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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 149819 matches for " Aleck H. Hercbergs "
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Integrin-Mediated Actions of Thyroid Hormone Analogues on Tumor Cell Chemosensitivity, Integrin-Growth Factor Receptor Crosstalk and Inflammatory Gene Expression
Aleck H. Hercbergs,Faith B. Davis,Hung-Yun Lin,Mary K. Luidens
Cancer and Clinical Oncology , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/cco.v1n1p32
Abstract: Tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac) and its nanoparticulate formulation induce apoptosis in cancer cells, oppose angiogenesis about xenografted human tumors and block cancer cell repair of double-stranded DNA breaks. These nongenomic actions of tetrac are initiated at a tetrac-thyroid hormone receptor on plasma membrane integrin avb3. In this review, we examine additional anti-cancer activities of tetrac formulations at avb3 and what is known about their mechanisms. These activities include 1) reversal of cancer cell chemoresistance (= induction of chemosensitization) and 2) disruption of crosstalk between avb3 and nearby cell surface growth factor receptors. In addition, nanoparticulate tetrac 3) alters expression of differentially-regulated inflammation-relevant genes that may be important to inflammation-supported cancer. For example, the agent downregulates genes whose products mediate cytokine responses and upregulates suppressor of cytokine signaling, SOCS4. Such actions of tetrac formulations define a multi-target functional profile, although the activities of tetrac begin at a single anatomic plasma membrane receptor on integrin avb3.
Crosstalk between Integrin αvβ3 and Estrogen Receptor-α Is Involved in Thyroid Hormone-Induced Proliferation in Human Lung Carcinoma Cells
Ran Meng, Heng-Yuan Tang, Jennifer Westfall, David London, James H. Cao, Shaker A. Mousa, Mary Luidens, Aleck Hercbergs, Faith B. Davis, Paul J. Davis, Hung-Yun Lin
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027547
Abstract: A cell surface receptor for thyroid hormone that activates extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 has been identified on integrin αvβ3. We have examined the actions of thyroid hormone initiated at the integrin on human NCI-H522 non-small cell lung carcinoma and NCI-H510A small cell lung cancer cells. At a physiologic total hormone concentration (10?7 M), T4 significantly increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) abundance in these cell lines, as did 3, 5, 3′-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) at a supraphysiologic concentration. Neutralizing antibody to integrin αvβ3 and an integrin-binding Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide blocked thyroid hormone-induced PCNA expression. Tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac) lacks thyroid hormone function but inhibits binding of T4 and T3 to the integrin receptor; tetrac eliminated thyroid hormone-induced lung cancer cell proliferation and ERK1/2 activation. In these estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-positive lung cancer cells, thyroid hormone (T4>T3) caused phosphorylation of ERα; the specific ERα antagonist ICI 182,780 blocked T4-induced, but not T3-induced ERK1/2 activation, as well as ERα phosphorylation, proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and hormone-dependent thymidine uptake by tumor cells. Thus, in ERα-positive human lung cancer cells, the proliferative action of thyroid hormone initiated at the plasma membrane is at least in part mediated by ERα. In summary, thyroid hormone may be one of several endogenous factors capable of supporting proliferation of lung cancer cells. Activity as an inhibitor of lung cancer cell proliferation induced at the integrin receptor makes tetrac a novel anti-proliferative agent.
Designing Websites for Learning and Enjoyment: A study of museum experiences
Aleck C. H. Lin,Shirley D. Gregor
International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning , 2006,
Abstract: This study reports on an exploratory research study that examined the design of websites that encourage both learning and enjoyment. This study examines museum websites that offer educational materials. As part of their mission, most museums provide the general public with educational materials for study and enjoyment. Many museums use the Internet in support of their mission. Museum websites offer excellent opportunity to study learning environments designed for enjoyment. Computer-supported learning of various types has been studied over the years, including computer-aided learning, computer-aided instruction, computer-managed learning, and more recently, learning via the Internet. Some relevant work appears in the literature on pleasure; however, the concept of online learning for enjoyment – specifically when learning is not part of a formal instructional undertaking – has not been well studied and thus is not well understood. This study seeks to redress this gap in the literature, specifically ‘learning for enjoyment,’ by reporting on a number of semi-structured in-depth interviews with museum and educational experts in Taiwan. Our study identified a number of characteristics required of online learning websites, and we conclude some suggested guidelines for developing an online learning website for enjoyment.
The Roots of North America's First Comprehensive Public Health Insurance System
Ostry, Aleck
Hygiea Internationalis : an Interdisciplinary Journal for the History of Public Health , 2001,
Abstract: The Canadian province of Saskatchewan in 1944 it inherited a long tradition of "socialized" medicine in many rural regions. However, urban medicine was based on fee-for-service payment of physicians and no private health insurance. In crafting North America's first public health insurance system, the government built on the rural medical infrastructure already in place by expanding a rural salaried system of physician payment and successfully promoted a regional comprehensive insurance system piloted in a southern region of the province. However, major demographic shifts from countryside to city during the 1950s, burgeoning physician supply, increased immigration of physicians into the provinces' cities, and aggressive expansion of urban-based private insurance for physician services into rural regions, shifted the balance of medical power away from rural towards urban centers in the province. The increasing resistance, by the medical profession, to health-care reform in Saskatchewan in the 1950s must be considered within a geographic framework as rural regions of the province became the major battleground between government and insurance third party payers. While historical comparisons should not be overstated, re-visiting this struggle may be useful in the current era in which the pressure for privatization of the medical system in Canada appear to be growing.
A Health and Nutritional Evaluation of Changes in Agriculture in the Past Quarter Century in British Columbia: Implications for Food Security
Aleck Ostry,Kathryn Morrison
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7062653
Abstract: This paper describes change in local food production in British Columbia with a focus on changes in the production of foods recommended for increased consumption by nutritionists. We determine, in one of the most productive agricultural provinces in Canada, whether secular trends in agricultural land use and food production, over the past quarter century, have resulted in increased production of foods recommended by nutritionists as more healthy and nutritious. In particular we are concerned with estimating the extent to which changes in agriculture and food production are congruent with official nutrition advice to avoid less healthy foods and to consume more vegetables, fruit, and whole grains. We demonstrate, using regularly collected agricultural census data, in spite of nutritionists’ advocacy for improved access to locally produced fruits, vegetables, and grains, since 1986, that BC agriculture is moving firmly in the opposite direction with greater production of animal fats, and hay and grain for animal feed and much reduced production of traditional fruits, vegetables, and grains designed mainly for human consumption. While nutritionists advise us to increase consumption especially of whole grains, vegetables and fruit, local production capacity of these foods in BC has decreased markedly between 1986 and 2006. In conclusion, there is a structural disconnect between the kinds of foods produced in BC and the nutritional needs of the population.
A Method for Estimating the Extent of Regional Food Self-Sufficiency and Dietary Ill Health in the Province of British Columbia, Canada
Aleck Ostry,Kathryn Morrision
Sustainability , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/su5114949
Abstract: We outline in this paper a suite of methods, and illustrate their use, to empirically determine food self-sufficiency at a relatively small (Local Health Areas) level of geography. Further we have, after identifying regions of lowest food self-sufficiency in British Columbia (BC) superimposed these on regions whose populations have relatively poor dietary ill health. Approximately one third of Local Health Areas in BC have both poor local food self-sufficiency and populations suffering from poor dietary health. These are located mainly (but not entirely) in poor under-developed rural regions of the province regions which require attention from health and food planners to improve local food security. Finally, we have demonstrated a methodological way forward to empirically determine regions in the province of BC most at risk for food insecurity. This information should be of interest to health and food planners within the province. These methods may also be useful for researchers and planners in other jurisdictions.
A case control study of differences in non-work injury and accidents among sawmill workers in rural compared to urban British Columbia, Canada
Ostry Aleck,Maggi Stefania,Hershler Ruth,Chen Lisa
BMC Public Health , 2009,
Abstract: Background Using a cohort of British Columbian male sawmill workers, we conducted a nested case-control study of the impact of rural compared to urban residence as well as rural/urban migration patterns in relation to hospitalization for non-work injury. We postulate that for many types of non-work injuries, rates will be higher in rural communities than in urban ones and that rates will also be higher for workers who migrate from urban to rural communities. Methods Using conditional logistic regression, univariate models were first run with each of five non-work injury outcomes. These outcomes were hospitalizations due to assault, accidental poisoning, medical mis-adventure, motor vehicle trauma, and other non-work injuries. In multivariate models marital status, ethnicity, duration of employment, and occupation were forced into the model and associations with urban, compared to rural, residence and various urban/migration patterns were tested. Results Urban or rural residence and migration status from urban to other communities, and across rural communities, were not associated with hospitalization for medical misadventure, assault, or accidental poisoning. The likelihood of a rural resident being hospitalized for motor vehicle trauma is higher than for an urban resident. The likelihood that a rural resident is hospitalized for "other" non-work injury is higher than for an urban resident. Conclusion In a relatively homogenous group of workers, and using a rigorous study design, we have demonstrated that the odds of other non-work injury are much higher for workers resident in and migrating to rural regions of Canada than they are for workers resident in or migrating to urban places.
Rural-urban migration patterns and mental health diagnoses of adolescents and young adults in British Columbia, Canada: a case-control study
Maggi Stefania,Ostry Aleck,Callaghan Kristy,Hershler Ruth
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1753-2000-4-13
Abstract: Background The identification of mental health problems early in life can increase the well-being of children and youth. Several studies have reported that youth who experience mental health disorders are also at a greater risk of developing psychopathological conditions later in life, suggesting that the ability of researchers and clinicians to identify mental health problems early in life may help prevent adult psychopathology. Using large-scale administrative data, this study examined whether permanent settlement and within-province migration patterns may be linked to mental health diagnoses among adolescents (15 to 19 years old), young adults (20 to 30 years old), and adults (30 years old and older) who grew up in rural or urban communities or migrated between types of community (N = 8,502). Methods We conducted a nested case-control study of the impact of rural compared to urban residence and rural-urban provincial migration patterns on diagnosis of mental health. Conditional logistic regression models were run with the following International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) mental health diagnoses as the outcomes: neurotic disorders, personality disorder, acute reaction to stress, adjustment reaction, depression, alcohol dependence, and nondependent drug abuse. Analyses were conducted controlling for paternal mental health and sociodemographic characteristics. Results Mental health diagnoses were selectively associated with stability and migration patterns. Specifically, adolescents and young adults who were born in and grew up in the same rural community were at lower risk of being diagnosed with acute reaction to stress (OR = 0.740) and depression (OR = 0.881) compared to their matched controls who were not born in and did not grow up in the same rural community. Furthermore, adolescents and young adults migrating between rural communities were at lower risk of being diagnosed with adjustment reaction (OR = 0.571) than those not migrating between rural communities. No differences were found for diagnoses of neurotic disorders, personality disorder, alcohol dependence, and nondependent drug abuse. Conclusions This study provides some compelling evidence of the protective role of rural environments in the development of specific mental health conditions (i.e., depression, adjustment reaction, and acute reaction to stress) among the children of sawmill workers in Western Canada.
A manually-checkable proof for the NP-hardness of 11-color pattern self-assembly tile set synthesis
Aleck Johnsen,Ming-Yang Kao,Shinnosuke Seki
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Patterned self-assembly tile set synthesis (PATS) aims at finding a minimum tile set to uniquely self-assemble a given rectangular (color) pattern. For k >= 1, k-PATS is a variant of PATS that restricts input patterns to those with at most $k$ colors. A computer-assisted proof has been recently proposed for 2-PATS by Kari et al. [arXiv:1404.0967 (2014)]. In contrast, the best known manually-checkable proof is for the NP-hardness of 29-PATS by Johnsen, Kao, and Seki [ISAAC 2013, LNCS 8283, pp.~699-710]. We propose a manually-checkable proof for the NP-hardness of 11-PATS.
Computing Minimum Tile Sets to Self-Assemble Colors Patterns
Aleck C. Johnsen,Ming-Yang Kao,Shinnosuke Seki
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Patterned self-assembly tile set synthesis (PATS) aims at finding a minimum tile set to uniquely self-assemble a given rectangular color pattern. For $k \ge 1$, $k$-PATS is a variant of PATS that restricts input patterns to those with at most $k$ colors. We prove the {\bf NP}-hardness of 29-PATS, where the best known is that of 60-PATS.
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