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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4201 matches for " Albert Hofman "
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Long term effects of preventive activities of youth health care in The Netherlands: results of a four-part study
Pieter A. Wiegersma,Albert Hofman,Gerhard A. Zielhuis
Italian Journal of Public Health , 2004, DOI: 10.2427/6019
Abstract: Background. In this article the results are presented of a four part study on the effect of screening for scoliosis and (repeated) well-care visits and freely accessible consultation hours at secondary schools, on the incidence and prevalence of (para)suicide, mental health, adolescent health compromising behaviour and lastly obesity. Methods. An ecologic case-referent study design was used with data from the Netherlands Bureau of Statistics, the Ministry of Defence, the 1992 High-School Student Study, all of the youth health care departments in The Netherlands and relevant censuses. Results. Attention to mental and physical health and health compromising behaviour, either during screening, open consultation hours or during well-care visits seems to be ineffective and in some instances even detrimental to youth health. Of the 18 different outcome measurements, 5 were significantly negative and none were significantly positive. Conclusions. This four part study does not support the hypothesis that on a population level, the preventive activities of youth health care departments such as screening for scoliosis, (more) frequent well-care visits or offering open consultation hours at secondary schools, have a beneficial effect on prevention of (para)suicide, poor mental health, health compromising behaviour or obesity.
Validation of a model to investigate the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on the burden of CVD: the rotterdam ischemic heart disease and stroke computer simulation (RISC) model
van Kempen Bob JH,Ferket Bart S,Hofman Albert,Steyerberg Ewout W
BMC Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-10-158
Abstract: Background We developed a Monte Carlo Markov model designed to investigate the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on the burden of CVD. Internal, predictive, and external validity of the model have not yet been established. Methods The Rotterdam Ischemic Heart Disease and Stroke Computer Simulation (RISC) model was developed using data covering 5 years of follow-up from the Rotterdam Study. To prove 1) internal and 2) predictive validity, the incidences of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, CVD death, and non-CVD death simulated by the model over a 13-year period were compared with those recorded for 3,478 participants in the Rotterdam Study with at least 13 years of follow-up. 3) External validity was verified using 10 years of follow-up data from the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study of 25,492 participants, for whom CVD and non-CVD mortality was compared. Results At year 5, the observed incidences (with simulated incidences in brackets) of CHD, stroke, and CVD and non-CVD mortality for the 3,478 Rotterdam Study participants were 5.30% (4.68%), 3.60% (3.23%), 4.70% (4.80%), and 7.50% (7.96%), respectively. At year 13, these percentages were 10.60% (10.91%), 9.90% (9.13%), 14.20% (15.12%), and 24.30% (23.42%). After recalibrating the model for the EPIC-Norfolk population, the 10-year observed (simulated) incidences of CVD and non-CVD mortality were 3.70% (4.95%) and 6.50% (6.29%). All observed incidences fell well within the 95% credibility intervals of the simulated incidences. Conclusions We have confirmed the internal, predictive, and external validity of the RISC model. These findings provide a basis for analyzing the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease risk factors on the burden of CVD with the RISC model.
Modifiable Etiological Factors and the Burden of Stroke from the Rotterdam Study: A Population-Based Cohort Study
Michiel J. Bos ,Peter J. Koudstaal,Albert Hofman,M. Arfan Ikram
PLOS Medicine , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001634
Abstract: Background Stroke prevention requires effective treatment of its causes. Many etiological factors for stroke have been identified, but the potential gain of effective intervention on these factors in terms of numbers of actually prevented strokes remains unclear because of the lack of data from cohort studies. We assessed the impact of currently known potentially modifiable etiological factors on the occurrence of stroke. Methods and Findings This population-based cohort study was based on 6,844 participants of the Rotterdam Study who were aged ≥55 y and free from stroke at baseline (1990–1993). We computed population attributable risks (PARs) for individual risk factors and for risk factors in combination to estimate the proportion of strokes that could theoretically be prevented by the elimination of etiological factors from the population. The mean age at baseline was 69.4 y (standard deviation 6.3 y). During follow-up (mean follow-up 12.9 y, standard deviation 6.3 y), 1,020 strokes occurred. The age- and sex-adjusted combined PAR of prehypertension/hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, coronary disease, and overweight/obesity was 0.51 (95% CI 0.41–0.62) for any stroke; hypertension and smoking were the most important etiological factors. C-reactive protein, fruit and vegetable consumption, and carotid intima-media thickness in combination raised the total PAR by 0.06. The PAR was 0.55 (95% CI 0.41–0.68) for ischemic stroke and 0.70 (95% CI 0.45–0.87) for hemorrhagic stroke. The main limitations of our study are that our study population comprises almost exclusively Caucasians who live in a middle and high income area, and that risk factor awareness is higher in a study cohort than in the general population. Conclusions About half of all strokes are attributable to established causal and modifiable factors. This finding encourages not only intervention on established etiological factors, but also further study of less well established factors. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load and Their Association with C-Reactive Protein and Incident Type 2 Diabetes
Geertruida J. van Woudenbergh,Anneleen Kuijsten,Eric J. G. Sijbrands,Albert Hofman,Jacqueline C. M. Witteman,Edith J. M. Feskens
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/623076
Abstract: Objective. To investigate whether the Glycemic Index (GI) or Glycemic Load (GL) of a diet is associated with C-reactive Protein (CRP) and risk of type 2 diabetes in a prospective study. Materials and Methods. Our analysis included 4,366 participants who did not have diabetes at baseline. During follow-up 456 diabetes cases were confirmed. Dietary GI and GL were derived from a food-frequency questionnaire and its association with CRP was examined cross-sectionally using linear regression models. The association of GI and GL with diabetes incidence was examined using Cox proportional hazard models. Results. GL, but not GI, was associated with lnCRP at baseline (GL=0.11 per 50 units; =.01). When comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of GI with respect to diabetes incidence, a Relative Risk (RR) of 0.95 [95%CI 0.75, 1.21] was found after adjustment for lifestyle and nutritional factors. For GL the RR for diabetes incidence was 1.00 [95%CI 0.74, 1.36]. Additional adjustment for CRP did not change RRs. Conclusion. Since GI was not associated with CRP and risk of type 2 diabetes, it is unlikely that a high GI diet induces the previously shown positive association between CRP and risk of type 2 diabetes by increasing CRP concentrations.
Work-Related Maternal Risk Factors and the Risk of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension and Preeclampsia during Pregnancy. The Generation R Study
Jaap Jan Nugteren, Claudia A. Snijder, Albert Hofman, Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, Eric A. P. Steegers, Alex Burdorf
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039263
Abstract: Objective To study the associations between physically demanding work and occupational exposure to chemicals and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy within a large birth cohort study, the Generation R Study. Methods Associations between occupational characteristics and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy were studied in 4465 pregnant woman participating in a population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards in the Netherlands (2002–2006). Mothers who filled out a questionnaire during mid-pregnancy (response 77% of enrolment), were included if they conducted paid employment, had a spontaneously conceived singleton live born pregnancy, and did not suffer from pre-existing hypertension (n = 4465). Questions on physical demanding work were obtained from the Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and concerned questions on manually handling loads of 25 kg or more, long periods of standing or walking, night shifts, and working hours. To assess occupational exposure to chemicals, job titles and task descriptions were linked to a job-exposure-matrix (JEM), an expert judgment on exposure to chemicals at the workplace. Information on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy was obtained from medical records. Results We observed no consistent associations between any of the work related risk factors, such as long periods of standing or walking, heavy lifting, night shifts, and working hours, nor exposure to chemicals with hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. Conclusion This prospective birth cohort study suggests that there is no association of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy with physically demanding work or exposure to chemicals. However, the low prevalence of PIH and PE, combined with the low prevalence of occupational risk factors limit the power for inference and larger studies are needed to corroborate or refute these findings.
Runs of Homozygosity Do Not Influence Survival to Old Age
Maris Kuningas,Ruth McQuillan,James F. Wilson,Albert Hofman,Cornelia M. van Duijn,André G. Uitterlinden,Henning Tiemeier
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022580
Abstract: Runs of homozygosity (ROH) are extended tracts of adjacent homozygous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are more common in unrelated individuals than previously thought. It has been proposed that estimating ROH on a genome-wide level, by making use of the genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, will enable to indentify recessive variants underlying complex traits. Here, we examined ROH larger than 1.5 Mb individually and in combination for association with survival in 5974 participants of the Rotterdam Study. In addition, we assessed the role of overall homozygosity, expressed as a percentage of the autosomal genome that is in ROH longer than 1.5 Mb, on survival during a mean follow-up period of 12 years. None of these measures of homozygosity was associated with survival to old age.
A Common Genetic Variant at 15q25 Modifies the Associations of Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy with Fetal Growth: The Generation R Study
Elisabeth T. M. Leermakers, H. Rob Taal, Rachel Bakker, Eric A. P. Steegers, Albert Hofman, Vincent W. V. Jaddoe
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034584
Abstract: Objective Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with fetal growth retardation. We examined whether a common genetic variant at chromosome 15q25 (rs1051730), which is known to be involved in nicotine metabolism, modifies the associations of maternal smoking with fetal growth characteristics. Methods This study was performed in 3,563 European mothers participating in a population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards. Smoking was assessed by postal questionnaires and fetal growth characteristics were measured by ultrasound examinations in each trimester of pregnancy. Results Among mothers who did not smoke during pregnancy (82.9%), maternal rs1051730 was not consistently associated with any fetal growth characteristic. Among mothers who continued smoking during pregnancy (17.1%), maternal rs1051730 was not associated with head circumference. The T-allele of maternal rs1051730 was associated with a smaller second and third trimester fetal femur length [differences ?0.23 mm (95%CI ?0.45 to ?0.00) and ?0.41 mm (95%CI ?0.69 to ?0.13), respectively] and a smaller birth length [difference ?2.61 mm (95%CI ?5.32 to 0.11)]. The maternal T-allele of rs1051730 was associated with a lower third trimester estimated fetal weight [difference ?33 grams (95%CI ?55 to ?10)], and tended to be associated with birth weight [difference ?38 grams (95%CI ?89 to 13)]. This association persisted after adjustment for smoking quantity. Conclusions Our results suggest that maternal rs1051730 genotype modifies the associations of maternal smoking during pregnancy with impaired fetal growth in length and weight. These results should be considered as hypothesis generating and indicate the need for large-scale genome wide association studies focusing on gene – fetal smoke exposure interactions.
Age, gender and disability predict future disability in older people: the Rotterdam Study
ümit Ta?, Ewout W Steyerberg, Sita MA Bierma-Zeinstra, Albert Hofman, Bart W Koes, Arianne P Verhagen
BMC Geriatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2318-11-22
Abstract: Data were obtained from the Rotterdam Study, including subjects of 55 years and over. Subjects who had complete data for sociodemographic factors, life style variables, health conditions, disability status at baseline and complete data for disability at follow-up were included in the analysis. Disability was expressed as a Disability Index (DI) measured with the Health Assessment Questionnaire.We used a multivariable polytomous logistic regression to derive a basic prediction model and an extended prediction model. Finally we developed readily applicable score charts for the calculation of outcome probabilities.Of the 5027 subjects included, 49% had no disability, 18% had mild disability, 16% had severe disability and 18% had deceased at follow-up after six years. The strongest predictors were age and prior disability. The contribution of other predictors was relatively small. The discriminative ability of the basic model was high; the extended model did not enhance predictive ability.As prior disability status predicts future disability status, interventive strategies should be aimed at preventing disability in the first place.Disability, especially in older people, is a common problem and in most cases a chronic condition. Prevalence rates range from 30% for people aged 75 or older to 40% for those aged 85 and older [1].Older people with disability may become dependent on assistive devices or other people. This may have a negative impact on the quality of their lives. At the end, the level of disability will determine whether older people will be able to live in their own house, with or without modifications, or whether they have to live in a home for older people or nursing home. For the future the expected increase in disability produces economical and logistical challenges for society. There will be a an increasing demand of professional caregivers as most children of older people will not be in the position, either by choice or (economical) necessity, to take
Lack of association of two common polymorphisms on 9p21 with risk of coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction; results from a prospective cohort study
Abbas Dehghan, Mandy van Hoek, Eric JG Sijbrands, Ben A Oostra, Albert Hofman, Cornelia M van Duijn, Jacqueline CM Witteman
BMC Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-6-30
Abstract: The Rotterdam Study is a population-based, prospective cohort study among 7983 participants aged 55 years and older. Associations of the polymorphisms with CHD and MI were assessed by use of Cox proportional hazards analyses.In an additive model, the age and sex adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence interval) for CHD and MI were 1.03 (0.90, 1.18) and 0.94 (0.82, 1.08) per copy of the G allele of rs10757274. The corresponding HRs were 1.03 (0.90, 1.18) and 0.93 (0.81, 1.06) for the G allele of rs10757278. The association of the SNPs with CHD and MI was not significant in any of the subgroups of CHD risk factors.we were not able to show an association of the studied SNPs with risks of CHD and MI. This may be due to differences in genes involved in the occurrence of CHD in young and older people.It has been considered for long that genes play a substantial role in susceptibility to coronary heart disease (CHD) [1]. Up to now, a limited number of these genes have been identified through the candidate gene approach and genome wide linkage studies. Recently a number of genome wide association (GWA) studies have identified several genetic variants on chromosome 9p21 associated with the risk of CHD. McPherson et al. found a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP), rs10757274, on chromosome 9p21 associated with the risk of CHD [2]. Helgadottir et al. found a close-by SNP, rs10757278, in the same 9p21 region associated with the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) [3]. These findings were followed by another GWA study by Samani et al [4], which found rs1333049 to be associated with the risk of coronary artery disease [4]. All three SNPs are located within the same Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) block on chromosome 9 approximately 22 million base pairs from the 9p telomere, adjacent to two tumor suppressor genes, CDKN2A and CDKN2B. These genes are involved in regulation of cell proliferation. Abnormal proliferation is one of the characteristics of atherosclerosis, one of the pa
Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load and Their Association with C-Reactive Protein and Incident Type 2 Diabetes
Geertruida J. van Woudenbergh,Anneleen Kuijsten,Eric J. G. Sijbrands,Albert Hofman,Jacqueline C. M. Witteman,Edith J. M. Feskens
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/623076
Abstract: Objective. To investigate whether the Glycemic Index (GI) or Glycemic Load (GL) of a diet is associated with C-reactive Protein (CRP) and risk of type 2 diabetes in a prospective study. Materials and Methods. Our analysis included 4,366 participants who did not have diabetes at baseline. During follow-up 456 diabetes cases were confirmed. Dietary GI and GL were derived from a food-frequency questionnaire and its association with CRP was examined cross-sectionally using linear regression models. The association of GI and GL with diabetes incidence was examined using Cox proportional hazard models. Results. GL, but not GI, was associated with lnCRP at baseline ( per 50?units; ). When comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of GI with respect to diabetes incidence, a Relative Risk (RR) of 0.95 [95%CI 0.75, 1.21] was found after adjustment for lifestyle and nutritional factors. For GL the RR for diabetes incidence was 1.00 [95%CI 0.74, 1.36]. Additional adjustment for CRP did not change RRs. Conclusion. Since GI was not associated with CRP and risk of type 2 diabetes, it is unlikely that a high GI diet induces the previously shown positive association between CRP and risk of type 2 diabetes by increasing CRP concentrations. 1. Introduction A growing body of evidence suggests a role of low-grade chronic inflammation in the development of type 2 diabetes. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a physiological marker of inflammation and reflects chronic inflammation when the concentration of this marker is slightly elevated over a longer period of time [1]. A meta-analysis of 16 prospective cohort studies showed that CRP was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes [2]. This risk may be attributed to central adiposity [2]. It is also suggested that elements of the diet, like Glycemic Index (GI) and Glycemic Load (GL), may play a role [3]. The GI expresses the influence of foods on blood glucose concentrations after consumption [4]. The GL makes allowance for the GI of a food product and the portion size eaten [5]. At least four cross-sectional studies showed a positive association of GI or GL with CRP [6–9]. GI and GL have also been related to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in several cohort studies [10–14], but not in all [15–18]. So, GI or GL diets may be of importance in the development of type 2 diabetes, possibly due to its effect on CRP concentrations. We investigated, therefore, whether GI or GL is associated with CRP and subsequently with risk of type 2 diabetes in an elderly Dutch population. In this population a positive association
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