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It is a fact that
performing endoscopy using conventional methods requires substantial time and
development of alternative diagnostic modalities. Replacement of rigid
endoscopes with flexible and digital devices in time, faster performance of the
procedures and reduced time for them to turn back to work brought about the
expectancy. It was possible that easier and more reliable methods could exist.
Idea of capsule endoscopy was born following examination of the
gastrointestinal tract with an endoscope with shape of a capsule. Although idea
of capsule endoscopy was suggested long years ago, it fell behind the advances
in conventional step of the endoscopy, especially developmental speed of the
flexible devices. Furthermore, three-dimensional (3D) organ views can be
processed digitally by means of sophisticated software in the fields of
computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Thus, virtual
cystoscopy of high resolution and specificity is possible by means of both
methods. Wireless capsule endoscopy is still in the experimental stage.
“Steerable independent intracorporeal endoscope” with feature of consecutive
instillation in addition to its diagnostic utility is not a dream.
Under consideration is a nonclassical stationary problem on heat
conduction in a body with the pre-set surface temperature and heat flow. The
body contains inclusions at unknown locations and with unknown boundaries. The
body and inclusions have different constant thermal conductivities. The author
explores the possibility of locating inclusions. The article presents an
integral criterion based on which a few statements on identification of
inclusions in a body are proved.
The release of the
Mid Staffordshire hospital report otherwise called the Francis report once
again ignited the debate about the issue of abuse of especially vulnerable
patients, while navigating the care pathway as inpatients in hospitals; within
the National health service (NHS), England. Once more the official reaction
from the NHS directorate is more “standards” to monitor failed standards in
patient care. Of interest in the official responses so far, are the unheard
voices addressing the issue of healthcare and organizational ethics concerns
that need revisiting. This article seeks to revisit practice, systems and care
issues leading to incidents of the type of the Staffordshire abuses, and the
important but yet unheralded place of organizational and care ethics in helping
to curb such abuses from re-occurring.