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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2544 matches for " Akira Nishizono "
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Twelve Years of Rabies Surveillance in Sri Lanka, 1999–2010
Dushantha Karunanayake,Takashi Matsumoto,Omala Wimalaratne,Susilakanthi Nanayakkara,Devika Perera,Akira Nishizono,Kamruddin Ahmed
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003205
Abstract: Background Rabies is endemic in Sri Lanka, but little is known about the temporal and spatial trends of rabies in this country. Knowing these trends may provide insight into past control efforts and serve as the basis for future control measures. In this study, we analyzed distribution of rabies in humans and animals over a period of 12 years in Sri Lanka. Methods Accumulated data from 1999 through 2010 compiled by the Department of Rabies Diagnosis and Research, Medical Research Institute (MRI), Colombo, were used in this study. Results The yearly mean percentage of rabies-positive sample was 62.4% (47.6–75.9%). Three-fourths of the rabies-positive samples were from the Colombo, Gampaha, and Kalutara districts in Western province, followed by Galle in Southern province. A high percentage of the rabies samples were from dogs (85.2%), followed by cats (7.9%), humans (3.8%), wild animals (2.0%), and livestock (1.1%). Among wild animals, mongooses were the main victims followed by civets. The number of suspect human rabies cases decreased gradually in Sri Lanka, although the number of human samples submitted for laboratory confirmation increased. Conclusions The number of rabid dogs has remained relatively unchanged, but the number of suspect human rabies is decreasing gradually in Sri Lanka. These findings indicate successful use of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) by animal bite victims and increased rabies awareness. PEP is free of charge and is supplied through government hospitals by the Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka. Our survey shows that most positive samples were received from Western and Southern provinces, possibly because of the ease of transporting samples to the laboratory. Submissions of wild animal and livestock samples should be increased by creating more awareness among the public. Better rabies surveillance will require introduction of molecular methods for detection and the establishment of more regional rabies diagnostic laboratories.
Effects of combination pharmacotherapy and social skills training for schizophrenia: A randomized controlled trial  [PDF]
Eiko Shimada, Nobuo Anzai, Emi Ikebuchi, Shin-Ichi Niwa, Masahisa Nishizono
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.33026

Pharmaco-psychosocial treatment (PPST) refers to a treatment paradigm combining pharmacotherapy with psychosocial therapy. We conducted an 18-month randomized controlled tracking study to evaluate the efficacy of social skills training (SST) in 11 individuals with schizophrenia on risperidone monotherapy. They were randomized to either SST or non-SST group, and Global Assessment Functioning (GAF) and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores in the 2 groups showed gradual improvement. In the SST group, Digit Span Distraction Test (DSDT) at 12 and 18 months showed significant improvement. The Subjective Deficit Syndrome Scale (SDSS) scores in the SST group showed significant improvement after 6 months and showed a significant difference in comparison between the groups. After the subjective feeling of health was recovered, the items of motivation were recovered as a direct effect of SST. Some items of the Life Assessment Scale for the Mentally Ill (LASMI) score showed significant improvement (or significant trend) in only the SST group after 6 months. Items of daily life, work skills, and self-recognition were continuously improved. We report 2 cases in the SST group that had DSDT improvement in parallel with change of action and communication as a change of social function. This study is only exploratory due to the small number of cases. However, we have demonstrated potential improvement in cognitive function due to learning experiences that required working memory and attention, thus providing improvement in social life.

Commensal Microbiota Contributes to Chronic Endocarditis in TAX1BP1 Deficient Mice
Satoko Nakano, Emi Ikebe, Yoshiyuki Tsukamoto, Yan Wang, Takashi Matsumoto, Takahiro Mitsui, Takaaki Yahiro, Kunimitsu Inoue, Hiroaki Kawazato, Aiko Yasuda, Kanako Ito, Shigeo Yokoyama, Naohiko Takahashi, Mitsuo Hori, Tatsuo Shimada, Masatsugu Moriyama, Toshiaki Kubota, Katsushige Ono, Wataru Fujibuchi, Kuan-Teh Jeang, Hidekatsu Iha, Akira Nishizono
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073205
Abstract: Tax1-binding protein 1 (Tax1bp1) negatively regulates NF-κB by editing the ubiquitylation of target molecules by its catalytic partner A20. Genetically engineered TAX1BP1-deficient (KO) mice develop age-dependent inflammatory constitutions in multiple organs manifested as valvulitis or dermatitis and succumb to premature death. Laser capture dissection and gene expression microarray analysis on the mitral valves of TAX1BP1-KO mice (8 and 16 week old) revealed 588 gene transcription alterations from the wild type. SAA3 (serum amyloid A3), CHI3L1, HP, IL1B and SPP1/OPN were induced 1,180-, 361-, 187-, 122- and 101-fold respectively. WIF1 (Wnt inhibitory factor 1) exhibited 11-fold reduction. Intense Saa3 staining and significant I-κBα reduction were reconfirmed and massive infiltration of inflammatory lymphocytes and edema formation were seen in the area. Antibiotics-induced ‘germ free’ status or the additional MyD88 deficiency significantly ameliorated TAX1BP1-KO mice's inflammatory lesions. These pathological conditions, as we named ‘pseudo-infective endocarditis’ were boosted by the commensal microbiota who are usually harmless by their nature. This experimental outcome raises a novel mechanistic linkage between endothelial inflammation caused by the ubiquitin remodeling immune regulators and fatal cardiac dysfunction.
Phosphorus Release from Sediments in a Riparian Phragmites australis Community at the Estuary of the Chikugogawa River, Western Japan  [PDF]
Akira Haraguchi
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.37114
Abstract: In order to determine the contribution of aquatic macrophyte communities on nutrition to sustain the high primary productivity of an estuary aquatic community, we analyzed the process of phosphorus release from sediments in aquatic macrophyte community in the estuary of the Chikugogawa River, South-Western Japan. Vertical profile of PD3-4 concentration and redox potential (Eh) of pore water in sediments were investigated within and outside the Phragmites australis community. Sediment horizon lower than 23 cm layer from the surface showed anaerobic (Eh < -200 mV) in the P. australis community, whereas sediment was constantly oxic (Eh > 0 mV) up to 50 cm depth outside the P. australis community without organic matter accumulation. Non-vegetated sediment with organic matter accumulation showed anoxic profile as vegetated site. PD3-4 concentration in anaerobic parts of sediment showed higher than oxic parts, and higher PD3-4 concentration in sediment pore water corresponded to sulfur deposition in sediment. Sulfate ion supplied from the sea water is reduced under the anoxic condition and S2- reacts with water-insoluble phosphorus salts e.g. Fe3(PO4)2 or AlPO4 and Fe2S3 or Al2S3 precipitates. Thus PD3-4 was mobilized and released under anoxic sediments. P. australis supply organic litter to sediment and the sediment within the P. australis community showed anoxic after aerobic decomposition of organic substances in sediment. Incubation of sediments under N2 atmosphere accumulated PD3-4 in the medium corresponding to low Eh (< -300 mV) showing that PD3-4 was released under anaerobic condition. Estuary P. australis community has function for supplying PD3-4 to river water.
Analysis of the Tracer Diffusion Phenomena through Cracks in the Porous Media by Means of X-Ray CT  [PDF]
Akira Sato
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2013.48A003

The migration process of contamination materials in the porous rock mass was visualized and analyzed by X-ray CT image data. In this study, Kimachi sandstone, which had approximately 26% porosity, was used as a rock sample. Here two cases of diffusion phenomena were analyzed. One is the case that solute diffuses into the porous rock mass from the crack surfaces, and it simulates the contamination process of rock mass. Another is the case that the solute diffuses out of the porous rock mass, and it simulates the process that the contamination materials spread from highly contaminated sources. It was found that the diffusion phenomena were clearly visualized by X-ray CT method. By introducing the parameter, coefficient of tracer density increment α, quantitative analysis of tracer density became possible, and the relation between the density distribution of tracer and the crack apertures and the relation between the density distribution and porosity distribution became clear.

Effects of Salinity on Germination, Seedling Growth and Ecological Properties of Phragmites australis Communities in the Estuary of the Chikugogawa River, Southwestern Japan  [PDF]
Akira Haraguchi
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.55073

Salt tolerance of Phragmites australis populations was investigated in natural reed habitats in the estuary of the Chikugogawa River, southwestern Japan. P. australis populations were selected along the salinity gradient in the estuary, including limnetic (salinity 0.05%), oligohaline (0.4%) and polyhaline sections (2.5%). The ratio of Total-P/Total-N of river water showed high values in the oligohaline section and the above ground biomass, population height and culm diameter of P. australis showed maximum values in this section. Sufficient phosphorus supply could sustain the high productivity of the community in the oligohaline section, irrespective of the salinity of inundated water. The seed production of P. australis was lowest in the polyhaline section. Thus, the ecological performance of P. australis was highest in the oligohaline section and the performance declined with the increasing salinity of the habitat. The effects of salinity on germination and seedling growth were evaluated by means of cultivation in 0.0% -5.0% (NaCl w/w%) salinity medium. Seeds of P. australis collected from every natural population in the estuary failed to germinate at salinity levels above 2.3%. Growth of shoot length and above-ground biomass of seedlings germinated in the fresh water medium were measured for 21 days’ exposure to constant salinity solutions ranging from 0.0% -5.0%. Although mortality was high at salinity levels 3.5% and 5.0%, elongation of shoots of some plants was evident at a salinity level of 5.0%. Seeds from the population in the limnetic section

Extendibility Evaluation of Industrial EUV Source Technologies for kW Average Power and 6.x nm Wavelength Operation  [PDF]
Akira Endo
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.55039

Interests in the extendibility are growing after the introduction of the LPP (Laser Produced Plasma) EUV source technology in the semiconductor industry, towards higher average power and shorter wavelength, based on the basic architecture of the established LPP EUV source technology. It is discussed in this article that the power scaling of the 13.5nm wavelength source is essentially possible by a slight increase of the driving laser power, CE (Conversion Efficiency) and EUV collection efficiency by some introduction of novel component technologies. Extension of the EUV wavelength towards BEUV (Beyond EUV), namely 6.x nm is discussed based on the general rule of the UTA (Unresolved Transition Arrays) of high Z ions, and development of multilayer mirrors in this particular wavelength region. Technical difficulties are evaluated for the extension of the LPP source technology by considering the narrower mirror bandwidth and higher melting temperature of the candidate plasma materials. Alternative approach based on the superconducting FEL is evaluated in comparison with the LPP source technology for the future solution.

Effect of Degree of Cure on Sandwich Structural Capacitor Using Ion-Conductive Polymer with Carbon Fabric Skins  [PDF]
Akira Todoroki
Open Journal of Composite Materials (OJCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojcm.2016.64011
Abstract: Structural capacitors are composite structures that function as energy storage capacitors. An electric double-layer capacitor with a composite structure using a solid polymer electrolyte matrix with a glass fiber fabric separator has recently been developed. In the present study, new foam core sandwich structure is adopted and the effect of the degree of cure is experimentally investigated. Carbon fiber fabric cloth is used as electrodes, and the polystyrene foam core is used as separator. Material system of Poly Ethylene Glycol DiGlycidyl Ether (PEGDGE) with Lithium bisTriFluoromethane Sulfonyl Imide (LiTFSI) and hardener of TriEthylene TetrAmine (TETA) is adopted as ion-conductive polymer matrix. The effect of the cure degree is experimentally investigated by using 100% cure degree, 70% cure degree and 0% cure degree specimens. As a result, the polystyrene foam-core sandwich system is proved to be effective, but the capacitance is not enough because of the lack of surface area of the carbon fiber electrodes. As the remained TETA impedes the movement of Li+ cation in the solid polymer by means of the segment-motion-assisted diffusion process, the low degree of cure causes small capacitance with this material system.
Factors Associated with the Walking Ability of Hemiplegic Stroke Patients  [PDF]
Akira Matsuyama
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2018.81002
Gait disturbance due to motor paralysis affects activities of daily living and quality of life in patients with stroke. Thus, commencing walking training from the acute phase of recovery is essential. This study aimed to clarify the factors affecting the walking ability of hemiplegic stroke patients. Eighty hospitalized patients with a first chemic or hemorrhagic stroke within 1 year but not less than 1 month after stroke onset were included in this study. The dependent variable was walking ability (Functional Independence Measure [FIM] locomotion score), and the independent variables were spirituality (Spirituality Rating Scale-A [SRS-A]), amount of social support (Japanese version of the Abbreviated Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, frequency of family visit), stroke severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS]), degree of motor paralysis (lower extremity Brunnstrom stage), the lower limb loading force of the affected and unaffected side, and age. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis were performed. Multiple regression analysis showed that FIM locomotion score was associated with NIHSS (standard partial regression coefficient =
Adaptive Method for State Estimation of Sound Environment System with Uncertainty and its Application to Psychological Evaluation  [PDF]
Hisako Orimoto, Akira Ikuta
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2012.23025
Abstract: The actual sound environment system exhibits various types of linear and non-linear characteristics, and it often contains uncertainty. Furthermore, the observations in the sound environment are often in the level-quantized form. In this paper, two types of methods for estimating the specific signal for sound envi-ronment systems with uncertainty and the quantized observation are proposed by introducing newly a system model of the conditional probability type and moment statistics of fuzzy events. The effectiveness of the proposed theoretical methods is confirmed by applying them to the actual problem of psychological evalua-tion for the sound environment.
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