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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 153545 matches for " Alan B. Carneiro "
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Lysophosphatidylcholine: A Novel Modulator of Trypanosoma cruzi Transmission
Mário A. C. Silva-Neto,Alan B. Carneiro,Livia Silva-Cardoso,Georgia C. Atella
Journal of Parasitology Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/625838
Abstract: Lysophosphatidylcholine is a bioactive lipid that regulates a large number of cellular processes and is especially present during the deposition and infiltration of inflammatory cells and deposition of atheromatous plaque. Such molecule is also present in saliva and feces of the hematophagous organism Rhodnius prolixus, a triatominae bug vector of Chagas disease. We have recently demonstrated that LPC is a modulator of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission. It acts as a powerful chemoattractant for inflammatory cells at the site of the insect bite, which will provide a concentrated population of cells available for parasite infection. Also, LPC increases macrophage intracellular calcium concentrations that ultimately enhance parasite invasion. Finally, LPC inhibits NO production by macrophages stimulated by live T. cruzi, and thus interferes with the immune system of the vertebrate host. In the present paper, we discuss the main signaling mechanisms that are likely used by such molecule and their eventual use as targets to block parasite transmission and the pathogenesis of Chagas disease. 1. Immune Response to Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in the Vertebrate Host T. cruzi infects the vertebrate host through bite wounds produced in skin by a feeding bug or through the interaction of the parasite with conjunctival mucosa. Such interaction sometimes produces visible signs called Roma?a’s sign or chagoma inoculation. The histology of this initial site of infection is defined by an elevated number of mononuclear cells [1]. This first sign of infection suggests that T. cruzi can stimulate skin cells to produce mediators that trigger a local inflammatory response. Despite controversies about the mechanism of the pathogenesis of Chagas disease [2–5], until recently, some authors believed that the disease was limited to an acute phase, followed by a chronic phase that was considered an autoimmune disease, where the parasites would be physically linked to sites of inflammation in the heart and esophagus [6–8]. However, nowadays, the disease is considered multifactorial, with multiple and continuous interactions between pathogen and host [9]. After the incubation period of 2 to 3 weeks, infection with T. cruzi is manifested by the presence of a large number of parasites in the blood and tissues. Acute infection is accompanied by an excessive activation of the immune system that includes the production of high levels of cytokines, intense activation of T and B cells, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and intense inflammation associated with tissue infection niches. The acute
Humanoid Robots That Behave, Speak, and Think Like Humans:A Reduction to Practice RRC-Humanoid Robot  [PDF]
Alan Rosen, David B. Rosen
Engineering (ENG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2015.71001
Abstract: A radical new approach is presented to programming human-like levels of Artificial Intelligence (AI) into a humanoid robot equipped with a verbal-phoneme sound generator. The system shares 3 important characteristics with human-like input data and processing: 1) The raw data and preliminary processing of the raw data are human-like. 2) All the data are subjective, that is related and correlated with a robotic self-identity coordinate frame. 3) All the data are programmed behaviorally into the system. A multi-tasking Relational Robotic Controller (RRC)-Humanoid Robot, described and published in the peer-reviewed literature, has been specifically designed to fulfill those 3 characteristics. A RRC-controlled system may be behaviorally programmed to achieve human-like high I.Q. levels of subjective AI for the visual signals and the declarative-verbal words and sentences heard by the robot. A proof of concept RRC-Humanoid Robot is under development and present status is presented at the end of the paper.
On the use, by Einstein, of the principle of dimensional homogeneity, in three problems of the physics of solids
CARNEIRO, FERNANDO L. LOBO B.;
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0001-37652000000400009
Abstract: einstein, in 1911, published an article on the application of the principle of dimensional homogeneity to three problems of the physics of solids: the characteristic frequency of the atomic nets of crystalline solids as a function of their moduli of compressibility or of their melting points, and the thermal conductivity of crystalline insulators. recognizing that the physical dimensions of temperature are not the same as those of energy and heat, einstein had recourse to the artifice of replace that physical parameter by its product by the boltzmann constant, so obtaining correct results. but nowadays, with the new basic quantities "thermodynamic temperature q (unit- kelvin)'', "electric current i (unit ampère)'' and "amount of substance mol (unit-mole)'', incorporated to the si international system of units, in 1960 and 1971, the same results are obtained in a more direct and coherent way. at the time of einstein's article only three basic physical quantities were considered - length l, mass m, and time t. he ignored the p theorem of dimensional analysis diffused by buckingham three years later, and obtained the "p numbers'' by trial and error. in the present paper is presented a revisitation of the article of einstein, conducted by the modern methodology of dimensional analysis and theory of physical similitude.
On the use, by Einstein, of the principle of dimensional homogeneity, in three problems of the physics of solids
CARNEIRO FERNANDO L. LOBO B.
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências , 2000,
Abstract: Einstein, in 1911, published an article on the application of the principle of dimensional homogeneity to three problems of the physics of solids: the characteristic frequency of the atomic nets of crystalline solids as a function of their moduli of compressibility or of their melting points, and the thermal conductivity of crystalline insulators. Recognizing that the physical dimensions of temperature are not the same as those of energy and heat, Einstein had recourse to the artifice of replace that physical parameter by its product by the Boltzmann constant, so obtaining correct results. But nowadays, with the new basic quantities "Thermodynamic Temperature theta (unit- Kelvin)'', "Electric Current I (unit Ampère)'' and "Amount of Substance MOL (unit-mole)'', incorporated to the SI International System of Units, in 1960 and 1971, the same results are obtained in a more direct and coherent way. At the time of Einstein's article only three basic physical quantities were considered - length L, mass M, and time T. He ignored the pi theorem of dimensional analysis diffused by Buckingham three years later, and obtained the "pi numbers'' by trial and error. In the present paper is presented a revisitation of the article of Einstein, conducted by the modern methodology of dimensional analysis and theory of physical similitude.
A Pharmacological and Toxicological Profile of Silver as an Antimicrobial Agent in Medical Devices
Alan B. G. Lansdown
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/910686
Abstract: Silver is used widely in wound dressings and medical devices as a broad-spectrum antibiotic. Metallic silver and most inorganic silver compounds ionise in moisture, body fluids, and secretions to release biologically active . The ion is absorbed into the systemic circulation from the diet and drinking water, by inhalation and through intraparenteral administration. Percutaneous absorption of through intact or damaged skin is low. binds strongly to metallothionein, albumins, and macroglobulins and is metabolised to all tissues other than the brain and the central nervous system. Silver sulphide or silver selenide precipitates, bound lysosomally in soft tissues, are inert and not associated with an irreversible toxic change. Argyria and argyrosis are the principle effects associated with heavy deposition of insoluble silver precipitates in the dermis and cornea/conjunctiva. Whilst these changes may be profoundly disfiguring and persistent, they are not associated with pathological damage in any tissue. The present paper discusses the mechanisms of absorption and metabolism of silver in the human body, presumed mechanisms of argyria and argyrosis, and the elimination of silver-protein complexes in the bile and urine. Minimum blood silver levels consistent with early signs of argyria or argyrosis are not known. Silver allergy does occur but the extent of the problem is not known. Reference values for silver exposure are discussed. 1. Introduction Silver is a white lustrous transitional metallic element found widely in the human environment. Low concentrations of silver are present in the human body through inhalation of particles in the air and contamination of the diet and drinking water, but silver serves no trace metal value in the human body. Increasing use of silver as an efficacious chemotherapeutic antibacterial and antifungal agent in wound care products, medical devices (bone cements, catheters, surgical sutures, cardiovascular prostheses, and dental fillings), textiles, cosmetics, and even domestic appliances in recent years has lead to concern as to the safety aspects of the metal and potential risks associated with the absorption of the biologically active Ag+ into the human body [1]. Safety thresholds set by regulatory authorities including the World Health Organisation and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are based mostly on scientific reports conducted before the introduction of the high standards of experimental and investigative procedures and tissue analysis expected nowadays and fail to recognise more recent work [2, 3]. Metallic
A phase I/II trial of beta-(1,3)/(1,6) D-glucan in the treatment of patients with advanced malignancies receiving chemotherapy
Alan B Weitberg
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1756-9966-27-40
Abstract: In this study, twenty patients with advanced malignancies receiving chemotherapy were given a β-(1,3)/(1,6) D-glucan preparation (MacroForce plus IP6, ImmuDyne, Inc.) and monitored for tolerability and effect on hematopoiesis. Our results lead us to conclude that β-glucan is well-tolerated in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, may have a beneficial effect on hematopoiesis in these patients and should be studied further, especially in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and lymphoma.β-(1,3)/(1,6) D-glucan is a long chain polymer of glucose from the fungal cell wall which has been shown to have a number of immunomodulatory properties as well as effects on hematopoiesis and as a radiation protectant.It has been well-demonstrated that the β-glucans increase neutrophil chemotaxis and adhesion, synergize with myeloid growth factors to enhance hematopoiesis and mobilize peripheral blood progenitor cells in vivo, directly stimulate committed myeloid progenitor cells and improve survival and hematopoietic regeneration in irradiated mice [1-7].Furthermore, the β-glucans have been shown to amplify the phagocytic killing of opsonized tumor cells and combine with monoclonal antibodies to increase their tumoricidal activity [8].Based on these properties, this study was designed to test the safety of an adjunctive treatment with β-(1,3)/(1,6) D-glucan in patients with advanced malignancies receiving chemotherapy. In addition, because the β-glucans have been shown to improve hematopoiesis in animals and because chemotherapy generally induces cytopenias in humans, we also sought to determine if the β-glucan administered in this study exerted an effect on blood counts in patients with advanced malignancies receiving chemotherapy compared with pretreatment blood counts in patients receiving chemotherapy alone.Twenty patients with advanced malignancies receiving chemotherapy received the β-(1,3)/(1,6) D-glucan preparation, MacroForce plus IP6 (ImmuDyne, Mount Kisco, NY), on
Uma vis?o psicobiológica da personalidade limítrofe
Eppel, Alan B.;
Revista de Psiquiatria do Rio Grande do Sul , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-81082005000300005
Abstract: objective: to review and reformulate the concept of borderline personality disorder in the light of advances in neuroscience and infant development. method: medline was searched using the key words: borderline personality, attachment, affect regulation, neurobiology, childhood sexual abuse, mood stabilizers. results: there are genetic predispositions to specific personality traits which appear central to the concept of borderline personality disorder. these traits combine with impaired attachment relationships and childhood abuse to give rise to the constellation of difficulties known as borderline personality disorder. conclusion: borderline personality disorder is a psychobiological disorder of affect regulation caused by genetic and interpersonal factors. clinical implications: prevention should be directed towards the early childhood environment and the quality and availability of attachment figures. the focus of treatment should be the regulation of affect by means of medication, psychotherapy and skills training. basic research on the relationship between neuropeptides and serotonin could lead to new approaches to psychopharmacological intervention. limitations: neuroscientific research is based primarily on animal experimentation and may not be fully extrapolated to humans. there are very few randomized controlled trials of antidepressants and mood stabilizers in borderline personality disorder. due to the vastness of the neuroscientific and clinical literature, this review is selective in focus.
Media economics research: Methodological perpectives and areas for future development
Alan B. Albarrans
Palabra Clave , 2005,
Abstract: Este artículo ofrece un comentario, no un resumen exhaustivo, de las metodologías empleadas en la investigación sobre la economía de los medios, y discute la necesidad de incrementar y desarrollar mejores herramientas para el análisis y las aproximaciones a la investigación. Mientras el conocimiento en este campo tiende a evolucionar y a desarrollarse en Colombia y en otras regiones de Suramérica, probablemente varios de los esfuerzos hechos por académicos en otras partes del mundo puedan resultar beneficiosos para los investigadores en esta región de rápido crecimiento. Igualmente, la investigación completada por estudiosos colombianos, y los esfuerzos por desarrollar aproximaciones metodológicas hacia las necesidades específicas del estudio en la economía de los medios en Colombia y en otras naciones de Suramérica, contribuirán al beneficio de este campo.
The Kinematic State of the Local Volume
Alan B. Whiting
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/346151
Abstract: The kinematics of galaxies with 10 megaparsecs (10 Mpc) of the Milky Way is investigated using published distances and radial velocities. With respect to the average Hubble flow (isotropic or simple anisotropic), there is NO systematic relation between peculiar velocity dispersion and absolute magnitude over a range of 10 magnitudes; neither is there any apparent variation with galaxy type or between field and cluster members. There are several possible explanations for the lack of variation, though all have difficulties: either there is no relationship between light and mass on these scales, or the peculiar velocities are not produced by gravitational interaction, or the background dynamical picture is wrong in some systematic way. The extremely cold local flow of 40-60 km/s dispersion reported by some authors is shown to be an artifact of sparse data, a velocity dispersion of over 100 km/s being closer to the actual value. Galaxies with a high (positive) radial velocity have been selected against in studies of this volume, biasing numerical results.
Visual Photometry: Colour and Brightness Spacing of Comparison Stars
Alan B. Whiting
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: A significant amount of data on the historical and current behaviour of variable stars is derived from visual estimates of brightness using a set of comparison stars. To make optimum use of this invaluable collection one must understand the characteristics of visual photometry, which are significantly different from those of electronic or photographic data. Here I show that the dispersion of estimates among observers is very consistent at between 0.2 and 0.3 magnitudes and, surprisingly, has no apparent dependence on the colour of comparison stars or on their spacing in brightness.
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