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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 17593 matches for " Alejandro Cravioto Q "
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Iniciativa México: Propuesta para el control y vigilancia epidemiológica de la enfermedad de Chagas en México
Salazar Schettino,Paz María; Cravioto Q,Alejandro; Tapia Conver,Roberto;
Boletín chileno de parasitología , 2001, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-94022001000200008
Abstract: it is showed the programme for the knowledge, control and epidemiological surveillance of chagas disease in mexico.
Iniciativa México: Propuesta para el control y vigilancia epidemiológica de la enfermedad de Chagas en México Mexico iniciative: A proposal for the epidemiological control and surveillance of Chagas disease in Mexico
Paz María Salazar Schettino,Alejandro Cravioto Q,Roberto Tapia Conver
Boletín chileno de parasitología , 2001,
Abstract: It is showed the programme for the knowledge, control and epidemiological surveillance of Chagas disease in Mexico.
Enabling access to new WHO essential medicines: the case for nicotine replacement therapies
Sandeep P Kishore, Asaf Bitton, Alejandro Cravioto, Derek Yach
Globalization and Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8603-6-22
Abstract: Tobacco use kills 5.4 million people annually. Even if no children started smoking in the future, 8.3 million people will die annually of tobacco-related diseases by 2030. Unless tobacco cessation and control vastly improves, the death toll from tobacco this century will easily reach an estimated 1 billion deaths [1]. In this paper, we discuss the benefits and challenges of enabling access to pharmacotherapies [nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs)] to treat nicotine dependence and bolster tobacco cessation in low and middle income countries (LMIC).In March 2009, NRTs (specifically, nicotine gums and patches) were added to the Model List of Essential Medicines by the World Health Organization (WHO) [2]. Essential medicines are defined as those that satisfy the priority health care needs of the population, and the Essential Medicines List (EML) is used by over 160 governments as a guide for determining which medicines should be made available to their citizens at low cost (http://www.who.int/medicines/en/ webcite and Figure 1). The addition of a medicine to the international EML directly encourages individual nations to add the drug to their national EML and to internal drug registries. This is an important logistical step. Many countries (e.g. South Africa) restrict drug importations to medicines on national EML and registries. Similarly, several foundations and major charities base their medicine supply on the WHO EML. Medicines not on the international or national EML are often not available or are simply unaffordable in LMIC.In this context, we argue that in light of the increasing global burden of tobacco dependence and the clinical utility of NRT, these new WHO essential medicines can and should be available more widely. Let us be clear at the outset. We do not argue that every smoker in a given population should use NRT to quit. Rather, we posit that a nicotine-dependent individual in a low resource country should have the opportunity to affordably access the
Strategies for capacity building for health research in Bangladesh: Role of core funding and a common monitoring and evaluation framework
Shakeel Mahmood, Krishna Hort, Shakil Ahmed, Mohammed Salam, Alejandro Cravioto
Health Research Policy and Systems , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4505-9-31
Abstract: This paper uses a mixture of quantitative and qualitative data collected during independent annual reviews of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) between 2006 and 2010. Quantitative data includes the number of research activities according to strategic priority areas, revenues collected and expenditure. Qualitative data includes interviews of researchers and management of ICDDR,B, and of research users and key donors. Data in a Monitoring and Evaluation Framework (MEF) were assessed against agreed indicators.The key problems faced by ICDDR,B in 2006 were insufficient core funds to build research capacity and supporting infrastructure, and an inability to direct research funds towards the identified research priorities in its strategic plan. Two strategies were developed to address these problems: a group of donors agreed to provide unearmarked pooled core funding, and accept a single common report based on an agreed MEF. On review after three years, there had been significant increases in total revenue, and the ability to allocate greater amounts of money on capacity building and infrastructure. The MEF demonstrated progress against strategic objectives, and better alignment of research against strategic priorities. There had also been changes in the sense of ownership and collaboration between ICDDR,B's management and its core donors.The changes made to funding relationships supported and monitored by an effective MEF enabled the organisation to better align funding with research priorities and to invest in capacity building. This paper identified key issues for capacity building for health research in low and middle income countries. The findings have relevance to other research institutes in similar contexts to advocate and support research capacity strengthening efforts.Strengthening research capacity is considered one of the most powerful, cost-effective, and sustainable means of advancing health and development [1]. I
Gut Microbiota of Healthy and Malnourished Children in Bangladesh
Shirajum Monira,Shota Nakamura,Hubert Ph. Endtz,Alejandro Cravioto,Takaaki Nakaya,Tetsuya Iida
Frontiers in Microbiology , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2011.00228
Abstract: Poor health and malnutrition in preschool children are longstanding problems in Bangladesh. Gut microbiota plays a tremendous role in nutrient absorption and determining the state of health. In this study, metagenomic tool was employed to assess the gut microbiota composition of healthy and malnourished children. DNA was extracted from fecal samples of seven healthy and seven malnourished children (n = 14; age 2–3 years) were analyzed for the variable region of 16S rRNA genes by universal primer PCR followed by high-throughput 454 parallel sequencing to identify the bacterial phyla and genera. Our results reveal that the healthy children had a significantly higher number of operational taxonomic unit in their gut than that of the malnourished children (healthy vs. malnourished: 546 vs. 310). In malnourished children, bacterial population of the phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes accounted for 46 and 18%, respectively. Conversely, in healthy children, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes accounted for 5% and 44, respectively (p < 0.001). In malnourished children, the phylum Proteobacteria included pathogenic genera, namely Klebsiella and Escherichia, which were 174-fold and 9-fold higher, respectively, than their healthy counterpart. The predominance of potentially pathogenic Proteobacteria and minimal level of Bacteroidetes as commensal microbiota might be associated to the ill health of malnourished children in Bangladesh.
Abortion, contraceptive use, and adolescent pregnancy among first-year medical students at a major public university in Mexico City
Ortiz-Ortega,Adriana; García de la Torre,Guadalupe; Galván,Fernando; Cravioto,Patricia; Paz,Francisco; Díaz-Olavarrieta,Claudia; Ellertson,Charlotte; Cravioto,Alejandro;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892003000700008
Abstract: objective: if properly trained, medical students could become future opinion leaders in health policy and could help the public to understand the consequences of unwanted pregnancies and of abortions. the objective of this study was to analyze the frequency of unwanted pregnancies and induced abortions that had occurred among women who were first-year medical students at a major public university in mexico city and to compare the experiences of those women with the experiences of the general population of mexican females aged 15 to 24. methods: in 1998 we administered a cross-sectional survey to all the first-year medical students at the national autonomous university of mexico, which is the largest university in latin america. for this study we analyzed 549 surveys completed by female students. results: out of the 549 women, 120 of them (22%) had been sexually active at some point. among those 120 sexually active students, 100 of them (83%) had used a contraceptive method at some time, and 19 of the 120 (16%) had been pregnant. of those 19 women who had been pregnant, 10 of them had had an illegal induced abortion (in mexico, abortions are illegal except under a small number of extenuating circumstances). the reported abortion rate among the female medical students, 2%, was very low in comparison with the 11% rate for women of similar ages in the mexican general population. conclusions: the lower incidence of abortion among the female medical students indicates that when young mexican women have access to medical information and are highly motivated to avoid unintended pregnancy and abortion, they can do so.
Shift in Phenotypic Characteristics of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Isolated from Diarrheal Patients in Bangladesh
Yasmin Ara Begum,Nabilah Ibnat Baby,Abu S. G. Faruque,Nusrat Jahan,Alejandro Cravioto,Ann-Mari Svennerholm,Firdausi Qadri
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003031
Abstract: Background Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the most common causes of bacterial diarrhea. Over the last decade, from 1996 to 2012, changes in the virulence antigen properties of ETEC such as heat labile (LT) and heat stable (ST) toxins, colonization factors (CFs), and ‘O’-serogroups have been observed. The aim of this prospective study was to compare changes in antigenic profiles of ETEC strains isolated from a 2% surveillance system at the icddr,b hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh between 2007–2012 and an earlier time period of 1996–1998 conducted at the same surveillance site. Methodology In the surveillance system every 50th patient attending the hospital was screened for major enteric pathogens including ETEC, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. from January 2007 to December 2012. Principal Findings Of the 15,152 diarrheal specimens tested between 2007–2012, the overall rate of ETEC isolation was 11%; of these, 43% were LT/ST, 27% LT and 30% ST positive. Isolation rate of ST-ETEC (p<0.009) and LT/ST ETEC (p<0.011) during 2007–2012 period differed significantly compared to those seen between 1996–1998. In comparison to the 1996–1998 period, difference in CF profile of ETEC isolates during 2007–2012 was observed particularly for strains expressing CS7 (12.4%), CS14 (9.5%) and CS17 (10.0%). The predominant CF types were CS5+CS6, CFA/I, CS7, CS17, CS1+CS3, CS6 and CS14. The most common serogroups among the CF positive ETEC isolates were O115, O114, O6, O25 and O8. A strong association was found between CFs and ‘O’ serogroups i.e. between CS5+CS6 and (O115 and O126); CS7 and (O114), CFA/I and (O78 and O126), CS17 and (O8 and O167) and CS1/CS2+CS3 and (O6). Conclusion The analyses show a shift in prevalence of antigenic types of ETEC over the study period; the information is important in designing effective ETEC vaccines with broad protective coverage.
Efficacy of sodium butyrate adjunct therapy in shigellosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
Rubhana Raqib, Protim Sarker, Akhirunnesa Mily, Nur Haque Alam, Abu Saleh Mohammed Arifuzzaman, Rokeya Sultana Rekha, Jan Andersson, Gudmundur H Gudmundsson, Alejandro Cravioto, Birgitta Agerberth
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-111
Abstract: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group designed clinical trial was conducted. Eighty adult patients with shigellosis were randomized to either the Intervention group (butyrate, n?=?40) or the Placebo group (normal saline, n?=?40). The Intervention group was given an enema containing sodium butyrate (80?mM), twice daily for 3?days, while the Placebo group received the same dose of normal saline. The primary endpoint of the trial was to assess the efficacy of butyrate in improving clinical, endoscopic and histological features of shigellosis. The secondary endpoint was to study the effect of butyrate on the induction of antimicrobial peptides in the rectum. Clinical outcomes were assessed and concentrations of antimicrobial peptides (LL-37, human beta defensin1 [HBD-1] and human beta defensin 3 [HBD-3]) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β [IL-1β] and interleukin-8 [IL-8]) were measured in the stool. Sigmoidoscopic and histopathological analyses, and immunostaining of LL-37 in the rectal mucosa were performed in a subgroup of patients.Compared with placebo, butyrate therapy led to the early reduction of macrophages, pus cells, IL-8 and IL-1β in the stool and improvement in rectal histopathology. Butyrate treatment induced LL-37 expression in the rectal epithelia. Stool concentration of LL-37 remained significantly higher in the Intervention group on days 4 and 7.Adjunct therapy with butyrate during shigellosis led to early reduction of inflammation and enhanced LL-37 expression in the rectal epithelia with prolonged release of LL-37 in the stool.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00800930.
Serotypes of Vibrio cholerae Non-O1 Isolated from Water Supplies for Human Consumption in Campeche, México and their Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern
Isaac-Márquez, Angélica P;Lezama-Dávila, Claudio M;Eslava- Campos, Carlos;Navarro-Oca?a, Armando;Cravioto-Quintana, Alejandro;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761998000100004
Abstract: the presence of vibrio cholerae non-o1 in water supplies for human consumption in the city of campeche and rural locality of bécal was investigated. v. cholerae non-o1 was detected in 5.9% of the samples obtained in deep pools of campeche. studies conducted in bécal and neighbourhood of morelos in campeche indicated that collected samples harbored v. cholerae non-o1 in 31.5% and 8.7% respectively. there was a particular pattern of distribution of v. cholerae non-o1 serotypes among different studied regions. accordingly, v. cholerae non-o1 serotype o14 predominated in the deep pools of campeche and together with v. cholerae non-o1, o155 were preferentially founds in samples taken from intradomiciliary faucets in the neighbourhood of morelos. samples from bécal predominantly presented the serotype o112. 60% and 53.8% of all studied strains of v. cholerae non-o1 proved to be resistant to ampicillin and carbenicillin. 3.1%, 7.7% and 6.2% presented resistant to doxycycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin respectively. the study showed the necessity of performing a strong epidemiologic surveillance for emergence and distribution of v. cholerae non-o1
Genetic Characterization of Atypical Citrobacter freundii
Gabriela Delgado, Valeria Souza, Rosario Morales, René Cerritos, Andrea González-González, José Luis Méndez, Virginia Vázquez, Alejandro Cravioto
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074120
Abstract: The ability of a bacterial population to survive in different niches, as well as in stressful and rapidly changing environmental conditions, depends greatly on its genetic content. To survive such fluctuating conditions, bacteria have evolved different mechanisms to modulate phenotypic variations and related strategies to produce high levels of genetic diversity. Laboratories working in microbiological diagnosis have shown that Citrobacter freundii is very versatile in its colony morphology, as well as in its biochemical, antigenic and pathogenic behaviours. This phenotypic versatility has made C. freundii difficult to identify and it is frequently confused with both Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli. In order to determine the genomic events and to explain the mechanisms involved in this plasticity, six C. freundii isolates were selected from a phenotypic variation study. An I-CeuI genomic cleavage map was created and eight housekeeping genes, including 16S rRNA, were sequenced. In general, the results showed a range of both phenotypes and genotypes among the isolates with some revealing a greater similarity to C. freundii and some to S. enterica, while others were identified as phenotypic and genotypic intermediary states between the two species. The occurrence of these events in natural populations may have important implications for genomic diversification in bacterial evolution, especially when considering bacterial species boundaries. In addition, such events may have a profound impact on medical science in terms of treatment, course and outcomes of infectious diseases, evading the immune response, and understanding host-pathogen interactions.
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