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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 468 matches for " Akiyoshi Hoshino "
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Amino Acid Synthesis in a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide - Water System
Kouki Fujioka,Yasuhiro Futamura,Tomoo Shiohara,Akiyoshi Hoshino,Fumihide Kanaya,Yoshinobu Manome,Kenji Yamamoto
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/ijms10062722
Abstract: Mars is a CO2-abundant planet, whereas early Earth is thought to be also CO2-abundant. In addition, water was also discovered on Mars in 2008. From the facts and theory, we assumed that soda fountains were present on both planets, and this affected amino acid synthesis. Here, using a supercritical CO2/liquid H2O (10:1) system which mimicked crust soda fountains, we demonstrate production of amino acids from hydroxylamine (nitrogen source) and keto acids (oxylic acid sources). In this research, several amino acids were detected with an amino acid analyzer. Moreover, alanine polymers were detected with LC-MS. Our research lights up a new pathway in the study of life’s origin.
Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Conjugated Silicon Quantum Dots: Their Cytotoxicity and Biological Effect
Sanshiro Hanada,Kouki Fujioka,Yasuhiro Futamura,Noriyoshi Manabe,Akiyoshi Hoshino,Kenji Yamamoto
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms14011323
Abstract: Silicon quantum dots (Si-QDs) have great potential for biomedical applications, including their use as biological fluorescent markers and carriers for drug delivery systems. Biologically inert Si-QDs are less toxic than conventional cadmium-based QDs, and can modify the surface of the Si-QD with covalent bond. We synthesized water-soluble alminoprofen-conjugated Si-QDs (Ap-Si). Alminoprofen is a non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used as an analgesic for rheumatism. Our results showed that the “silicon drug” is less toxic than the control Si-QD and the original drug. These phenomena indicate that the condensed surface integration of ligand/receptor-type drugs might reduce the adverse interaction between the cells and drug molecules. In addition, the medicinal effect of the Si-QDs ( i.e., the inhibition of COX-2 enzyme) was maintained compared to that of the original drug. The same drug effect is related to the integration ratio of original drugs, which might control the binding interaction between COX-2 and the silicon drug. We conclude that drug conjugation with biocompatible Si-QDs is a potential method for functional pharmaceutical drug development.
Asymmetric Local Government Consolidations with Heterogeneous Local Public Goods  [PDF]
Akiyoshi Furukawa
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.44041

This paper analyzes the consolidation of asymmetric local governments. When a small district merges into a larger one, the consolidating government can provide a higher level of public services. Normally, residents in large districts favor consolidation while residents in small district oppose it. This paper shows a condition in which desirable consolidation is realized. The result is that only when fixed costs exist within which the public good is produced after consolidation and the commuting cost is very low, is consolidation realized. In an alternate case, consolidation does not occur although it is desirable.

Reduction of the Optical Loss in the Multi-Cathode Structure Organic Light Emitting Device Using a Long Range Surface Plasmon  [PDF]
Akiyoshi Mikami
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2016.68B038
Light extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting devices has improved by using a nano-sized multi-cathode structure consisting of semi-transparent metal and an optical compensation layer. From the detail optical calculation based on the multi-scale analysis including near-field optics, it was found that surface plasmon loss in the metal cathode is suppressed to less than 10% due to long range and short range surface plasmon coupling between both sides of metal cathode. Not less than 90% of optical power in the dipole emission can be successfully utilized as propagation light. Light extraction efficiency in a phosphorescent device has improved about twice by using the multi-cathode structure.
Detection of Thyroid Carcinoma Antigen with Quantum Dots and Monoclonal IgM Antibody (JT-95) System
Kouki Fujioka,Noriyoshi Manabe,Mayumi Nomura,Michiko Watanabe,Hiroshi Takeyama,Akiyoshi Hoshino,Sanshiro Hanada,Kenji Yamamoto,Yoshinobu Manome
Journal of Nanomaterials , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/937684
Abstract: High-intensity fluorescent nanoparticles, quantum dots (QDs), have been applied to a wide range of biological studies and medical studies by taking advantage of their fluorescent properties. On the other hand, we have reported the specificity of JT-95 monoclonal IgM antibody, which recognizes the antigen of thyroid carcinomas. Here we show that the combination of QDs and JT-95 monoclonal antibody was applicable to Western blotting analysis, ELISA-like system, and fluorescent microscopic analysis of SW1736 thyroid carcinoma cell line. We have opened up the possibility that antibodies for higher specific recognition, even IgM, are applicable to the detection system with QDs.
Detection of a Soluble Form of CD109 in Serum of CD109 Transgenic and Tumor Xenografted Mice
Hiroki Sakakura, Yoshiki Murakumo, Shinji Mii, Sumitaka Hagiwara, Takuya Kato, Masato Asai, Akiyoshi Hoshino, Noriyuki Yamamoto, Sayaka Sobue, Masatoshi Ichihara, Minoru Ueda, Masahide Takahashi
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083385
Abstract: CD109, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein, is expressed at high levels in some human tumors including squamous cell carcinomas. As CD109 is reportedly cleaved by furin and its soluble form is secreted into culture medium in vitro, we hypothesized that CD109 could serve as a tumor marker in vivo. In this study, we investigated CD109 as a novel serum tumor marker using transgenic mice that overexpress mouse CD109 (mCD109-TG mice) and tumor xenografted mice inoculated with human CD109 (hCD109)-overexpressing HEK293 cells. In sera and urine of mCD109-TG mice, mCD109 was detected using western blotting. In xenografted mice, hCD109 secreted from inoculated tumors was detected in sera, using western blotting and CD109 ELISA. Concentrations of tumor-secreted CD109 increased proportionally as tumors enlarged. Concentrations of secreted CD109 decreased notably by 17 h after tumor resection, and became undetectable 48 h after resection. The half-life of tumor-secreted CD109 was about 5.86±0.17 h. These results indicate that CD109 is present in serum as a soluble form, and suggest its potential as a novel tumor marker in patients with cancers that express CD109.
Modulatory Effect of Motivation on the Association of Trait Anxiety and Cognitive Performance: A Pupillometric Study  [PDF]
Takatoshi Hoshino, Yoshihiko Tanno
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2017.77020
Abstract: The attentional control theory (ACT) proposes that trait anxiety disrupts functional efficiency of executive control of attention relating to working memory system such as shifting. ACT also emphasizes the modulatory role of motivation in anxiety on cognitive task performance. The present study investigated the association of trait anxiety-related inefficiencies in attentional shift and working memory performance in conjunction with the level of motivation. A variation of complex span paradigm is designed to systematically manipulate the time constraint on shifting attentional focus back and forth between working memory contents and processing task was used in this study. In the experiment, participants high and low in trait anxiety were allocated either high or low motivation induction conditions, and performed a series of complex span tasks. They also completed a state anxiety measure before and after the experimental task. Motivational states were assessed by the pupil dilation, which is known to reflect the amount of cognitive effort invested on the task at hand. Results showed that, only in low motivation condition, high trait-anxious individuals exhibited greater difficulty, relative to those low in trait anxiety, in maintaining working memory contents as the task demand increased. State anxiety showed no relation to working memory performance regardless of the level of motivation and task demands. Pupillary responses revealed that, in high motivational state, high trait-anxious individuals invested more effort than those low in trait anxiety when the task demand was low, F(1, 132) = 6.65, p = 0.0110, to moderate, F(1, 132) = 8.441, p = 0.00043. In accordance with ACT, these findings suggest that motivation can modulate the association between trait anxiety and cognitive performance along with the levels of task demand. Clinical implication is briefly discussed.
The Organization of the Senses of Polysemy in Japanese EFL Learners’ Mental Lexicon  [PDF]
Yuko Hoshino, Haruka Shimizu
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.93025
Abstract: The structure of the mental lexicon has been widely researched, but few studies focusing on polysemy have been conducted, even in an L1 (a learner’s first language) context, and almost no research has been conducted in an L2 (a learner’s second language) context. The current study aims to scrutinize how the different vocabulary size groups of Japanese EFL learners classify the various senses of basic polysemous words and to compare their categorization with sense classification based on a linguistic dictionary. The results indicated that those with an estimated vocabulary size consisting of 5500 words or over (hereafter, the upper group) classified senses in a more similar way to the dictionary than those whose vocabulary size comprised 5000 or fewer words (hereafter, the lower group). This was despite the fact that they both understood the target context well and the number of categorizations created was almost the same between the two groups. Moreover, the upper group tended to classify the senses of polysemy in a more similar way to the other participants in the same vocabulary group, while the lower group’s categorization was more divergent and less well-organized. These findings indicated that even though the participants understood each sense, the difference appeared in the ability to categorize the senses, suggesting that grouping the senses needs knowledge different from simply understanding them, and this knowledge is not yet fully developed even for basic words.
Dual F-signature
Akiyoshi Sannai
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: We define the dual F-signature of modules, which is equivalent to the F-signature if the module is the base ring. By using this invariant, We give characterizations of regular, F-regular, F-rational, and Gorenstein singularities.
The $δ$-vectors of reflexive polytopes and of the dual polytopes
Akiyoshi Tsuchiya
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: Let $\delta(\mathcal{P})$ be the $\delta$-vector of a reflexive polytope $\mathcal{P} \subset \mathbb{R}^d$ of dimension $d$ and $\delta(\mathcal{P} ^\vee)$ the $\delta$-vector of the dual polytope $\mathcal{P}^\vee \subset \mathbb{R}^d$. In general, $\delta(\mathcal{P})=\delta(\mathcal{P}^\vee)$ doesn't hold. In this paper, we give a higher-dimensional construction of reflexive polytope whose $\delta$-vector equals the $\delta$-vector of the dual polytope. In patricular, we consider the case that the reflexive polytope and the dual polytope are unimodularly equivalent.
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