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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4272 matches for " Alain Gagnon "
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Crises and trends: Mortality in historical perspective
Alain Gagnon
Canadian Studies in Population , 2012,
Abstract:
Book Review: Koch, Matthias, Claus Harmer and Florian Coulmas. (2007). Trilingual Glossary of Demographic Terminology: English-Japanese-German/Japanese-English-German German-Japanese-English. Leiden and Boston: Brill.
Roderic Beaujot,Alain Gagnon
Canadian Studies in Population , 2010,
Abstract:
Empowerment et diversité culturelle : quelques prolégomènes
Alain G. Gagnon,Paul May
Métropoles , 2010,
Abstract: Le présent texte explore l’articulation entre l’empowerment et la diversité culturelle, et notamment les voies prometteuses du jumelage entre ces deux termes. L’apport de la philosophie de Charles Taylor conjuguée aux récentes théories du fédéralisme permet de porter un regard nouveau sur la thématique des revendications identitaires en milieu urbain et d’esquisser des solutions institutionnelles pour répondre au double défi posé par le pluralisme culturel et de la nouvelle configuration économico-politique sous-tendant la mondialisation. Malgré ses aspects positifs, cet article entend montrer, dans le sillon des travaux de Bernard Jouve, les limites et l’utilisation équivoque que l’on peut faire de l’empowerment, qui sert parfois à justifier un désengagement de l’état-providence en faveur des populations les plus démunies, et qui ne présente pas toujours les garanties nécessaires pour lutter contre les discriminations survenant au sein des Minorities within Minorities. This article explores linkages between empowerment and cultural diversity largely defined, and at times a promising convergence between the two notions. Charles Taylor’s contribution to current theories of federalism allows us to cast a rejuvenated look on cultural claims in urban centers and to sketch institutional avenues to face the dual challenge posed by cultural pluralism and the new socio-political configuration underlying globalization. In spite of some very positive aspects, and following Bernard Jouve’s intellectual insights, this text illustrates the extent to which the notion of empowerment can also be deceiving as it might add limitations for weaker communities, and create new hurdles as the undermining of the welfare state has showned. In addition, empowerment does not always provide guarantees to counter discrimation as the case of Minorities witin Minorities reveal.
HISTORIOGRAPHIES ET FéDéRALISME AU CANADA
Alain-G. Gagnon,Xavier Dionne
Revista d'Estudis Autonòmics i Federals , 2009,
Abstract: This article studies the historical representation of the two main national communities in Canada; that is, the English-Canadian and the French-Canadian.Throughout the history of the English Canadian community, one cansee an ambitious national project. The national construction of Canada suggests the existence of a neutral model of government but, when looking at this carefully, it is possible to see something quite different. English-speaking historians from Canada have normally introduced the concept of a unitary federalism as the most perfect form of the Canadian integration project. This integrating federalism, that does not lead to emancipation, stems from thecentralist views of John Macdonald, one of the fathers of Canadian federalism. This approach has been kept for over 140 years of common history and, to this date, continues to be one of the main obstacles for minority nations within Canada. To strengthen their thesis, the authors base their work on an extensive analysis exploring the three big strategies used by the central government to assert its authority on the member States of the Canadian Federation in the long term: using the judicial power, centralizing powers andglobalization. The strategies used have varied depending on the economic scenario, political leaders and the political power relations regarding the links between the Federation and the provinces.
The Measles Epidemic of 1714-1715 in New France
Mazan, Ryan,Gagnon, Alain,Desjardins, Bertrand
Canadian Studies in Population , 2009,
Abstract: This study utilizes methods to follow a measles epidemic in New France, wherecause of death information is lacking. We fit a series of splines to estimatemortality and trace the origin, spread, duration and severity of the epidemic,which originated in the region of Montreal during the 2nd quarter of 1714. Bythe 3rd quarter, the epidemic had spread throughout the colony and had run itscourse by the second quarter of 1715. Overall, the measles death rate was 52.8per 1,000 for children under age 15 and females were more likely than males tohave died from the virus. Résumé Cette étude retrace pas à pas une épidémie de rougeole qui a eu lieu enNouvelle-France, où les causes de décès sont manquantes. Nous estimons lamortalité par une série de splines et retra ons l’origine, la durée, et la sévéritéde cette épidémie qui a commencé dans la région de Montréal dans le deuxièmequart de l’année 1714. Au troisième quart de la même année, l’épidémie s’étaitrépendue dans toute la colonie et se dissipa finalement dans le second quart del’anrée 1715. Le quotient de mortalité associé à la rougeole est de 52,8 pourmille parmi les enfants de moins de 15 ans. Par ailleurs, il semble que les fillesaient été plus durement affectées par le virus que leurs contemporains de sexemasculin.
Survival advantage of siblings and spouses of centenarians in 20th-century Quebec
Valérie Jarry,Alain Gagnon,Robert Bourbeau
Canadian Studies in Population , 2012,
Abstract: Longevity runs in families, either through genetic or environmental influences. Using Quebec civil registration and historical Canadiancensuses, we compared the longevity of siblings and spouses of 806 centenarians to a group of controls, all born in Quebec at the turnof the 20th century. Our results show that siblings of centenarians, who share half of their genes and a common childhood environment,lived 3–4 years longer than their birth cohort. However, husbands and wives of centenarians lived 4 and 2.5 years longer than theircounterparts of the same sex, respectively, suggesting that longevity is also modulated by shared environment in adulthood.
Health 3.0—The patient-clinician “arabic spring” in healthcare  [PDF]
Serge Gagnon, Laurent Chartier
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.42008
Abstract: A growing number of citizen-patients and clinicians use Communication and Self-Managed Health Technologies (CSMHT) in their relationship. Doing so, they shift from the current paradigm of dependency to a co-responsibility paradigm in healthcare. Facing the runaway utilization of health services, we need to think “outside the box” to unblock the system. A Health 3.0 development model of governance that position patients as primary members of the clinicians’ team is presented to map this institutional transformation. At the practical level, an MD 3.0 relational model and a Citizen-Patient 3.0 behavioral profile are presented.
Age-Specific Mortality During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic: Unravelling the Mystery of High Young Adult Mortality
Alain Gagnon, Matthew S. Miller, Stacey A. Hallman, Robert Bourbeau, D. Ann Herring, David JD. Earn, Joaquín Madrenas
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069586
Abstract: The worldwide spread of a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus in 2009 showed that influenza remains a significant health threat, even for individuals in the prime of life. This paper focuses on the unusually high young adult mortality observed during the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. Using historical records from Canada and the U.S., we report a peak of mortality at the exact age of 28 during the pandemic and argue that this increased mortality resulted from an early life exposure to influenza during the previous Russian flu pandemic of 1889–90. We posit that in specific instances, development of immunological memory to an influenza virus strain in early life may lead to a dysregulated immune response to antigenically novel strains encountered in later life, thereby increasing the risk of death. Exposure during critical periods of development could also create holes in the T cell repertoire and impair fetal maturation in general, thereby increasing mortality from infectious diseases later in life. Knowledge of the age-pattern of susceptibility to mortality from influenza could improve crisis management during future influenza pandemics.
Contribution des travailleurs dans l’élaboration des programmes d’entra nement à la manutention sécuritaire : identification des stratégies, évaluation biomécanique et implantation
Micheline Gagnon
Perspectives Interdisciplinaires sur le Travail et la Santé , 2005,
Abstract: Les travailleurs experts et novices présentent des caractéristiques différentes, particulièrement pour les éléments de placements/déplacements des pieds et de man uvres effectuées avec les bo tes. Un examen biomécanique de ces éléments et de certaines stratégies contrastant les experts et les novices a mis en évidence leur potentiel pour une manutention plus sécuritaire. On note la réduction des chargements articulaires, surtout au dos, la réduction des asymétries du dos et les exigences moins grandes en travail mécanique. L’efficacité de stratégies d’experts et de novices fut ensuite évaluée, suite à un programme d’entra nement, par deux études indépendantes effectuées chez des travailleurs novices. On a d’abord étudié les effets de la pratique libre pour conclure qu’elle ne mène pas spontanément à un apprentissage de stratégies optimales. On a ensuite évalué un entra nement orienté sur l’observation de certaines stratégies contrastées propres à des experts et à des novices (placement/déplacement des pieds, man uvres de bo tes et posture du dos), combinée à une pratique libre mais orientée sur une recherche de solutions optimales ; on a conclu que les novices soumis à cet entra nement adoptaient rapidement de nouvelles fa ons de man uvrer les bo tes et de se placer qui apparaissent plus sécuritaires pour le travail mécanique et les efforts au dos. Il est donc recommandé d’inclure ces éléments dans les programmes d’entra nement et d’élaborer des programmes sur la base des connaissances des travailleurs et l’observation de leurs performances plut t que sur la seule théorie. Expert and novice workers present different characteristics, particularly for aspects such as foot positioning/displacement and box maneuvers. A biomechanical investigation of these aspects and of specific strategies contrasting experts and novices revealed their potential for safer ways of handling. A reduction in joint loadings, especially on the back, and a reduction in back asymmetries and lesser mechanical work requirements were noted. The efficacy of experts’ and novices’ strategies was evaluated following a training program by means of two independent studies with novice workers. The effects of free practice were first evaluated ; it was concluded that this process does not lead spontaneously to the learning of optimal strategies. This was followed by the evaluation of a training program oriented towards the observation of specific strategies contrasting experts with novices (foot positioning/displacement, box maneuvers, back posture), combined with free practice oriented towar
Femmes vivant avec le VIH/sida et lipodystrophie : vers une compréhension qualitative du processus de transformations corporelles
MARILOU GAGNON
Aporia : The Nursing Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Parmi les réactions néfastes de la thérapie antirétrovirale, le syndrome de la lipodystrophie est une condition débilitante qui afflige les personnes vivant avec le VIH/sida et ce, tant sur le plan physique que psychosocial. Cette recherche qualitative avait pour but de décrire le processus de transformations corporelles auquel font face les femmes et d'explorer les répercussions psychosociales de cette condition qui se manifeste progressivement au cours du traitement.
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