Abstract:
Mobile communication systems beyond the third generation will see the interconnection of heterogeneous radio access networks (UMTS, WiMax, wireless local area networks, etc.) in order to always provide the best quality of service (QoS) to users with multimode terminals. This scenario poses a number of critical issues, which have to be faced in order to get the best from the integrated access network. In this paper, we will investigate the issue of parallel transmission over multiple radio access technologies (RATs), focusing the attention on the QoS perceived by final users. We will show that the achievement of a real benefit from parallel transmission over multiple RATs is conditioned to the fulfilment of some requirements related to the kind of RATs, the multiradio resource management (MRRM) strategy, and the transport-level protocol behaviour. All these aspects will be carefully considered in our investigation, which will be carried out partly adopting an analytical approach and partly by means of simulations. In this paper, in particular, we will propose a simple but effective MRRM algorithm, whose performance will be investigated in IEEE802.11a-UMTS and IEEE802.11a-IEEE802.16e heterogeneous networks (adopted as case studies).

Abstract:
The study under taken investigates the effects of some non-genetic factors (Sex of calf, year and season of birth, parity and calving difficulty) affecting on birth weight in Sistani cattle. Data were collected on 932 (466 males and 466 females) Sistani calves from the progenies born in the Sistani Cattle Research station of Sistani and Baluchistan province in Iran during the period from 1989-2007. Analysis of variance indicated that the effects of sex of calf, year and season of birth, parity and calving difficulty with gestation length as a covariate on birth weight were significant (p<0.01). The least square mean for birth weight of Sistani calves was found to be 24.143±0.509 kg. The effect of calf sex on birth weight was highly significant (p<0.01). Male calves were 1.935 kg heavier at birth than females. Birth weights of male calves were 7-8% heavier than female calves. The winter born calves had the highest (25.168 kg) birth weight. Calves born in early parities were lighter in weight than those born to late-parity dams. Difference between the means for maximum and minimum years is 6.023 kg. Sistani cattle difficult calving occurred in 1.2%. First parity cows exhibited more frequent calving difficulty whereas among other parities there were no statistically significant differences.

Abstract:
The {\em bilateral minimum distance} of a binary linear code is the maximum $d$ such that all nonzero codewords have weights between $d$ and $n-d$. Let $Q\subset \{0,1\}^n$ be a binary linear code whose dual has bilateral minimum distance at least $d$, where $d$ is odd. Roughly speaking, we show that the average $L_\infty$-distance -- and consequently the $L_1$-distance -- between the weight distribution of a random cosets of $Q$ and the binomial distribution decays quickly as the bilateral minimum distance $d$ of the dual of $Q$ increases. For $d = \Theta(1)$, it decays like $n^{-\Theta(d)}$. On the other $d=\Theta(n)$ extreme, it decays like and $e^{-\Theta(d)}$. It follows that, almost all cosets of $Q$ have weight distributions very close to the to the binomial distribution. In particular, we establish the following bounds. If the dual of $Q$ has bilateral minimum distance at least $d=2t+1$, where $t\geq 1$ is an integer, then the average $L_\infty$-distance is at most $\min\{\left(e\ln{\frac{n}{2t}}\right)^{t}\left(\frac{2t}{n}\right)^{\frac{t}{2} }, \sqrt{2} e^{-\frac{t}{10}}\}$. For the average $L_1$-distance, we conclude the bound $\min\{(2t+1)\left(e\ln{\frac{n}{2t}}\right)^{t} \left(\frac{2t}{n}\right)^{\frac{t}{2}-1},\sqrt{2}(n+1)e^{-\frac{t}{10}}\}$, which gives nontrivial results for $t\geq 3$. We given applications to the weight distribution of cosets of extended Hadamard codes and extended dual BCH codes. Our argument is based on Fourier analysis, linear programming, and polynomial approximation techniques.

Abstract:
This experiment analyses the growth of calves of the conservation nucleus for Sistani cattle. Data in this study were obtained from the Sistani cattle Research Station of Sistan and Baluchistan province in Iran. Weaning weights data was available on 372 Sistani beef calves (198 male and 174 female), born between 2003 and 2007. The effects of sire, age of dam, year/season of birth, sex of calf and birth weight was used as a covariate on the 205 days weaning weight which was computed by analysis of variance (GLM). Overall mean of the 205 days weaning weight of all calves was 127.25 kg. According to the age of the dam, the weaning weight increased up to 7 years (with the exception of 6 years) and after the maximum (137.6 kg) decreased. The minimum values were found in the group of 8 years old (97.7 kg) cows. With respect to birth year, the highest weaning weight (141.1 kg) was observed in 2007 and the lowest (101.66 kg) in 2003. The year effect varied but the trend observed is that of an increase in weaning weight with time. For birth season, Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter, the 205 days weaning weight was 112.2, 115.3, 123.2 and 131 kg, respectively. Male calves reached 121.6 kg and female calves 119.2 kg mean value of the adjusted weaning weight.

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of some non-genetic factors on pre-weaning and post-weaning growth in Sistani goat kids. Data from 81 records (36 males and 45 females) were analyzed. The data were collected from the Institute of Research Domesticated Animals, Zabol University in Sistan and Baluchestan province and Iran in 2008. The effects of dam weight after kidding, sex, birth type and time of weaning on the weights at birth, weaning, 6, 9 and 12 months of age and average pre and post weaning daily gain were studied. The average birth weight of male kids was about 3% higher than female kids. The overall means of Body Weight at birth (BW), Weaning 3 (WW3), Weaning 4 (WW4), 6 (W6), 9 (W9) and 12 (W12) months of age were 1.915, 7.796, 9.900, 15.597, 26.253 and 34.2 kg, respectively. Birth weight averaged 2.398, 2.355, 1.858 and 1.865 kg for single males and females, twin males and females, respectively. Kids had a faster growth rate from 6-9 months with daily gain 118.4 (g day-1) that the average daily gain in kids decreased with the age increase from 9-12 months of age. Average pre-weaning daily gain of female was also higher than male but there was no significant difference observed in pre-weaning gain heavy dam produced heavy kid (r = 0.319) but later weight had no relation with dam weight. Male kids in comparison with female kids and single born kids in comparison with twin born kids had higher birth weight and weaning weight.

Abstract:
This experiment analyses the growth of calves of the conservation nucleus for Sistani cattle. Data in this study were obtained from the Sistani cattle Research station of Sistan and Baluchistan province in Iran. Weaning weights data was available on 372 Sistani beef calves (198 male and 174 female), born between 2003 and 2007. The effects of sire, age of dam, year/season of birth, sex of calf and birth weight was used as a covariate on the 205 days weaning weight which was computed by analysis of variance (GLM). Overall mean of the 205 days weaning weight of all calves was 127.25 kg. According to the age of the dam, the weaning weight increased up to 7 years (with the exception of 6 years) and after the maximum (137.6 kg) decreased. The minimum values were found in the group of 8 years old (97.7 kg) cows. With respect to birth year, the highest weaning weight (141.1 kg) was observed in 2007 and the lowest (101.66 kg) in 2003. The year effect varied but the trend observed is that of an increase in weaning weight with time. For birth season, spring, summer, autumn and winter the 205 days weaning weight was 112.2, 115.3, 123.2 and 131 kg, respectively. Male calves reached 121.6 kg and female calves 119.2 kg mean value of the adjusted weaning weight.

Abstract:
Feldman et al.(2005) asked whether the performance of the LP decoder can be improved by adding redundant parity checks to tighten the LP relaxation. We prove that for LDPC codes, even if we include all redundant checks, asymptotically there is no gain in the LP decoder threshold on the BSC under certain conditions on the base Tanner graph. First, we show that if the graph has bounded check-degree and satisfies a condition which we call asymptotic strength, then including high degree redundant checks in the LP does not significantly improve the threshold in the following sense: for each constant delta>0, there is a constant k>0 such that the threshold of the LP decoder containing all redundant checks of degree at most k improves by at most delta upon adding to the LP all redundant checks of degree larger than k. We conclude that if the graph satisfies a rigidity condition, then including all redundant checks does not improve the threshold of the base LP. We call the graph asymptotically strong if the LP decoder corrects a constant fraction of errors even if the LLRs of the correct variables are arbitrarily small. By building on the work of Feldman et al.(2007) and Viderman(2013), we show that asymptotic strength follows from sufficiently large expansion. We also give a geometric interpretation of asymptotic strength in terms pseudocodewords. We call the graph rigid if the minimum weight of a sum of check nodes involving a cycle tends to infinity as the block length tends to infinity. Under the assumptions that the graph girth is logarithmic and the minimum check degree is at least 3, rigidity is equivalent to the nondegeneracy property that adding at least logarithmically many checks does not give a constant weight check. We argue that nondegeneracy is a typical property of random check-regular graphs.

Abstract:
In this study the effect of pH, adsorption behavior and the chemical struc-tures of two dyes (Methyl Orange and Bromothymol Blue) on the photo-degradation rate constant, was investigated. Adsorption isotherm shows that the adsorption amount of dyes on TiO_{}2 surface is highly related to the pH of the solution and to the pKa of each dye. In acidic medium the adsorption percentage of Methyl Orange on TiO_{}2 surface was 76% facing 5% for Bromothymol Blue. The kinetic study shows compatibility between the degradation rate constant and the adsorption percentage on the surface. In basic medium the adsorption percentage of Methyl orange and Bromothymol Blue is similar while the degradation rate of Methyl orange is two times faster than that of Bromothymol Blue which reveals the role of chemical structure in the photodegradation rate.

Abstract:
Molybdenum is an essential element to humans because of its role in several enzymes, and its occurrence in natural waters is of significance from environmental and biochemical standpoints. Owing to the low concentration of molybdenum in natural waters, pre-concentration is required prior to its determination with atomic spectroscopic techniques. This paper reports on the pre-concentration and determination of molybdenum in the Rouge River, Michigan, USA with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Sample preparation and pre-concentration were performed using ultra-trace analysis methodology in a class 100 clean room laboratory. The molybdenum was pre-concentrated on a Bio-Rad Chelex 100 resin, followed by elution from the resin with ammonia solution. Subsequently, the single-point standard addition method was used, and the absorbance owing to molybdenum was measured at 313.3 nm. An overall concentration factor of ten was realized for the final pre-concentrated volume, and the results from several sampling locations on the four branches of the Rouge River yielded molybdenum concentrations ranging from 1.98 to 4.21 ug·L-1 with an overall average of 2.94 ug L-1. The precision of the results, based on quintuplet determinations from each sampling site, varied between 6.1 to 8.8 %relative standard deviation (%RSD). Although the concentration of molybdenum in the Rouge River is in line with the lower reported molybdenum levels in the US and world rivers, it is higher than the level that arises from natural sources only and therefore has anthropogenic causes.