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Effects of Over-Harvesting and Drought on a Predator-Prey System with Optimal Control  [PDF]
Alanus Mapunda, Eunice Mureithi, Nyimvua Shaban, Thadei Sagamiko
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2018.88028
Abstract: In this paper, a two species predator-prey model is developed where prey is affected by over-harvesting and drought and predator is affected by drought. The intention is to investigate the impact of over-harvesting and drought on predator-prey system, and suggest control strategies to alleviate the problem of loss of prey and predator species due to over-harvesting and drought. The control strategies suggested are creation of reserve areas with restriction of harvesting for controlling over-harvesting and construction of dams for mitigating drought effects. The results obtained from theoretical and numerical simulation of the predator-prey model with harvesting and drought without control strategies showed that, both harvesting and drought affect the predator-prey population negatively. However, the results obtained from numerical simulations of the model with control measures showed that, the use of control strategies one at a time encourages the increase of the prey and predator species to the optimal population size. Furthermore, the best result is obtained when control strategies, creation of reserve areas with restriction of harvesting and construction of dams are applied simultaneously.
Characteristics and influence factors of urban sprawl of Dar es Salaam from 2002 to 2012

张家旗, 陈爽, Damas W. Mapunda
- , 2018, DOI: 10.7523/j.issn.2095-6134.2018.05.013
Abstract: 摘要 以坦桑尼亚首位城市达累斯萨拉姆2002、2007和2012年土地利用分类数据为基础,结合实地调研,运用扇形分析和同心圆分析等方法,以及用地增长弹性系数、扩展强度指数、紧凑度、分形维数等指标,研究达累斯萨拉姆近年来城市蔓延的总体态势和空间格局特征。研究结果表明:1)2002—2012年间达累斯萨拉姆城市蔓延特征明显,蔓延程度较高,蔓延速度不断加快,主要表现为非正式聚落不断增长情况下的城乡混合发展,侵占的土地类型主要为裸地,其次为植被;2)2002—2007年城市建成区主要沿交通干道以及在市中心周边进行轴线式蔓延,2007—2012年主要在交通干道间及城市边缘地区进行填充式蔓延,城市空间形态由指状向团块状演变;3)城市蔓延方向性明显,向西北、西、西南和东南扩展较多,东南方向成为新的扩展热点,且表现出明显的距离衰减特征;4)城市蔓延主要受到人口与经济增长、交通条件改善、政策变化及土地制度缺陷等因素的影响,其中交通设施起到重要的空间引导作用。
Timing of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during pregnancy and the implications of current policy on early uptake in north-east Tanzania
Katherine Anders, Tanya Marchant, Pili Chambo, Pasiens Mapunda, Hugh Reyburn
Malaria Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-79
Abstract: Structured interviews were conducted with staff and pregnant women at antenatal clinics in northeast Tanzania, and antenatal consultations were observed. Facility-based and individual factors were analysed for any correlation with timing of IPTp uptake.Almost half the women interviewed first attended ANC during or before the fourth month of gestation, however 86% of these early attendees did not receive IPTp on their first visit. The timing of IPTp delivery complied closely with the national guidelines which stipulate giving the first dose at 20–24 weeks gestation. Uptake of at least one dose of IPTp among women who had reached this gestation age was 67%, although this varied considerably between clinics. At one facility, IPTp was not delivered because SP was out of stock.Early uptake of IPTp was found to be hampered by factors external to health worker performance or women's individual preferences. These include insufficient drug stocks and an apparent lack of information to health workers on the reasoning for continued use of SP for IPTp when it has been replaced as a first-line treatment. In addition, an unexpectedly high proportion of women attend antenatal clinics before 20 weeks of pregnancy. While current policy denies the use of IPTp at this time, there is emerging, but incomplete, evidence that malaria in early pregnancy may contribute considerably to the burden of pregnancy-related malaria. Current policy may thus result in a missed opportunity for maximising the benefit of this intervention, and efforts to encourage earlier attendance at ANC alone are unlikely to improve uptake of IPTp. More evidence is needed to weigh the benefits of early IPTp use against theoretical risks of antifolate drugs in early pregnancy.Malaria infection during pregnancy has adverse consequences for both the woman and foetus, accounting for an estimated 26% of severe maternal anaemia in sub-Saharan Africa [1] and causing an estimated 100,000 – 200,000 infant deaths each year thr
Yield performance and adaptation of four sorghum cultivars in Igunga and Nzega districts of Tanzania
Tulole L. Bucheyeki,Erasto M. Shenkalwa,Theofora X. Mapunda,Leah W. Matata
Communications in Biometry and Crop Science , 2010,
Abstract: Sorghum plays a significant role for the smallholder farmers of Tanzania. It is the chief source of food and income for majority of Tanzanians but yields are low and crop management lacking leading to smallholder food and income insecurity. An experiment was conducted in the Nzega and Igunga districts of Tabora to compare improved cultivars Tegemeo, Pato and Macia to the commonly used landrace Wilu for adaptation and yield, assess farmers’ preferences, and assess the economic potential of improved sorghum cultivars. Cultivar performance was measured for three seasons in a randomized complete block design with three replications per location. Tegemeo out-yielded other cultivars and had high average yields (2580 kg ha-1). Wilu had the lowest yield (1460 kg ha-1) but had consistent yields across environments. Ninety farmers developed seven criteria for cultivars assessments. Results of the farmers’ rankings indicated Tegemeo was the best cultivar and recommended it be grown in the area. An economic analysis indicated the potential of doubling sorghum grain yield from 1000 to 2000 kg ha-1 and income from 525,600 to 928,800 TSh ha-1. The combined statistical, farmers assessment and economic analysis showed changing order of importance of some cultivars which draws attention to breeders and policy makers on the importance of farmer’s indigenous technical knowledge acknowledgement and participatory plant breeding in cultivars selection
High Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to Sulphadoxine/Pyrimethamine in Northern Tanzania and the Emergence of dhps Resistance Mutation at Codon 581
Samwel Gesase, Roly D. Gosling, Ramadhan Hashim, Rosalynn Ord, Inbarani Naidoo, Rashid Madebe, Jacklin F. Mosha, Angel Joho, Victor Mandia, Hedwiga Mrema, Ephraim Mapunda, Zacharia Savael, Martha Lemnge, Frank W. Mosha, Brian Greenwood, Cally Roper, Daniel Chandramohan
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004569
Abstract: Background Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) a widely used treatment for uncomplicated malaria and recommended for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy, is being investigated for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi). High levels of drug resistance to SP have been reported from north-eastern Tanzania associated with mutations in parasite genes. This study compared the in vivo efficacy of SP in symptomatic 6–59 month children with uncomplicated malaria and in asymptomatic 2–10 month old infants. Methodology and Principal Findings An open label single arm (SP) standard 28 day in vivo WHO antimalarial efficacy protocol was used in 6 to 59 months old symptomatic children and a modified protocol used in 2 to 10 months old asymptomatic infants. Enrolment was stopped early (87 in the symptomatic and 25 in the asymptomatic studies) due to the high failure rate. Molecular markers were examined for recrudescence, re-infection and markers of drug resistance and a review of literature of studies looking for the 581G dhps mutation was carried out. In symptomatic children PCR-corrected early treatment failure was 38.8% (95% CI 26.8–50.8) and total failures by day 28 were 82.2% (95% CI 72.5–92.0). There was no significant difference in treatment failures between asymptomatic and symptomatic children. 96% of samples carried parasites with mutations at codons 51, 59 and 108 in the dhfr gene and 63% carried a double mutation at codons 437 and 540. 55% carried a third mutation with the addition of a mutation at codon 581 in the dhps gene. This triple: triple haplotype maybe associated with earlier treatment failure. Conclusion In northern Tanzania SP is a failed drug for treatment and its utility for prophylaxis is doubtful. The study found a new combination of parasite mutations that maybe associated with increased and earlier failure. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00361114
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