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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 13688 matches for " Alaa El-Sadek "
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Virtual water: an effective mechanism for integrated water resources management  [PDF]
Alaa El-Sadek
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/as.2011.23033
Abstract: In regions, which suffer from water shortage or potential water shortage like the Middle East, water policies and different mitigation measures are formulated. With the increasing population and increasing demand for food and drinking water with the fixed supply of water, the demand management policies have been introduced. Virtual Water has been adopted as an alternative or potential alternative water resource. In the application of the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM), virtual water has to be considered as a resource of water. In this paper, the practical value of the virtual water concept as well as the possibility of the application of the concept in the regional and national level are discussed. The paper emphasizes on the application of virtual water in agriculture products and virtual water trade of these products. This research concluded that, there is a possibility for the application of the virtual water concept on the national level taking into account water endowments, and other natural and social economic conditions. The virtual water strategy seeks ways to consciously and efficiently utilize the internal and external water resources to alleviate water scarcity. This, however, by no means implies that importing food is the only response the water scarce countries and regions should and can take. Other measures concerning the supply and demand sides of water management are imperative. The argument here is that the virtual water strategy should be an integral component in the whole package of integrated water resources management.
Modeling of Water Flow and Nitrate Transport to Subsurface Drains  [PDF]
Alaa El-Sadek, Mona Radwan
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2018.71005
Abstract: In this study,?the water flow and nitrate transport to a subsurface drain, using a simplified and detailed model, are simulated for the specific hydro-geological conditions of Elverdinge and Assenede, Belgium. Previously, the DRAINMOD-N model proved to be able to simulate nitrate concentrations and drainage well for an?in-situleaching experiment, the?Hooibeekhoeve?in the community of Geel (north-eastern part of Belgium), conducted in 1992-1995. In this study, the calibrated model is used to simulate the nitrate leaching for the winter period 2000-2001 in Elverdinge and Assenede and is compared to a model with a simplified nitrate transport description. The comparative analysis between both model approaches reveals that the simplified model is able to predict sufficiently accurate the observed nitrate leaching. The detailed approach however has the advantage of giving?a more accurate estimate of the nitrogen mineralization, N deposition and denitrification, resulting in a more precise modeling of the nitrate leaching to surface waters and groundwater.
Modeling of Nitrate Leaching during the Fall–Winter Season in Artificially Drained Soils
Alaa El-Sadek
The Scientific World Journal , 2002, DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2002.204
Abstract:
A Comparative Analysis for a Novel Irrigation Method: Partial Rootzone Drying  [PDF]
Alaa Abdallah El-Sadek, Mona Ezo Radwan, Ahmed Ali Salih
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2018.71004
Abstract: Partial Rootzone Drying (PRD) is an irrigation technique which offers a means of modifying the growth and development of crops through relatively simple changes to the method of water delivery. The technique causes the stimulation of physiological responses which are normally associated with water stress and this results in a significant reduction in water use through the production of chemical signals in drying roots. Partial drying of one half of the roots of plants grown with two root systems is rapidly translated into a reduction in transpiration and assimilation of all the crop leaves. The aim of this research is to examine and simulate the novel irrigation method (PRD), which would stimulate the endogenous stress response mechanisms of Conocarpus erectus trees in the pilot area of the Arabian Gulf University in Bahrain and wheat and maize crops in the Mashtul Pilot Area (MPA), Egypt using Saltmed model so that vigor is reduced and the efficiency of water use is enhanced. This is to be achieved by the manipulation of the hydration status of parts of a crops roots that could be used to control vegetative vigor without detrimental effects on canopy water relations. The PRD technique is researched for wheat as a winter crop and maize as a summer crop in Egypt. The technique causes the stimulation of physiological responses which are normally associated with water stress and this results in a significant reduction in water use through the production of chemical signals in drying roots. The results confirmed an increase in irrigation water use efficiency using PRD comparing with conventional flood irrigation. The research highly recommends applying the PRD method in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and in new reclaimed areas in Egypt to save water and improve crop quality.
Assessment of the Water-Energy Nexus in the Municipal Water Sector in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
Homoud Al-Mutrafi, Waleed Al-Zubari, Alaa El-Sadek, Ibrahim Abdel Gelil
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering (CWEEE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/cweee.2018.71001
Abstract: When it comes to water and energy, it is hard to obtain one without the other. Water is required to produce energy and energy is necessary in water production and management. As demands for water are escalating due to rapid population growth and urbanization, understanding and quantification of the interdependency between water and energy, along with analyzing nexus interactions, trade-offs and risks are a pre-requisite for effective and integrated planning and management of these two key sectors. This paper performs an assessment of the water-energy nexus in the municipal sector of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, where the electric energy footprint in the water value chain (groundwater, desalination and wastewater treatment) and the water footprint in electric energy generation (thermal power plants) are quantified using data for the year 2013. The results confirmed the high and strong dependency on energy for the municipal water cycle in the Eastern Province and revealed that energy generation dependency on freshwater resources is also major and evident, especially at farther distances from the coastal areas. Thermal desalination is by far the most energy intensive stage among the entire Eastern Province water cycle. In 2013, it was estimated 13% of the Eastern Province energy generation capacity goes for desalination, that’s a 5% of the Kingdom capacity. Substantial energy input for desalination in the Eastern Province is attributed to the production and conveyance of water to the Capital Riyadh (48.9 kWh/m3 and 4.2 kWh/m3 respectively). As for groundwater pumping, it was estimated that 206.2 GWH was used for pumping 268 MCM in 2013 (0.764 kWh/m3). Energy requirement for primary, secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment was found to be the least (2 - 108 GWH) and was equivalent to an average of 0.4 kWh/m3. The water footprint in electricity generation was estimated to be about 739,308 m3 in 2013 (0.125 m3/kWh), a relatively higher value compared to the norm of gas combustion turbine cooling water requirement around the world, and is especially significant for water scarce Kingdom. Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emission was computed to be around 17 Million Ton of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) for the entire water supply chain, with desalination having the highest carbon footprint in the whole water cycle (16.9 MT of CO2e). Carbon emissions from electric energy generation through power plants had significantly exceeded the entire water supply
Characterization of the Outfall Area of a Multi-Stage-Flash Desalination Plant in Bahrain  [PDF]
Waleed K. Al-Zubari, Alaa A. El-Sadek, Mohamed J. Khadim
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2018.103017
Abstract: In Bahrain, like the other Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, desalination is inevitable to meet the escalating municipal water demands. However, desalination is associated with many environmental effects, which need to be minimized to their lowest possible limits. One of the major environmental concerns of desalination in the Arabian Gulf region is the local and regional effects of the outfall areas on the marine environment. In this study, the outfall area of a government-owned MSF desalination plant is characterized in terms of temperature and salinity. The spatial extent of the plume of the desalination plant’s effluent is mapped by a field survey conducted during the winter season around the plant’s outfall area at 25 cm and 1 m below the water surface and at low and high tide. The results of the characterization indicated that the temperature of the brine discharged to the outfall was 37°C, higher than the ambient seawater temperature by 16.5°C at high tide and 17.5°C at low tide, and that the extent of the mixing zone area was found at about 260 m and 1 km from the outfall point at high tide and low tide, respectively. The results also showed that brine thermal discharge is not in compliance with the standard limits (<3°C from ambient within 100 m of shoreline) both at high and low tides with differences reaching more than 10°C. In terms of salinity, the brine discharged salinity was 56.2 parts per trillion (ppt) compared to an ambient seawater salinity of 43.2 ppt. The maximum salinity measured near the outfall point was 56 ppt at low tide and 51 ppt at high tide, both at 1 m below the surface water column. It is found that the current design structure consisting of two jetties to isolate the desalination plant outfall area from its surroundings is not environmentally sound, as the current surface/inter-tidal outfall location is susceptible to significant increases in salinity and temperature around the outfall area due to the limited flushing it experiences. Therefore, the current design of the outfall area needs to be reviewed to ensure meeting brine discharge regulations and mitigate its impact on the surrounding marine area. The spatial extent of the brine plume can be minimized by building a discharge area further offshore at a sub-tidal location where turbulent flow exists to minimize the spatial extent and intensity of the brine plume. It is recommended that this characterization be extended to all desalination plants in Bahrain, and a regular monitoring program, which should also include selected biological communities and
Using System Dynamics for Simulating Subsurface Drainage Systems in Clay Soils  [PDF]
Alaa El-Sadek, Mona Radwan
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2019.115030
Abstract: The system dynamics technique is used as a decision tool for engineering problems. It is one of the object oriented approaches that study and manage complex feedback systems. In this paper, the system dynamics technique was used to simulate the performance of a drainage system under wheat crop in a clay soil. The model was calibrated and validated using observed experimental field data (drainage discharge and water table level) collected from Mashtul Pilot Area (MPA), Egypt. The results indicated that, the model is capable to predict hydrological parameters such as water table fluctuation, drainage discharge, upward flux, evapotranspiration, deep percolation, infiltration, runoff, soil moister content and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity on the basis of variation of soil moister content. The trends of the parameters found to be legible. Six statistical indexes were calculated to determine the agreement between the observed and simulated values of water table and drainage discharge. Results indicated that the system dynamics technique can be considered as a good decision tool to predict the subsurface drainage water precisely.
Numerical Analysis of the Transport and Fate of Nitrate in the Soil and Nitrate Leaching to Drains
Alaa El-Sadek,Mona Radwan,Jan Feyen
The Scientific World Journal , 2001, DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2001.344
Abstract:
Modeling of Nitrogen in River Water Using a Detailed and a Simplified Model
Mona Radwan,Alaa El-Sadek,Patrick Willems,Jan Feyen
The Scientific World Journal , 2001, DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2001.351
Abstract:
Determination of Clopidogrel Carboxylic Acid in Human Plasma by LC-MS/MS  [PDF]
Mohamed El-Husseiny El-Sadek, Samia Mahmoud Moustafa, Hussien Omar Kadi, Abdul Moneim Ali Al-Hakami
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2011.24054
Abstract: Background: Clopidogrel, is a thienopyridine derivative labeled for use to prevent thrombosis after coronary artery stenting. Pharmacokinetics of clopidogrel is studied indirectly by quantification of carboxylic acid which is a major metabolite of Clopidogrel. Objective: The aim of this work is to develop and validate a rapid, simple and sensitive LC/MS/MS assay method for the determination of Clopidogrel carboxylic acid in human plasma using Clopidogrel-D4-carboxylic acid as internal standard. Methods: Analytes was extracted from 200 μl of plasma by a simple liquid-liquid extraction using diethyl ether – n-hexane (80:20, v/v). The chromatographic separations were achieved on a C18 column using Methanol, de-ionized water and formic acid as a mobile phase at flow rate of 0.5 ml/minute. Analysis was monitored by multiple reactions monitoring mode based on m/z transition of 308.10→113 for Clopidogrel carboxylic acid and 312.10→129 for internal standard. Result: The method had a total run time of about 4 minutes. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 25 ng/ml showing good linearity over the working range of 25 – 3000 ng/ml (r ≥ 0.999). The intra- and inter day accuracies were 90% - 98% and 92.138% - 96.889% respectively (deviation within acceptable range ≤ 10%).Conclusion: It was shown that this method is suitable for pharmacokinetic study following oral administration of Clopidogrel and can be successfully applied to the therapeutic drug monitoring of Clopidogrel in Clopidogrel-treated patients.
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