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On the Expansion and Fate of the Universe  [PDF]
Aldo Bonasera
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.311212
Abstract: The evolution of the universe from an initial dramatic event, the Big-Bang, is firmly established. Hubble’s law [1] (HL) connects the velocity of galactic objects and their relative distance: v(r) = Hr, where H is the Hubble constant. In this work we suggest that HL is not valid at large distances because of total energy conservation. We propose an expansion of the velocity in terms of their relative distance and produce a better fit to the available experimental data. Using a simple “dust” universe model, we can easily calculate under which conditions an (unstable) equilibrium state can be reached and we estimate the values of the matter present in the universe as well as the “dark energy”. Within the same formalism we can derive the “deceleration parameter”. We do not need to invoke any “dark energy”, its role being played by the kinetic correction. The resulting picture is that the universe might reach an unstable equilibrium state whose fate will be decided by fluctuations: either collapse or expand forever.
Online Educational Resources Regarding Cardiovascular Prevention  [PDF]
Aldo T. Marrocco
E-Health Telecommunication Systems and Networks (ETSN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/etsn.2015.41002
Abstract: This paper presents several informative and educational tools aimed to explain some mechanisms of Miocardial Infarction and Stroke, their risk factors and their prevention. Such educational and informative documents are in English and consist of texts, images, videos, animations and games. They are downloadable for free and can be used with the method considered by the teacher as most appropriate. Among the aims of the study is to provide information on the effects which some of our daily actions may have on the circulatory system. The pathological processes affecting blood vessels may start to develop during childhood or adolescence as a consequence of physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, smoking and alcohol abuse. Notoriously, unhealthy behaviours learned in early age are very likely to be continued in the adulthood. By the time they can lead to important car-diovascular risk factors, such as high blood pressure, overweight or obesity, raised blood sugars and lipids. Some of the documents presented in this manuscript suggest that complying with cardivascular prevention measures may also, at the same time, reduce the risk of other diseases.
Online Informative and Educational Resources on the Benefits That a Lifestyle Aimed at the Primary Prevention of Cancer May Also Provide for General Health  [PDF]
Aldo T. Marrocco
E-Health Telecommunication Systems and Networks (ETSN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/etsn.2015.42003
Abstract: To find stimuli for getting young students interested in the primary prevention of cancer and a healthy lifestyle, internet resources have been searched that may motivate and facilitate this study. Teachers interested in teaching this subject can download for free and use them with the method felt as most appropriate; they consist of text, graphs, tables, images, quizzes and an interactive atlas. According to a personal experience, the use of these educational resources helps teachers in teaching and students in learning about cancer prevention. According to the World Health Organisation, cancer is a leading and growing cause of mortality with 10 and 14 million new cases worldwide respectively in 2000 and 2012. Several risk factors have been identified; if they are avoided, more than 30% of the cancers can be prevented. The five most important modifiable risk factors, among many others, are: smoking, alcohol, overweight, physical inactivity, low consumption of vegetables and fruit. Cancer may also have genetic causes or be related to certain infections that are more common in some areas than in others. According to several documents also quoted in this article, numerous behaviours that reduce cancer risk may, at the same time, help to prevent other important diseases. Some of the documents quoted here show the very great difference in cancer incidence and mortality rates often existing between different geographic areas. For example, prostate cancer incidence per 100,000 persons per year is 104.4 in New Zealand, and 3.9 in Chennai, India. Many studies found an increase over time in the incidence of certain cancer types in people that move from countries where their risk is low to countries where their risk is high, thus suggesting the important role of environmental changes and lifestyle. As an example of this, the risk of breast cancer among Hispanic women migrating to US increases with the duration of residence in the immigration country, and becomes up to 4 - 6 times higher after 3 or more generations. This provides an example of what can happen in transitioning countries as a consequence of some lifestyle changes, unless measures are taken.
A Set of GRASS GIS-Based Shell Scripts for the Calculation and Graphical Display of the Main Morphometric Parameters of a River Channel  [PDF]
Aldo Clerici, Susanna Perego
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2016.72011
Abstract: For the analysis of river evolution, the use of quantitative parameters can be quite useful in order to assess changes in the channel planform. Among the several parameters proposed by different authors in a number of papers, channel length and width, braiding and sinuosity indexes, and channel lateral shifting are proved to be the most effective ones for a quantitative analysis of river changes. However, the calculation of these parameters is time-consuming, tedious and error-prone, even where made in a GIS environment. This work describes four shell scripts that perform fast and automatic calculation of the morphometric parameters and draw curves showing thevariation of the calculated parameters along the entire channel development. The scripts arebased on commands of the GRASS GIS free and open source software and, as input, they require a simple vector map containing the essential features of a river channel,i.e.bankfull channel limits and longitudinal and lateral bars.
Energy Targeting for a Brewing Process Using Pinch Analysis  [PDF]
Noah Tibasiima, Aldo Okullo
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2017.91002
Abstract: The rising cost of energy and environmental concerns have led the brewing industry to search for techniques of reducing energy consumption in brewery operations. In this paper, pinch analysis was applied to a typical Ugandan based brewery process to target for the energy requirements of the process. Hint software was used for the analysis. At the chosen ΔTmin of 10, the minimum cooling and heating utility requirements of the brewery studied were determined as being 4862.21 kW and 8294.21 kW respectively, with a pinch temperature at 68. It was observed that using the technique, 1806.59 kW of energy could be recovered through process to process heat exchange which presented an energy saving potential of 21.5%. It is recommended that results from this study could be used in the design or retrofit of a heat exchanger network of a brewery for improved energy efficiency. Considerations can also be made for other values of ΔTmin.
Spectral and Finite Difference Solutions of the Hyperbolic Heat Transport Equation for Thermoelectric Thin Films  [PDF]
Aldo Figueroa, Federico Vázquez
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.410A3004

This paper presents the numerical comparison in the solution of the hyperbolic transport Equation that models the heat flux in thermoelectric materials at nanometric length scales when the wave propagation of heat dominates the diffusive transport described by Fourier’s law. The widely used standard finite difference method fails in well-reproducing some of the physics presented in such systems at that length scale level. As an alternative, the spectral methods assure a well representation of wave behavior of heat given their spectral convergence.

The Study on the Flow Generated by an Array of Four Flettner Rotors: Theory and Experiment  [PDF]
Fernando Garzón, Aldo Figueroa
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/am.2017.812132
We present an immersed array of four rotors whose promoted flow can be mathematically modeled with a creeping flow solution from the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. We show that this solution is indeed representative of the two-dimensional experiment and validate such class of solution with experimental data obtained through the Particle Image Velocimetry technique and time-lapsed particles visualizations.
Progress and challenges in the vaccine-based treatment of head and neck cancers
Aldo Venuti
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1756-9966-28-69
Abstract: The concept that a vaccine could be useful in the treatment of cancer diseases is a long-held hope coming from the observation that patients with cancer who developed bacterial infections experienced remission of their malignancies. In 1896, New York surgeon William Coley locally injected streptococcal broth cultures to induce erysipelas in a patient with an inoperable neck sarcoma, obtaining a tumour regression. Although the therapy was toxic, the patient's tumour ultimately regressed, and he lived disease-free for 8 years before succumbing to his cancer [1]. During the century since Coley's first experiments, immensely more is understood about tumour immunology: the validation of the theory of cancer immunosurveillance, the definition of a large number of tumour antigens as targets for immune recognition, the prognostic significance of immunological parameters, such as the different sub-classes of T cell infiltrating human tumours, and therapeutic benefits of immune-related therapies from BCG to anti-CTLA-4 are the major achievements that pose the theoretical basis to test the validity of cancer vaccines. In particular some characteristics of HNSCC render these tumours susceptibly to explore efficacious immunotherapy: the presence of well characterized Tumour Associated Antigens (TAA) and the possibility to perform clinical trials as adjuvant cancer therapy to eradicate local regional microscopic and micrometastatic disease with minimal toxicity to surrounding normal cells.HNSCC cells, as in general tumour cells, express both unique and shared antigens capable of being recognized by T cells. Identification of CTL epitopes presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules on tumour cells is vital for the design of active immunotherapy. Many antigens have been identified so far by utilising well characterized approaches already utilised for other tumours. These approaches are:? A peptide-elution approach involving the biochemical elution of pepti
O fundamento ético da política em Gramsci
Tortorella, Aldo;
Lua Nova: Revista de Cultura e Política , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-64451998000100006
Abstract: history shows a constant division between the governing and the governed. how to put the question of going beyond this without abandoning the solid soil of history, and how to maintain the reference to history without losing sight of universal ethical imperatives, including the idea of a political direction oriented towards the end of this division? the author examines the way gramsci frames and meets these questions.
Melhoramento do cafeeiro: VIII - Novas determina??es s?bre poliembrionia, sementes sem embri?o e lojas dos frutos sem sementes em Coffea
Alves, Aldo;
Bragantia , 1955, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051955000100027
Abstract: it is known that seeds with more than one embryo (polyembryonic) as well as germless seeds are found to occur in the cultivated species of coffea. fruits with more than one seed per locule (false polyembryony) or fruit locules without normal seeds are also found as well as fruits with only one developed locule (peaberry seeds), or trilocular fruits presenting three seeds. this paper presents the observations made on the frequencies of these abnormalities in several varieties of c. arabica, in c. canephora, c. dewevrei, c. congensis and c. liberica and also in some interspecific hybrids. c. arabica var. typica was considered as a standard in comparisons made among arabica varieties. as a rule, polyembryonic seeds present two embryos. however, seeds with three normal embryos were also found with very low frequency. it vas observed that 1.19 per cent of polyembryonic seeds occurred in var. typica, while the incidence of this type of seed was 3.47 per cent for var. angustifolia and 3.16 per cent for var. erecta. for other species than arabica very reduced proportions of polyembryonic seeds were found in c. canephora (robusta coffee), c. congensis (congensis bangelan) and in a tetraploid hybrid c. arabica x c. dewevrei (plant number c 387). germless seeds were more frequently found in yellow caturra, cera, yellow goiaba and nana, among arabica varieties, and in kouillou (c. canephora) congensis bangelan (c. congensis), c. dewevrei and in the interspecific hybrid c. liberica x c. dewevrei. the higher frequency of germless seeds in the yellow caturra was limited to a single plant, c. 476-15 and to a few plants in its progeny. this is probably an inherited character. it was observed that typica variety of c. arabica presents 0.21 per cent of fruit locules with false polyembryony. the corresponding percentages for mundo novo, yellow goiaba and mokka were 5.34, 4.97, and 4.91 per cent, respectively. in c. congensis bangelan and c. dewevrei this abnormality is also found with
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