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Optimal Environmental Policy under Endogenous Terms of Trade and Economic Growth  [PDF]
Alejandro Sampaolesi
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.47076
Abstract:

The aim of this work is to depict the main characteristics of the optimal environmental policy under endogenous terms of trade and economic growth. Here, endogenous terms of trade are inferred from the price of an aggregate consumption good. Our results show that when emissions of a global pollutant affect the environment and, therefore, the utility of the economic agents, the optimal policy consists in a pollution tax on production.

Music, Eurocentrism and Identity: The Myth of the Discovery of America in Chilean Music History  [PDF]
Alejandro Vera
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2014.35024
Abstract: During the past century, Edmundo O’Gorman, Tzvetan Todorov, Enrique Dussel and other scholars pointed out the Eurocentric perspective implied in traditional narratives about the discovery of America, most of which intended to confirm Europe as the center of world history and culture. At the same time, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Hayden White and others argued for the mythical character of history. According to them, even though historians attempted to assemble documentary evidence objectively, they constructed their narratives incorporating such evidence in preexisting stories, characters and categories with a mythical origin. This paper uses these viewpoints to analyze and criticize the way in which Chilean music history has been constructed, particularly during the republican era. The main hypothesis is that traditional discourses about that history have constantly recycled narratives on the discovery of America, which thus operates as a kind of founding myth for historical and musicological interpretations, especially when dealing with turning points such as the change of dynasty (1700), the beginning of independence (c. 1810) and the centenary of the republic (1910). A corollary would be that documentary evidence about music has been frequently hidden or distorted precisely in order to fit such a myth. That is why the present paper examines both bibliography and original documents found in different archives.
Evaluation of a Disc Tube Methodology for Nano- and Ultrafiltration of Natural Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM)  [PDF]
Berit Brockmeyer, Alejandro Spitzy
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2013.31A002
Abstract:

The performance of a disc tube (DT) methodology, originally designed for reverse osmosis (RO) in desalination, and applied here for ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in a set of fresh (0 ppt), brackish (10 ppt) and saline (30 ppt) waters at low (1 - 2 mg/L), medium (5 - 6 mg/L) and high (10 - 12 mg/L) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content is presented. The DT module allows for time efficient processing of large volumes of sample and can be operated with RO, NF and UF membranes. We examined the performance of a NF membrane with nominal molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 500 Da and UF membranes with MWCO of 1 kDa and 10 kDa. Throughout the experiments we monitored DOM in terms of DOC, UV-absorption coefficient ratios (E2/E3) and the specific UV-absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254). Detailed protocols for operating the disc tube modules are proposed. The membranes can be efficiently cleaned to provide low carbon blanks (<0.2 mg/L). Calibration confirmed separation of high and low molecular weight standards into the retentate and permeate fractions, respectively. DOC mass balance of fractionated DOM samples showed good recoveries (123% ± 32%

The Structural Dimensions of the Political Institutions of the State; Theorizing through the Management and Institutional Theory: Proposed Boarding  [PDF]
Alejandro Sanchez Garcia
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2014.44027
Abstract: Our research is to review two significant models for analyzing structures of institutions, which have made themselves, first Henry Mintzberg, with its model of key elements of the structures, and on the other hand, Meyer & Rowan with his model of rationalized institutional structures. The discourse of previous authors, resides to sustain what for them are the most important or essential dimensions of the structures in the institutions. With up to us, we try to review the arguments of both models and their contribution to institutional theory to develop on our part, discursive lines supported in said Institutional Theory, those that we believe which should be the structural dimensions of the institutions policies, and should be reviewed by anyone who makes part of itself, the study of the structures of the State political Institutions, which we consider, are institutional political dimensions, which will allow the political organization par excellence, its own stability, adaptation and arrangement, through the design of incentives or sanctions reflected in their own Political Institutions.
Determinantes de los resultados de las evaluaciones de profesores: el caso de la Universidad de los Andes
Gaviria,Alejandro; Hoyos,Alejandro;
Desarrollo y Sociedad , 2008,
Abstract: this paper examines the determinants of teacher and course evaluations at the universidad de los andes in bogotá, colombia. the paper ex plores how teacher and course characteristics affect evaluation results. grades obtained by students directly and positively affect teacher evaluations. class size negatively affects the results of the evaluations. finally whether teachers are full or part-time as well as years of experience of teachers have a negligible impact on evaluations.
Anemia and Child Education: The Case of Colombia
Gaviria,Alejandro; Hoyos,Alejandro;
Desarrollo y Sociedad , 2011,
Abstract: welfare programs in colombia have focused on both reducing malnutrition and hunger and increasing school attendance. but there is not much evidence on the hypothesized relationship between nutrition status and schooling outcomes. using the national survey of nutritional status in colombia - 2005 (ensin) and the demographic and health survey - 2005 (dhs), this paper estimates the impact of nutrition on schooling outcomes. the results suggest that anemic children have a higher probability of being overage in school. malnutrition, defined by anthropometric measures, does not have an impact on the probability of being overage. school attendance seems to be unrelated to nutrition measures. the results are consistent under different specifications.
Anemia and Child Education: The Case of Colombia
Alejandro Gaviria,Alejandro Hoyos
Desarrollo y Sociedad , 2011,
Abstract: Welfare programs in Colombia have focused on both reducing malnutrition and hunger and increasing school attendance. But there is not much evidence on the hypothesized relationship between nutrition status and schooling outcomes. Using the National Survey of Nutritional Status in Colombia – 2005 (ensin) and the Demographic and Health Survey – 2005 (dhs), this paper estimates the impact of nutrition on schooling outcomes. The results suggest that anemic children have a higher probability of being overage in school. Malnutrition, defined by anthropometric measures, does not have an impact on the probability of being overage. School attendance seems to be unrelated to nutrition measures. The results are consistent under different specifications.
Elucidating General Equilibrium Multiplier Effects: A Differential Perspective  [PDF]
M. Alejandro Cardenete, Ferran Sancho
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2013.35046
Abstract: Expenditure multipliers are routinely used to evaluate the effectiveness of government spending. When interested in disaggregated effects, interindustry models provide the necessary tools to be able to look at very detailed sectorial results. These models are theoretically simple and empirically operational, which makes them easily implementable and therefore popular with policy makers. They miss, however, quite a bit of the interaction that takes place at the micro level. On the one hand, they ignore the role exerted by supply constraints in primary factors; on the other hand, they look at the world as though it is fully linear. We overcome these limitations by using an opposite Walrasian general equilibrium model to compute marginal multipliers. By using differential calculus, we also offer some insights regarding the “under-the-hood” circuits of influence.
Endovascular Management of Pericallosal Artery Aneurysms: A Case Report  [PDF]
Alejandro Rojas-Marroquín
Open Journal of Modern Neurosurgery (OJMN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojmn.2015.52008
Abstract: This report describes a classic case of pericallosal artery aneurysm and their Angiographic findings and endovascular management.
Gunshot Wound to the Head: Surgical Management and Cases Report in a Tertiary Care Center in Florencia, Colombia  [PDF]
Alejandro Rojas-Marroquín
Open Journal of Modern Neurosurgery (OJMN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojmn.2015.53014
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to report 10 cases treated in a tertiary care center in the Florencia town in Colombia. The time frame to this intervention was from 1st June 2011 to 30th June 2012. The idea was to establish the type, age group, Matson’s classification schemes and mortality of the gunshot wound to the head in order to describe the neurological functional prognosis of these patients, made by The Modified Rankin scale (mRS) to 12 months postoperative.
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