that CMCase was active in degrading the cell wall in the endosperm surrounding the radicle, weakening it, prior to radicle protrusion so that the radicle remains undamaged.
Minimizing the risk of perioperative stroke by clampless off-pump bypass surgery: a retrospective observational analysis
Michael Hilker, Mathias Arlt, Andreas Keyser, Simon Schopka, Alexander Klose, Claudius Diez, Christof Schmid
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1749-8090-5-14
Abstract: During a period of 43 months (2005-2008), 412 consecutive patients were treated with the above-mentioned method by one single surgeon. A minimum of one proximal aortal anastomosis was performed in each patient. Altogether, 542 proximal anastomosis were applied, each created by means of the HEARTSTRING device.The mean age of patients was 67+9.7 years, the predicted mortality 5.2% (logistic EuroSCORE) and the observed mortality 1.9%. Histories of preoperative neurological disorders or cerebrovascular diseases were documented in 15% of patients. The overall incidence of postoperative stroke was 0.48% in contrast to 1.3% according to the stroke risk score.In accordance to previously published data, our results show that avoiding aortic side-clamping during OPCAB reduces postoperative stroke rates. The HEARTSTRING device is a safe option for creating proximal aortic anastomosis.Cardiac surgery is increasingly conducted in elderly patients with extensive comorbidities. Various advances in surgical techniques and anesthetic management have improved patient outcome after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG); death rates in particular have declined during the past decade. Perioperative stroke is still one of the most devastating complications of coronary bypass surgery that not only causes high patient morbidity and mortality but also excessive economic costs [1-3]. Therefore, perioperative stroke remains a substantial problem. Various researchers have been able to identify preoperative variables as risk factors for the development of postoperative strokes [4-6]. Most of these factors, such as advanced age, peripheral vascular disease, diabetes, and dialysis, are closely related to the extension and development of atherosclerosis. Thus, the Northern New England Cardiovascular Disease Study Group developed a preoperative stroke prediction model that is also part of the current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for CABG [1,5]. Although vari
A very luminous magnetar-powered supernova associated with an ultra-long gamma-ray burst
Jochen Greiner,Paolo A. Mazzali,D. Alexander Kann,Thomas Krühler,Elena Pian,Simon Prentice,Felipe Olivares E.,Andrea Rossi,Sylvio Klose,Stefan Taubenberger,Fabian Knust,Paulo M. J. Afonso,Chris Ashall,Jan Bolmer,Corentin Delvaux,Roland Diehl,Jonathan Elliott,Robert Filgas,Johan P. U. Fynbo,John F. Graham,Ana Nicuesa Guelbenzu,Shiho Kobayashi,Giorgos Leloudas,Sandra Savaglio,Patricia Schady,Sebastian Schmid,Tassilo Schweyer,Vladimir Sudilovsky,Mohit Tanga,Adria C. Updike,Hendrik van Eerten,Karla Varela
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1038/nature14579
Abstract: A new class of ultra-long duration (>10,000 s) gamma-ray bursts has recently been suggested. They may originate in the explosion of stars with much larger radii than normal long gamma-ray bursts or in the tidal disruptions of a star. No clear supernova had yet been associated with an ultra-long gamma-ray burst. Here we report that a supernova (2011kl) was associated with the ultra-long duration burst 111209A, at z=0.677. This supernova is more than 3 times more luminous than type Ic supernovae associated with long gamma-ray bursts, and its spectrum is distinctly different. The continuum slope resembles those of super-luminous supernovae, but extends farther down into the rest-frame ultra-violet implying a low metal content. The light curve evolves much more rapidly than super-luminous supernovae. The combination of high luminosity and low metal-line opacity cannot be reconciled with typical type Ic supernovae, but can be reproduced by a model where extra energy is injected by a strongly magnetized neutron star (a magnetar), which has also been proposed as the explanation for super-luminous supernovae.
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