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Solitary bone cysts are benign, fluid-filled cavities that most often
occur in childhood. Several minimally invasive decompression methods have
been proposed; however, performing a surgical procedure through the thinned
overlying cortex raises the risk of pathological fracture and neurovascular
damage, especially in lesions located in the bone diaphysis. We describe a new
technique that circumvents these problems: tunneling through the normal cortex
and medullary space with a flexible reamer, placing a retrograde medullary
nail for cyst decompression.
A new, simple and fast separation method for Fe using an extraction chromatographic resin, Aliquat 336 (commercially available as TEVA resin) has been developed. A one milliliter column containing 0.33 mL TEVA resin on 0.67 mL CG-71C was used.Iron was adsorbed with 6mol·L-1 HCl + H2O2 on TEVA resin, and recovered with 2 mol·L-1HNO3. The recovery yield and total blank were 93.5 ± 6.5% and 6 ng, respectively. Theseparation method is simple, and takes < 2 hours. For evaluation of the Fe separation, Fe isotope ratios were measured by a double-spike method employing multicollector inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) with repeatability of 0.06‰ (SD) for the standard solution and ~0.05‰ for the silicate samples. Therefore, the column chemistry developed in this study is a viable option for Fe isotope ratio measurement by MC-ICP-MS.
This study analyses the
dynamics of nonlinear monopoly. To this end, the conventional assumptions in
the text-book monopoly are modified; first, the complete information on the
market is replaced with the partial information; second, the instantaneous
information is substituted by the delay information. As a result, since such a
monopoly is unable to jump, with one shot, to the optimal point for which the
profit is maximized, the monopoly has to search for it. In a continuoustime
framework, the delay destabilizes the otherwise stable monopoly model and
generates cyclic oscillations via a Hopf bifurcation. In a discrete-time
framework, the steady state bifurcates to a bounded oscillation via a
Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. Although this has been only an introduction of
delay into the traditional monopoly model, it is clear that the delay can be a
source of essentially different behavior from those of the nondelay model.