Abstract:
The evolution of the universe from an initial dramatic event, the Big-Bang, is firmly established. Hubble’s law [1] (HL) connects the velocity of galactic objects and their relative distance: v(r) = Hr, where H is the Hubble constant. In this work we suggest that HL is not valid at large distances because of total energy conservation. We propose an expansion of the velocity in terms of their relative distance and produce a better fit to the available experimental data. Using a simple “dust” universe model, we can easily calculate under which conditions an (unstable) equilibrium state can be reached and we estimate the values of the matter present in the universe as well as the “dark energy”. Within the same formalism we can derive the “deceleration parameter”. We do not need to invoke any “dark energy”, its role being played by the kinetic correction. The resulting picture is that the universe might reach an unstable equilibrium state whose fate will be decided by fluctuations: either collapse or expand forever.

Abstract:
The asymptotic distance between trajectories $d_{\infty}$, is studied in detail to characterize the occurrence of chaos. We show that this quantity is quite distinct and complementary to the Lyapunov exponents, and it allows for a quantitave estimate for the folding mechanism which keeps the motion bounded in phase space. We study the behaviour of $d_{\infty}$ in simple unidimensional maps. Near a critical point $d_{\infty}$ has a power law dependence on the control parameter. Furthermore, at variance with the Lyapunov exponents, it shows jumps when there are sudden changes on the available phase-space.

Abstract:
How important would be a precise assessment of the electron screening effect, on determining the bare astrophysical $S$-factor ($S_b(E)$) from experimental data? We compare the $S_b(E)$ obtained using different screening potentials, (1) in the adiabatic limit, (2) without screening corrections, and (3) larger than the adiabatic screening potential in the PP-chain reactions. We employ two kinds of fitting procedures: the first is by the conventional polynomial expression and the second includes explicitly the contribution of the nuclear interaction and based on a statistical model. Comparing bare $S$-factors that are obtained by using different screening potentials, all $S_b(E)$ are found to be in accord within the standard errors for most of reactions investigated, as long as the same fitting procedure is employed. $S_b(E)$ is, practically, insensitive to the magnitude of the screening potential.

Abstract:
We perform molecular dynamics simulations to assess the screening effects by bound target electrons in low energy nuclear reactions in laboratories. Quantum effects corresponding to the Pauli and Heisenberg principle are enforced by constraints. We show that the enhancement of the average cross section and of its variance is due to the perturbations induced by the electrons.This gives a correlation between the maximum amplitudes of the inter-nuclear oscillational motion and the enhancement factor. It suggests that the chaotic behavior of the electronic motion affects the magnitude of the enhancement factor.

Abstract:
We discuss the alpha-muon sticking coefficient in the muon-catalysed d-t fusion in the framework of the Constrained Molecular Dynamics model. Especially the influence of muonic chaotic dynamics on the sticking coefficient is brought into focus. The chaotic motion of the muon affects not only the fusion cross section but also the muon-alpha sticking coefficient. Chaotic systems lead to lar ger enhancements with respect to regular systems because of the reduction of the tunneling region. Moreover they give smaller sticking probabilities than those of regular events. By utilizing a characteristic of the chaotic dynamics one can avoid losing the muon in the muCF cycle. W e propose that the application of the so-called microwave ionization of a Rydberg atom to the present case could lead to the enhancement of the reactivation process by using X-rays.

Abstract:
We discuss scaling laws of fusion yields generated by laser-plasma interactions. The yields are found to scale as a function of the laser power. The origin of the scaling law in the laser driven fusion yield is derived in terms of hydrodynamic scaling. We point out that the scaling properties can be attributed to the laser power dependence of three terms: the reaction rate, the density of the plasma and the projected range of the plasma particle in the target medium. The resulting scaling relations have a predictive power that enables estimating the fusion yield for a nuclear reaction which has not been investigated by means of the laser accelerated ion beams.

Abstract:
We perform semi-classical molecular dynamics simulations of screening by bound electrons in low energy nuclear reactions. In our simulations quantum effects corresponding to the Pauli and Heisenberg principle are enforced by constraints. In addition to the well known adiabatic and sudden limits, we propose a new "dissipative limit" which is expected to be important not only at high energies but in the extremely low energy region. The dissipative limit is associated with the chaotic behavior of the electronic motion. It affects also the magnitude of the enhancement factor. We discuss also numerical experiments using polarized targets. The derived enhancement factors in our simulation are in agreement with those extracted within the $R$-matrix approach.

Abstract:
We discuss the most effective energy range for charged particle induced reactions in a plasma environment at a given plasma temperature. The correspondence between the plasma temperature and the most effective energy should be modified from the one given by the Gamow peak energy, in the presence of a significant incident-energy dependence in the astrophysical S-factor as in the case of resonant reactions. The suggested modification of the effective energy range is important not only in thermonuclear reactions at high temperature in the stellar environment, e.g., in advanced burning stages of massive stars and in explosive stellar environment, as it has been already claimed, but also in the application of the nuclear reactions driven by ultra-intense laser pulse irradiations.

Abstract:
Constrained molecular dynamics(CoMD) model, previously introduced for nuclear dynamics, has been extended to the atomic structure and collision calculations. Quantum effects corresponding to the Pauli and Heisenberg principle are enforced by constraints, in a parameter-free way. Our calculations for small atomic system, H, He, Li, Be, F reproduce the ground-state binding energies within 3%, compared with the results of quantum mechanical Hartree-Fock calculations.

Abstract:
We study ion acceleration mechanisms in laser-plasma interactions using neutron spectroscopy. We consider different types of ion-collision mechanisms in the plasma, which cause the angular anisotropy of the observed neutron spectra. These include the collisions between an ion in the plasma and an ion in the target, and the collisions between two ions in the hot plasma. By analyzing the proton spectra, we suggest that the laser-generated plasma consists of at least two components, one of which collectively accelerated and can also produce anisotropy in the angular distribution of fusion neutrons.