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Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole-Induced Hepatitis in Mixed Connective Tissue Disease  [PDF]
Takeshi Sugimoto, Yumiko Nobuhara, Seiji Kawano, Akio Morinobu
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2011.25106
Abstract: Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) is associated with severe hepatic toxicity or liver failure. We present a case of severe hepatic toxicity for whom TMP-SMZ was prescribed as part of treatment for mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). TMP-SMZ was used to prevent complications from steroid therapy, but fever and hepatic toxicity developed with repeated TMP-SMZ medication. While the drug lymphocyte stimulation test (DLST) for TMP-SMZ showed negative, the genotype for N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) showed type *6/*7, which is the slow acetylating type for NAT2 activity. This finding for NAT2 genotype and the patient’s clinical history lead us to speculate that her fever and hepatic toxicity were caused by TMP-SMZ.
Interpolating moving least-squares methods for fitting potential energy surfaces: The dependence on coordinate systems for six-dimensional applications
Akio Kawano,Gia G. Maisuradze
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: The basic formal and numerical aspects of different degree interpolated moving least-squares (IMLS) methods are studied using sixteen different combinations of coordinate system for fitting and weight functions. For the application we use six-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) of hydrogen peroxide, for which an analytic ("exact") potential is available in the literature. We systematically examine the effect of parameters in the weight function, the degree of the IMLS fit, and number of ab initio points. From these studies we discovered that the IMLS for almost all pairs of coordinate system show qualitatively similar behavior, however, the accuracy of the fits is noticeably different. We also found compact and accurate representations of potentials for presented degrees of IMLS.
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Nucleation of Water: Determining the Sticking Probability and Formation Energy of a Cluster
Kyoko K. Tanaka,Akio Kawano,Hidekazu Tanaka
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1063/1.4867909
Abstract: We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the nucleation of water vapor in order to test nucleation theories. Simulations were performed for a wide range of supersaturation ratios (S = 3-25) and water temperatures (Tw=300-390K). We obtained the nucleation rates and the formation free energies of a subcritical cluster from the cluster size distribution. The classical nucleation theory (CNT) and the modified classical nucleation theory (MCNT) overestimate the nucleation rates in all cases. The semi-phenomenological (SP) model, which corrects the MCNT prediction using the second virial coefficient of a vapor, reproduces the formation free energy of a cluster with the size < 20 to within 10 % and the nucleation rate and cluster size distributions to within one order of magnitude. The sticking probability of the vapor molecules to the clusters was also determined from the growth rates of the clusters. The sticking probability rapidly increases with the supersaturation ratio S, which is similar to the Lennard-Jones system.
Super-Droplet Method for the Numerical Simulation of Clouds and Precipitation: a Particle-Based Microphysics Model Coupled with Non-hydrostatic Model
Shin-ichiro Shima,Kanya Kusano,Akio Kawano,Tooru Sugiyama,Shintaro Kawahara
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1002/qj.441
Abstract: A novel simulation model of cloud microphysics is developed, which is named Super-Droplet Method (SDM). SDM enables accurate calculation of cloud microphysics with reasonable cost in computation. A simple SDM for warm rain, which incorporates sedimentation, condensation/evaporation, stochastic coalescence, is developed. The methodology to couple SDM and a non-hydrostatic model is also developed. It is confirmed that the result of our Monte Carlo scheme for the coalescence of super-droplets agrees fairly well with the solution of stochastic coalescence equation. A preliminary simulation of a shallow maritime cumulus formation initiated by a warm bubble is presented to demonstrate the practicality of SDM. Further discussions are devoted for the extension and the computational efficiency of SDM to incorporate various properties of clouds, such as, several types of ice crystals, several sorts of soluble/insoluble CCNs, their chemical reactions, electrification, and the breakup of droplets. It is suggested that the computational cost of SDM becomes lower than spectral (bin) method when the number of attributes $d$ becomes larger than some critical value, which may be $2\sim4$.
Transmedullary Decompression for Humeral Diaphysis Solitary Bone Cysts  [PDF]
Akio Sakamoto
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2013.32015

Solitary bone cysts are benign, fluid-filled cavities that most often occur in childhood. Several minimally invasive decompression methods have been proposed; however, performing a surgical procedure through the thinned overlying cortex raises the risk of pathological fracture and neurovascular damage, especially in lesions located in the bone diaphysis. We describe a new technique that circumvents these problems: tunneling through the normal cortex and medullary space with a flexible reamer, placing a retrograde medullary nail for cyst decompression.

A Simple and Fast Separation Method of Fe Employing Extraction Resin for Isotope Ratio Determination by Multicollector ICP-MS  [PDF]
Akio Makishima
International Journal of Analytical Mass Spectrometry and Chromatography (IJAMSC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijamsc.2013.12012

A new, simple and fast separation method for Fe using an extraction chromatographic resin, Aliquat 336 (commercially available as TEVA resin) has been developed. A one milliliter column containing 0.33 mL TEVA resin on 0.67 mL CG-71C was used.Iron was adsorbed with 6mol·L-1 HCl + H2O2 on TEVA resin, and recovered with 2 mol·L-1HNO3. The recovery yield and total blank were 93.5 ± 6.5% and 6 ng, respectively. Theseparation method is simple, and takes < 2 hours. For evaluation of the Fe separation, Fe isotope ratios were measured by a double-spike method employing multicollector inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) with repeatability of 0.06‰ (SD) for the standard solution and ~0.05‰ for the silicate samples. Therefore, the column chemistry developed in this study is a viable option for Fe isotope ratio measurement by MC-ICP-MS.

Influence of Pressure on Germination of Garden Cress, Leaf Mustard, and Radish Seeds at Various Temperatures  [PDF]
Akio Shimizu, Jun Kumakura
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2011.23050
Abstract: The effects of hydrostatic pressure (0.1 - 400 MPa) and temperature (4°C, 25°C, and 35°C) on the germination of three types of seeds (garden cress, leaf mustard, and radish) were studied. The normal germination rate of the three types of seeds was decreased at high hydrostatic pressure, and germination time tended to be delayed. Pressure and temperature had two types of effects on seed germination. Germination of garden cress and leaf mustard seeds was more resistant to pressure at lower temperature. Conversely, germination of radish seeds was most pressure-sensitive at low temperature, and germination drastically decreased with treatment at 50 MPa and 4°C. Generally, pressure and temperature effects on protein structure and enzyme activity have been classified into two types, “hillside”-like (pressurization decreases the stable temperature range) and “tongue”-like (stabilizing effect of moderate pressure against heat denaturation). Therefore, the type of temperature-pressure effects on germination of garden cress and leaf mustard seeds is classified as “hillside”-like and that of radish seeds is classified as “tongue”-like, similarly to the generally observed effects on protein denaturation.
Dynamic Monopoly with Demand Delay  [PDF]
Akio Matsumoto, Ferenc Szidarovszky
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.42022

This study analyses the dynamics of nonlinear monopoly. To this end, the conventional assumptions in the text-book monopoly are modified; first, the complete information on the market is replaced with the partial information; second, the instantaneous information is substituted by the delay information. As a result, since such a monopoly is unable to jump, with one shot, to the optimal point for which the profit is maximized, the monopoly has to search for it. In a continuoustime framework, the delay destabilizes the otherwise stable monopoly model and generates cyclic oscillations via a Hopf bifurcation. In a discrete-time framework, the steady state bifurcates to a bounded oscillation via a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. Although this has been only an introduction of delay into the traditional monopoly model, it is clear that the delay can be a source of essentially different behavior from those of the nondelay model.

Regras locais e a solu??o de problemas envolvendo geodésicas
Kawano, Alexandre;
Rem: Revista Escola de Minas , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0370-44672001000100007
Abstract: the problem of finding geodesics of a surface is a topic of differential geometry and tensor calculus. traditionally, by means of analytical manipulation, the problem originally put in terms of length of a line is restated into a set of coupled partial differential equations of difficult solution. complexity theory proposes the reverse way of viewing nature, first stating simple local rules that elementary agents must follow, and then from the interactions at the local level, to predict the behavior of the whole. in this paper a local rule based on the huygens principle is proposed that can be used to find geodesics of any surface. by using the rule, problems once considered difficult can be solved in an intuitive way.
Prion-derived copper-binding peptide fragments catalyze the generation of superoxide anion in the presence of aromatic monoamines
Tomonori Kawano
International Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Objectives: Studies have proposed two opposing roles for copper-bound forms of prion protein (PrP) as an anti-oxidant supporting the neuronal functions and as a pro-oxidant leading to neurodegenerative process involving the generation of reactive oxygen species. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis in which putative copper-binding peptides derived from PrP function as possible catalysts for monoamine-dependent conversion of hydrogen peroxide to superoxide in vitro. Materials and methods: Four peptides corresponding to the copper (II)-binding motifs in PrP were synthesized and used for analysis of peptide-catalyzed generation of superoxide in the presence of Cu (II) and other factors naturally present in the neuronal tissues. Results: Among the Cu-binding peptides tested, the amino acid sequence corresponding to the Cu-binding site in the helical region was shown to be the most active for superoxide generation in the presence of Cu(II), hydrogen peroxide and aromatic monoamines, known precursors or intermediates of neurotransmitters. Among monoamines tested, three compounds namely phenylethylamine, tyramine and benzylamine were shown to be good substrates for superoxide-generating reactions by the Cu-bound helical peptide. Conclusions: Possible roles for these reactions in development of prion disease were suggested.
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