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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10619 matches for " Alejandro Chaparro-Giraldo "
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LA SELECCIóN NATURAL Y LOS CULTIVOS TRANSGéNICOS: ?UN HIATO DARWINISTA?
CHAPARRO-GIRALDO,ALEJANDRO;
Acta Biológica Colombiana , 2009,
Abstract: in december 2008, 125 million hectares of transgenic varieties of soybean, corn, cotton and canola, were reported planted in 23 countries on five continents. these varieties were transformed with genes of prokaryote origin, rendering them resistant to lepidopteran insects attack or toleratant to commercial herbicides. since the beginning of genetic engineering, the question whether mass release of these crops in agroecosystems, can cause either negative environmental effects in the medium term or evolutionary effects in the long term, has been raised. one way of analyzing this problem is to consider whether they can escape darwinian natural selection, because foreign genes have been introduced through human manipulation. to this end, i study the available literature on gene flow from modified crops to their wild closely related relatives. there is empirical evidence of hybridization between improved materials, by both conventional methods (hybridization, backcross, selections) and biotechnological (transfer of foreign genes), and closely related wild relatives. in any case, the effects of these hybrids depend on the interaction between the transferred gene and the wild relative, the particular ecosystem in which it occurs. the biggest environmental and evolutionary impact is the result of introgression of a transgene in the wild relative, a process that involves stabilization of the transgene in the host genome, as a result of successive generations of hybridization and backcrossing. the introgression depends more upon the nature of the gene and its localization in the donnor s genome, than on the mechanism of introduction. no negative effects on the genetic diversity of species genetically modified, have been reported, neither on the environment or consummers. in the context of the evidence discussed, it appears s if genetic modified crops do not escape darwinian natural selection, however it is very early in evolutionary terms to reach a conclusion on this matter.
Biocombustibles, Seguridad Alimentaria y Cultivos Transgénicos
Acosta,Orlando; Chaparro-Giraldo,Alejandro;
Revista de Salud Pública , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0124-00642009000200013
Abstract: soaring global food prices are threatening to push more poor people back below the poverty line; this will probably become aggravated by the serious challenge that increasing population and climate changes are posing for food security. there is growing evidence that human activities involving fossil fuel consumption and land use are contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and consequently changing the climate worldwide. the finite nature of fossil fuel reserves is causing concern about energy security and there is a growing interest in the use of renewable energy sources such as biofuels. there is growing concern regarding the fact that biofuels are currently produced from food crops, thereby leading to an undesirable competition for their use as food and feed. nevertheless, biofuels can be produced from other feedstocks such as lingo-cellulose from perennial grasses, forestry and vegetable waste. biofuel energy content should not be exceeded by that of the fossil fuel invested in its production to ensure that it is energetically sustainable; however, biofuels must also be economically competitive and environmentally acceptable. climate change and biofuels are challenging fao efforts aimed at eradicating hunger worldwide by the next decade. given that current crops used in biofuel production have not been domesticated for this purpose, transgenic technology can offer an enormous contribution towards improving biofuel crops' environmental and economic performance. the present paper critically presents some relevant relationships between biofuels, food security and transgenic plant technology.
Métodos y usos agrícolas de la ingeniería genética aplicada al cultivo de arroz
DiazGranados D. Cristina,Chaparro-Giraldo Alejandro
Revista Colombiana de Biotecnología , 2012,
Abstract: Methods and agricultural uses of genetic engineering applied to rice crop Resumen: En biotecnología de arroz se han logrado avances en transformación genética, con importantes resultados en el mejoramiento genético de variedades elite de las subespecies japónica e índica. Con el propósito de revisar los métodos y los usos agrícolas de la ingeniería genética aplicada al cultivo del arroz, se usaron varias palabras claves en idioma inglés en algunas de las bases de datos de revistas científicas indexadas, disponibles en el Sistema Nacional de Bibliotecas de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (SINAB), seleccionando documentos publicados entre 2000 y 2011. La base de esta revisión inicial, se complementó con artículos publicados en fechas anteriores, que se consideraron relevantes, debido a que implicaban cambios metodológicos importantes. Desde que se logró producir la primera planta transgénica de arroz a finales de los 80′s, varios protocolos para la transferencia de genes se han empleado con éxito logrando la modificación genética de más de 60 cultivares de arroz. Para ello se han empleado sistemas de transformación tanto directos como indirectos. Se han realizado modificaciones de rasgos importantes en el cultivo, tales como la resistencia a factores bióticos (insectos, hongos, bacterias, virus, nematodos), tolerancia a factores abióticos (salinidad, sequía, altas y bajas temperaturas, inmersión), y mejoramiento de características agronómicas (calidad nutricional, rendimiento, uso de nutrientes, tolerancia a herbicidas). Palabras claves: Arroz; cultivos transgénicos; factores bióticos; factores abióticos. Abstract: In rice biotechnology advances have been made in genetic transformation, with significant results in breeding elite varieties of japonica and indica subspecies. In order to review the methods and agricultural uses of genetic engineering applied to rice, calves were used several words in English in some of the databases of scientific journals available in the National Libraries National University of Colombia (SINAB), selecting papers published between 2000 and 2011. Based on this initial review, it addition to some articles published at earlier dates, which were considered relevant because they involved significant methodological changes. Since it was able to produce the first transgenic rice plant in the late 80's, several protocols for gene transfer have been used successfully achieving the genetic modification of more than 60 rice cultivars. For this transformation systems have been used both direct and indirect. There have been signifi
MéTODOS DE TRANSFORMACIóN GENéTICA DE PLANTAS
Díaz Granados,Cristina; Chaparro-Giraldo,Alejandro;
Revista U.D.C.A Actualidad & Divulgación Científica , 2012,
Abstract: in order to streamline the transfer of dna into plant cells have developed different methods for genetic transformation in plants. these methods can be divided into two classes: indirect methods based on biological vectors known as, and direct methods based on physical and chemical elements. this work presents an updated review of the methods used for genetic transformation of plants, aimed at those interested in crops breeding. to do this we reviewed databases "science direct", "hinari" and "medline" available on the website of the national library system (sinab) of the universidad nacional de colombia. keywords used in english were: "plant transformation", "genetic engineering", "transgenic plants", "genetically modified crops", to search for general documents. search was further refined by using more specific keywords, like "particle bombardment", "biolistic", "agrobacterium ", "sonication", etc. also conducted some research complementation in spanish, using the search "google" for the key words "cultivos genéticamente modificados" and " cultivos transgénicos". were reviewed scientific articles and reviews between 1997 and 2010. there is a long list of processes used in the transfer of foreign genes into the genomes of plant species, including: viral vectors, liposomes, electroporation, sonication, chemical-mediated transfer, silicon carbide fibers, microinjection and microlaser. however, gm crops are released commercially, have been produced through the use of two technologies: biolistic and agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation.
Efecto ambiental de agroquímicos y maquinaria agrícola en cultivos transgénicos y convencionales de algodón
Reyes1,Giovanni; Chaparro-Giraldo,Alejandro; ávila,Kelly;
Revista Colombiana de Biotecnología , 2010,
Abstract: food production is based on the use of various agricultural technologies, which can lead to conflicts between environment and agriculture. it is important to study the environmental impact of new technologies applied to agriculture, the most important of which is transgenesis. this work was carried out in the cotton belt of the town of espinal, tolima department for the cotton crop in the first half of 2009, through methodologies brookes & barfoot (2006) and kovach et al (1992). we studied the environmental impact of pesticide application and use of agricultural machinery for cultivation of transgenic and conventional cotton. information was collected through surveys of 20 farms producing cotton. the analysis of the survey was conducted descriptively, by determining differences in quantitative and qualitative for the sites that use conventional technology, and transgenic (bt gene and double rr / rr), and then make a correlation with the environmental index quotient (eiq). no differences were found between the fields eiq the two technologies, although transgenic technology has environmental advantages in the control of some lepidopteran pests. in connection with the use of agricultural machinery, was found to conventional technology generates less release of co2, greenhouse gas. the brookes and barfoot methodology could be adapted in comparative studies of agricultural technologies in tropical countries.
Efecto ambiental de agroquímicos y maquinaria agrícola en cultivos transgénicos y convencionales de algodón
Reyes Giovanni,Chaparro-Giraldo Alejandro,ávila Kelly
Revista Colombiana de Biotecnología , 2010,
Abstract: Título en inglés: Environmental effects of agrochemicals and agricultural machinery in transgenic and conventional crops cotton Resumen La producción de alimentos se basa en el uso de diferentes tecnologías agrícolas, que pueden derivar en conflictos entre medioambiente y agricultura. Es significativo estudiar el impacto ambiental de las nuevas tecnologías aplicadas a la agricultura, la más importante de las cuales es la transgénesis. Este trabajo se realizó en la zona algodonera del municipio del Espinal, departamento del Tolima, para la cosecha de algodón del primer semestre de 2009, usando las metodologías de Brookes y Barfoot (2006) y Kovach y colaboradores (1992). Se estudió el efecto ambiental de la aplicación de agroquímicos y el uso de maquinaria agrícola en cultivos de algodón transgénico y convencional. Se recogió información mediante encuestas en veinte fincas productoras de algodón. El análisis de las encuestas se realizó de forma descriptiva, determinando diferencias de tipo cuantitativo y cualitativo para los predios que utilizan la tecnología convencional o la tecnología transgénicas (doble gen, Bt/RR), para luego realizar una correlación con el “Enviromental Index Quotient” (EIQ). No se encontraron diferencias entre el EIQ de campo de las dos tecnologías, aunque la tecnología transgénica tiene ventajas ambientales en el control de algunas plagas de lepidópteros. En relación con el uso de maquinaria agrícola, se encontró que la tecnología convencional genera menor liberación de CO2, gas de efecto invernadero. La metodología de Brookes y Barfoot puede adaptarse para estudios comparativos de tecnologías agrícolas en países tropicales. Palabras clave: algodón; cultivos transgénicos; efectos ambientales; maquinaria agrícola; emisiones CO2; EIQ. Abstract Food production is based on the use of various agricultural technologies, which can lead to conflicts between environment and agriculture. It is important to study the environmental impact of new technologies applied to agriculture, the most important of which is transgenesis. This work was carried out in the cotton belt of the town of Espinal, Tolima Department for the cotton crop in the first half of 2009, through methodologies Brookes & Barfoot (2006) and Kovach et al (1992). We studied the environmental impact of pesticide application and use of agricultural machinery for cultivation of transgenic and conventional cotton. Information was collected through surveys of 20 farms producing cotton. The analysis of the survey was conducted descriptively, by determining differences in quantitative
Intellectual Property Rights and Agro-Biotechnology: Limitations and Alternatives Derechos de propiedad intelectual y agro-biotecnología: limitaciones y alternativas
Yaya-Lancheros Mary Luz,Chaparro-Giraldo Alejandro
Revista Colombiana de Biotecnología , 2007,
Abstract: Intellectual property rights have led to stimulating innovation in different fields such as biotechnology. Patents, plant variety protection, industrial secrets and material transfer agreements are legal terms individually and/or collectively protecting materials or processes deemed necessary for agricultural-biotech product development. Such terms may often accumulate to such an extent that this hinders a product’s development and commercial release. Some current initiatives are aimed at facilitating access to basic technology for agricultural-biotech product development, including public organisation cooperation networks, requests for special licences for humanitarian programmes and open access projects. These may be good short-and medium-term alternatives for carrying out biotechnological research in countries like Colombia. Los derechos de propiedad intelectual han adquirido un papel relevante como una forma de incentivar la innovación, extendiéndose a diferentes campos, entre ellos a la biotecnología. Patentes, derechos de obtentor, secretos industriales y acuerdos de transferencia de material, entre otros, representan figuras legales que individual o colectivamente protegen materiales o procesos necesarios para el desarrollo de productos agro-biotecnológicos. En muchos casos, la acumulación de estas figuras puede ser tan alta que pueden constituirse en limitantes para el desarrollo y la liberación comercial de un producto. Actualmente han surgido algunas iniciativas que pretenden facilitar el acceso a las tecnologías básicas para el desarrollo de productos agro-biotecnológicos, e incluyen: redes de cooperación entre entidades públicas, solicitud de licencias especiales para programas de carácter humanitario, y propuestas de acceso abierto. Estas alternativas pueden jugar un papel relevante en el corto y mediano plazo para el desarrollo de la investigación biotecnológica en países como Colombia.
MéTODOS DE TRANSFORMACIóN GENéTICA DE PLANTAS PLANT GENETIC TRANSFORMATION METHODS
Cristina Díaz Granados,Alejandro Chaparro-Giraldo
Revista U.D.C.A Actualidad & Divulgación Científica , 2012,
Abstract: Con el propósito de hacer más eficiente la transferencia de ADN hacia células vegetales, se han desarrollado diferentes métodos de transformación genética en plantas. Los métodos indirectos son basados en la utilización de vectores biológicos y los métodos indirectos son basados en elementos físicos y químicos. Esta es una revisión actualizada de los métodos de transformación genética de plantas, dirigida a los interesados en el mejoramiento genético de cultivos. Para ello, se revisaron las bases de datos "Science Direct", "Hinari" y "Medline", disponibles en el portal del sistema nacional de bibliotecas (SINAB), de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Se usaron las palabras claves en inglés "plant transformation", "genetic engineering", "transgenic plants", "genetically modified crops", para la búsqueda de documentos generales. Posteriormente, se refinó la búsqueda con el uso de palabras claves específicas, como "particle bombardment", "biolistic", "Agrobacterium ", "sonication" y otras. También, se realizaron algunas pesquisas de complementación en idioma espa ol, usando el buscador "google", para las palabras claves "cultivos genéticamente modificados" y "cultivos transgénicos". Se examinaron artículos científicos y revisiones publicadas, entre 1997 y 2010. Existe una larga lista de procesos usados en la transferencia de genes foráneos a los genomas de especies vegetales, que incluye: vectores virales, liposomas, electroporación, sonicación, transferencia mediada por compuestos químicos, fibras de carburo de silicona, microinyección y microlaser; sin embargo, los cultivos transgénicos que se han liberado comercialmente, se han producido mediante el uso de dos tecnologías: biobalística y transformación, mediada por Agrobacterium tumefaciens . In order to streamline the transfer of DNA into plant cells have developed different methods for genetic transformation in plants. These methods can be divided into two classes: indirect methods based on biological vectors known as, and direct methods based on physical and chemical elements. This work presents an updated review of the methods used for genetic transformation of plants, aimed at those interested in crops breeding. To do this we reviewed databases "Science Direct", "Hinari" and "Medline" available on the website of the national library system (SINAB) of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Keywords used in English were: "plant transformation", "genetic engineering", "transgenic plants", "genetically modified crops", to search for general documents. Search was further refined by using more specific
EXPRESIóN DE LA PROTEíNA Cry1Ac EN TEJIDOS DE LíNEASTRANSGéNICAS DE PAPA (Solanum tuberosum spp. ANDíGENA)VAR. DIACOL CAPIRO.
VANEGAS ARAUJO,PABLO ANDRéS; BLANCO MARTíNEZ,JENNIFER TERESA; CHAPARRO-GIRALDO,ALEJANDRO;
Acta Biológica Colombiana , 2010,
Abstract: the potato plant is the fourth most important crop in the world. in colombia around 2.8 million tons are produced annually economically supporting 90000 families. in the country, the major economic impact in the crop is caused by tecia solanivora that originates loses up to 100% in the tuber production. the genetic plant breeding related to the introduction of cry genes which codify insecticidal crystal proteins is an alternative for reducing the insect attack in commercial crops. in this work, the insertion, transcription and expression of cry1ac gen was characterized in different tissues and three development stages of two transgenic lines of solanum tuberosum variety diacol capiro that were previously transformed by agrobacterium tumefaciens method. the characterization was realized by pcr, rt-pcr and elisa techniques. the gen insertion and transcription was confirmed using primers for cry1ac gen that amplified a specific band of 766 bp. the protein expression levels were higher than 45 μg/g and were not significantly different between the analyzed lines nor the three development stages. furthermore, taking into account some relevant phenotypic features, no significant differences were found between transgenic lines and controls. the results suggest that monitoring and biosecurity assays are necessary with this vegetal material because their high level expression inside all the tissues analyzed that could affect non-targeted insects.
ESTADO ACTUAL DEL ACCESO A RECURSOS GENéTICOS EN COLOMBIA POR PARTE DE LOS GRUPOS DE INVESTIGACIóN REGISTRADOS EN COLCIENCIAS.
áVILA SáNCHEZ,LEIDY ANDREA; BLANCO MARTíNEZ,JENNIFER TERESA; CHAPARRO-GIRALDO,ALEJANDRO;
Acta Biológica Colombiana , 2010,
Abstract: the access to genetic resources by research groups in colombia was assessed through checking their investigation projects that have been reported in the colciencias national database gruplac. this inspection was realized in order to make and approach to the current genetic resources access status in the country. from the whole groups considered, 13.7% make genetic resources access. the research groups worked with 252 different species including plants, animals, bacteria, fungi and viruses. regarding material source, 61% was taken from in situ conditions and 33% from ex situ conditions. the most part of the techniques used in research projects are molecular techniques (76%). the institutions that have research groups were gathered in 10 categories, among which private (29%) and public (39%) universities must highlight. on the other hand, is very low the percentage (1.0%) of investigation projects with a marketing potential. from the whole 595 projects, only six have generated patent protected results. none of the projects reviewed have agreement in access to genetic resources.
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