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Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Saussurea DC. (Compositae) of Pakistan Based on Morphological Characters
Rizwana Aleem Qureshi,Saleem Ahmad,A.G. Khan
International Journal of Botany , 2006,
Abstract: Hierarchical cluster analysis of 23 species of Saussurea DC. (Compositae) was carried out on the basis of morphological characters of the species. The study was carried out mainly in Pakistan Museum of Natural History, Garden Avenue, Islamabad. Herbarium specimens of the Saussurea DC. species present in Herbaria of Pakistan Museum of Natural History (PMNH), the Herbaria of Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (ISL), National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad (RAW) and University of Karachi (KUH) were examined. Specimens of the genus also were borrowed from Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh (E) and Natural History Museum, Paris (P). Thirty five characters were studied that included both quantitative and qualitative characters. The latter were converted into integers by coding. A total of 83 character states were obtained. The data matrix was used to get dissimilarity matrix of the species by using the software SPSS. A dendrogram was produced that showed the grouping of the species on the basis of decreasing dissimilarity. The groupings corresponded reasonably well with the subgeneric division of the species.
Helicobacter pylori: “A benign fellow traveler or an unwanted inhabitant”
Santosh K. Tiwari,Aleem A. Khan,Pratibha Nallari
Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The recent decades have witnessed an alarming increase in the Helicobacter pylori associated diseases worldwide. In spite of this, deficiencies in our knowledge still exist about its exact epidemiology, the optimum method of its diagnosis and indeed about the precise role it plays in gastric carcinogenesis. In the present article, we review the available literature in an attempt to assign a definite role to this unique gastric pathogen. The acquisition of the cag-PAI has undoubtedly altered the understanding of host-microbe interactions, and growing appreciation of other potential determinants viz: vacA, iceA, babA, hrgA etc., may enable us understand the role of this organism and its gradual transition from a commensal to a pathogen.
Association of Helicobacter pylori restriction endonuclease-replacing gene, hrgA with overt gastrointestinal diseases
G, Manoj;Tiwari, Santosh K.;Sharma, Vishwas;Habeeb, Mohammed Aejaz;Khan, Aleem A.;Cm, Habibullah;
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-28032008000300011
Abstract: background and aim: helicobacter pylori has been proven to be responsible for causing various gastrointestinal disorders including gastric adenocarcinoma. several genes of pathogen (the genes of the cag-pai, vaca, icea, and baba) either in combination or independently have been reported to significantly increase the risk of ulceration/gastric carcinoma, with the caga gene having the strongest predictive value. pursuit to identify new genes which could serve as a marker of overt disease progression, lead to the discovery of hrga gene. methods: fifty-six indigenous strains of h. pylori from subjects with various gastric disorder were screened to assess the status of hrga gene along with the caga gene using simple polymerase chain reaction using specific oligonucleotide primers. post-amplification, amplicons were subjected for sequencing to identify any strain specific variations in sequences from the h. pylori isolated from different disease manifestations. histopathological analysis was done to ascertain any significant change in the histological scores of subjects infected with caga+/hrga+ and caga-/hrg+ strains. results: all the 56 (100%) subjects amplified with the oligonucleotide primers specific to hrga gene, whereas 81.71% subjects showed the presence of caga gene. sequencing of the amplimers showed 99% homology. histology of the caga+/hrga+ and caga-/hrg+ subjects did not show any significant difference. conclusion: hrga gene of helicobacter pylori is not a ideal surrogate marker for identifying individuals with higher risk of developing overt gastro-duodenal diseases such as neoplasia of the stomach.
Reliability and Quantile Analysis of Pareto Distribution
M. Shuaib Khan,M. Aleem,Zafar Iqbal,A.T. Pasha
Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: This paper presents the reliability and Quantile analysis of the Pareto distribution. The main interests are in the relationship between and various percentiles lives that describe the spread of the values in a set of data. Here these quantiles models are presented graphically and mathematically.
Genomes of Helicobacter pylori from native Peruvians suggest admixture of ancestral and modern lineages and reveal a western type cag-pathogenicity island
S Manjulata Devi, Irshad Ahmed, Aleem A Khan, Syed Rahman, Ayesha Alvi, Leonardo A Sechi, Niyaz Ahmed
BMC Genomics , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-7-191
Abstract: For this purpose, we attempted to dissect genetic identity of strains by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of the 7 housekeeping genes (atpA, efp, ureI, ppa, mutY, trpC, yphC) and the sequence analyses of the babB adhesin and oipA genes. The whole cag pathogenicity-island (cagPAI) from these strains was analyzed using PCR and the geographic type of cagA phosphorylation motif EPIYA was determined by gene sequencing. We observed that while European genotype (hp-Europe) predominates in native Peruvian strains, approximately 20% of these strains represent a sub-population with an Amerindian ancestry (hsp-Amerind). All of these strains however, irrespective of their ancestral affiliation harbored a complete, 'western' type cagPAI and the motifs surrounding it. This indicates a possible acquisition of cagPAI by the hsp-Amerind strains from the European strains, during decades of co-colonization.Our observations suggest presence of ancestral H. pylori (hsp-Amerind) in Peruvian Amerindians which possibly managed to survive and compete against the Spanish strains that arrived to the New World about 500 years ago. We suggest that this might have happened after native Peruvian H. pylori strains acquired cagPAI sequences, either by new acquisition in cag-negative strains or by recombination in cag positive Amerindian strains.Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that established itself in the human stomach possibly thousands of years ago [1]. This opportunistic pathogen infects over 50% of the worlds' population, causing no harm to most colonized people [2]. Only a small subset of infected people experience H. pylori-associated illnesses such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Associations of various clinical outcomes with disease-specific virulence factors remain dogmatic [3] years after the completion of genome sequ
Comparative Performance Analysis between Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) and PID Controller for an Inverted Pendulum System
Aleem Ahmed Khan,Kashan Hussain
International Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Systems (IJEECS) , 2012,
Abstract: The idea of this paper is to compare the time-response performance characteristics between two controllers having different strategy for an inverted pendulum system. The main objective is to determine which control strategy brings the better results in comparative analysis with regard to pendulum’s angle and cart’s position of the system. The inverted pendulum system in fact a critical and challenging control problem, which continually moves away from a stable state. Two Control strategies for an Inverted pendulum system model are presented for stabilized controlling such as Proportional-Integral-Derivatives (PID) and Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) Controllers. Matlab Simulation has been performed on Simulink platform shows that both controllers successfully controls Multi-output Inverted pendulum system. However PID is more efficient and has a better time response characteristics than FLC control strategy.
A New Large Bramatherium Giraffe Bramatherium giganteus sp. Nov. From Siwalik Formations, Punjab, Pakistan
Aleem Ahmed Khan,Mohammad Sarwar
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: The specimen under study (P.U.P.C. No.66/24) is a left upper second molar found in Sardhok, Gujrat district, Punjab, Pakistan. It was probably the largest Bramatherium giraffe known from its genus. It occurs in the lower Pleistocene Pinjorian stage of the upper Siwalik formations. Given the morphology of that specimen, it is referable to the genus Bramatherium. This genus is known only by two species i.e. Bramatherium perimense and B. progressus. The last upper molar in Bramatherium perimense appears too small to be compared with the specimen described here and may be further distinguished from Bramatherium progressus, in having larger size. Moreover, the tooth described here is characterized by its quite gigantic size as well as its significantly high crown and well pronounced median rib of the outer cusps in the upper molar with respect to the British Museum specimen No.48933 which is the type specimen of B. perimense. The specialized characters of P.U.P.C. No.66/24 warrant the erection of a new species Bramatherium giganteus sp. Nov.
Comparative genomics of Helicobacter pylori isolates recovered from ulcer disease patients in England
Farhana Kauser, M Abid Hussain, Irshad Ahmed, Sriramula Srinivas, S Manjulata Devi, Ahmed A Majeed, K Rajender Rao, Aleem A Khan, Leonardo A Sechi, Niyaz Ahmed
BMC Microbiology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-5-32
Abstract: Analyses of virulence genes (cagT, cagE, cagA, vacA, iceA, oipA and babB) revealed that H. pylori strains from England are genetically distinct from strains obtained from other countries. The toxigenic vacA s1m1 genotype was found to be less common and the plasticity region cluster was found to be disrupted in all the isolates. English isolates showed a predominance of iceA1 alleles and a functional proinflammatory oipA gene. The English H. pylori gene pool revealed several Asian/oriental features. This included the predominance of cagA – glr (cagA right junction) motif types III and II (up to 42%), presence of vacA m1c alleles and phylogenetic affinity towards East Asian / Amerindian gene pools based on fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) analysis and glmM sequence analysis.Overall, our results demonstrated genetic affinities of H. pylori in England with both European and the Asian gene pools and some distinctive genetic features of virulence genes that may have evolved in this important European population.Infection of the gastric mucosa with H. pylori results in a number of disease outcomes including gastritis, which precedes the development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer and lymphomas of the MALT [1-3]. These diseases caused by H. pylori and their prevalence rates differ in different geographic countries and only a subset (10%) [4] of infected patients develop one of them. This raises the question as to why H. pylori causes disease in a few individuals, but not in the great majority [5].Many studies have demonstrated the involvement of bacterial virulence factors, host genetics and environmental factors in contributing to the development of disease. Bacterial virulence factors include proteins mediating establishment/colonization, persistence of infection and finally long-term damage to the host [6]. The cag pathogenicity-island (cag PAI) is the most noteworthy among these factors. PCR analyses have suggested that this island is n
Antimicrobial activities of Eugenol and Cinnamaldehyde against the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori
Shaik Ali, Aleem A Khan, Irshad Ahmed, M Musaddiq, Khaja S Ahmed, H Polasa, L Venkateswar Rao, Chittoor M Habibullah, Leonardo A Sechi, Niyaz Ahmed
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1476-0711-4-20
Abstract: The present study was performed to assess the in vitro effects of eugenol and cinnamaldehyde against indigenous and standard H. pylori strains, their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and time course lethal effects at various pH.A total of 31 strains (29 indigenous and one standard strain of H. pylori ATCC 26695, one strain of E. coli NCIM 2089) were screened. Agar dilution method was used for the determination of drug sensitivity patterns of isolates to the commonly used antibiotics and broth dilution method for the test compounds.Eugenol and cinnamaldehyde inhibited the growth of all the 30 H. pylori strains tested, at a concentration of 2 μg/ml, in the 9th and 12th hours of incubation respectively. At acidic pH, increased activity was observed for both the compounds. Furthermore, the organism did not develop any resistance towards these compounds even after 10 passages grown at sub-inhibitory concentrations.These results indicate that the two bioactive compounds we tested may prevent H. pylori growth in vitro, without acquiring any resistance.Helicobacter pylori was first discovered in 1982 and was subsequently found to be an important etiological agent for gastritis [1], peptic ulcers [2] and gastric malignancy [3]. It is estimated that one-half of the world's population is infected with H. pylori [4]. Numerous clinical evidences reveal that eradication of H. pylori results in improvement of gastritis and drastically decreases the rate of relapse of gastric and duodenal ulcers [5,6]. H. pylori carriage rates are about 80–90% in developing countries [7], with a high risk of gastric cancer and antibiotic regimens against H. pylori are frequently ineffective in such populations [8]. Besides this, undesirable side effects [9], noncompliance among the patients [10] and the cost of the antibiotic regimens [11] are few other factors for their ineffectiveness. Hence there is a need to develop alternative approaches to suppress/cure the infection.Since ancient tim
EXOGENOUS ADMINISTRATION OF OXYTOCIN AND ITS RESIDUAL EFFECTS
A. IJAZ AND M. ALEEM
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Oxytocin is a peptide hormone which is synthesized in the hypothalamic neurons and released from the posterior pituitary gland. This hormone has a wide range of applications in human and veterinary medicine. Whether secreted endogenously or administered exogenously, it produces the desired effects within minutes and is metabolized rapidly into inactive products. If at all oxytocin is secreted in the milk and is ingested alongwith milk, it is degraded by the gut enzymes and can not reach blood circulation in biologically active form. Thus, there seems to be no harm in consuming milk from oxytocin-treated dairy animals. However, its use in pregnant animals should be discouraged.
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