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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19280 matches for " Akhtar Ali "
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Fuzzy clustering of time series gene expression data with cubic-spline  [PDF]
Yu Wang, Maia Angelova, Akhtar Ali
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2013.13004

Data clustering techniques have been applied to ex- tract information from gene expression data for two decades. A large volume of novel clustering algorithms have been developed and achieved great success. However, due to the diverse structures and intensive noise, there is no reliable clustering approach can be applied to all gene expression data. In this paper, we aim to the feature of high noise and propose a cubic smoothing spline fitted for the time course ex- pression profile, by which noise can be filtered and then groups genes into clusters by applying fuzzy c-means clustering on the resulting splines (FCMS). The discrete values of radius of curvature are used to compute the similarity between spline curves. Results on gene expression data show that the FCMS has better performance than the original fuzzy c-means on reliability and noise robustness.

Modeling the Mangla Dam Spillway for Cavitation and Aerators Optimization  [PDF]
Mohammad Rafi, Akhtar Ali, Ghulam Qadir, Rafaquat Ali
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.412121
Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of increased reservoir conservation level by 40 ft (12.2 m), on spillway velocities; it’s discharging capacity and associated cavitation risk. The study optimized the aerators size and shape to avoid cavitations. The mathematical model was used to estimate the flow velocities and cavitation risk, when scale model study assessed the spillway discharging capacity and optimized the performance of the aerators for modified conditions. The mathematical model simulations showed increased flow velocities and damage index for modified conditions. The damage potential was 2 - 3 times higher with modifications and falls within the major to catastrophic region. The scale model study showed that discharging capacity of the spillway can effectively be restricted to original design by raising spillway crest by 5.0 ft (1.52 m). The scale model study also showed that the two aerators near sluice and at the chute with an air duct pipe of 3.0 ft diameter can improve the free surface flow profile reducing the risks of cavitation. Simulations for several configurations demonstrated clearer affect of aerators ramps on flow trajectory and gate opening. It also depicted that the height of the ramp of sluice aerator has a positive effect on the flow performance to about 7.5 inches (19 cm), when further increase in the ramp height reduced the flow performance.
Significance of ROI Coding using MAXSHIFT Scaling applied on MRI Images in Teleradiology-Telemedicine  [PDF]
Pervez Akhtar, Muhammad Bhatti, Tariq Ali, Muhammad Muqeet
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2008, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2008.12018
Abstract: Within the expanding paradigm of medical imaging in Teleradiology-Telemedicine there is increasing demand for transmitting diagnostic medical imagery. These are usually rich in radiological contents and the associated file sizes are large which must be compressed with minimal file size to minimize transmission time and robustly coded to withstand required network medium. It has been reinforced through extensive research that the diagnostically important regions of medical images, the Region of Interest (ROI), must be compressed by lossless or near lossless algorithm while on the other hand, the background region be compressed with some loss of information but still recognizable using JPEG 2000 standard. We develop a compression model and present its application on MRI images. Applying on MRI images achieved higher compression ratio 16:1, analogously minimum transmission time, using MAXSHIFT method proved diagnostically significant and effective both objectively and subjectively.
Efficacy of plant extracts in plant disease management  [PDF]
Malkhan Singh Gurjar, Shahid Ali, Masood Akhtar, Kangabam Suraj Singh
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.33050
Abstract: The overzealous and indiscriminate use of most of the synthetic fungicides has created different types of environmental and toxicological problems. Recently, in different parts of the world, attention has been paid towards exploitation of higher plant products as novel chemotherapeutants in plant protection. The popularity of botanical pesticides is once again increasing and some plant products are being used globally as green pesticides. Pyrethroids and neem products are well established commercially as botanical pesticides and recently some essential oils of higher plants have also been used as antimicrobials against storage pests because of their relatively safe status and wide acceptance by the consumers. Some of the volatile oils, which often contain the principal aromatic and flavouring components of herbs and spices, have been recommended as plant based antimicrobials to retard microbial contamination and reduction in spoilage of food commodities. In the context of agricultural pest management, botanical pesticides are best suited for use in organic food production in industrialized countries but can play a much greater role in the production and post harvest protection of food products in developing countries.
RT-PCR and CP gene based molecular characterization of a cucumber mosaic cucumovirus from Aligarh, U.P., India  [PDF]
Shahid Ali, Masood Akhtar, Kangabam S. Singh, Qamar A. Naqvi
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.38118
Abstract: A virus disease of garden sage (Salvia splendens Ker-Gawl.) was observed and characterized showing symptoms of severe mosaic, mottling and distortion of leaves being remain shortened and growth retarded. The virus was transmitted to the healthy plants of Salvia spp. as well as many other hosts by mechanical inoculation, Myzus persicae Sulzer and Aphis gossypii Glover transmit the virus in non-persistent manner. Purified sample in EM showed spherical particles c.28 nm in diameter. DAC- ELISA [1] was performed with crude sap, specific polyclonal anti-serum (PVAS 242a, ATCC, USA) and alkaline phosphatase-linked secondary antibodies (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH or DSMZ, Germany). The mean absorbance at 405 nm for negative and positive controls were 0.061 ± 0.008 and 0.349 ± 0.003 respectively, while infected samples were recorded four-times more than the value of negative controls with values that ranged between 0.289 ± 0.005 and 0.325 ± 0.003. RT-PCR was performed using total RNA as templates and CMV Coat Protein (CP) gene specific reverse and forward primers, gel was electrophoresed on 1% agarose, an amplification of expected size 650 bp fragment was obtained only in the infected sample which proved that the present virus is a strain of CMV, the type member of the genus cucumovirus belonging to the family Bromoviridae.
Socio-economic Affects of Floods on Female Teachers in Jampur (Pakistan)
Muhammad Ayub Buzdar,Akhtar Ali
Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry , 2011,
Abstract: Women are major affected segment of society in any disaster in under developed countries. Floods of 2010, in Pakistan, affected more than 17 million people. Ultimately, it created several social, psychological and financial problems for affected females. The current paper aimed to study the socio-economic affects of floods on female teachers of private schools in tehsil headquarters Jampur. There were sixty two registered and non-registered private schools in the city in which five hundreds and seventy nine female teachers were working. Eight schools were selected as cluster to collect the data. Totally sample was comprised fifty eight female teachers. Semi structure interview and focus group discussion techniques were used to gather the data. Collected data were analyzed use thematic analysis approach. Findings indicated that female school teachers working in private school of city Jampur were badly affected in floods 2010. They had to face several social and financial problems. There was much space to improve relief and aid activities in the affected areas. Separate health facilities for women were also needed. The paper recommends better planning and its transparent and fair implementations in next rainy season.
Parents’ Attitude toward Daughters’ Education in Tribal Area of Dera Ghazi Khan (Pakistan)
Muhammad Ayub Buzdar,Akhtar Ali
Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry , 2011,
Abstract: The paper aimed to investigate the parents’ attitudes toward their daughters’ education in tribal areas of district Dera Ghazi Khan (Pakistan). To achieve the objectives four research questions were established. Focus of the questions was to examine the significance of girls’ education for tribal parents. Existing and expected role of tribal parents as well as contribution from government and community for girls’ education was also aimed to explore in research questions. Sample comprised thirty parents and five teachers/educational workers. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and was analyzed using content analysis approach. The findings disclosed the parents’ positive perceptions toward their daughters’ education but at the same time severe scarcity of human and physical infrastructure for girls’ education was also presented in the area. The paper recommended several empirical steps to overcome these problems including provision of new school locations and ensuring the availability of school buildings, supporting infrastructure and teachers for already functioning schools in the area. Financial aid for poor students was also proposed in the study.
Intercropping Maize with Cowpeas and Mungbean under Rainfed Conditions
Naveed Akhtar,Mirza Hassan,Akhtar Ali,Muhammad Riaz
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: The research study was conducted at two locations i.e. Barani Agricultural Research station (Kohat) and Barani Seed Farm (Hangu) to ascertain the biological efficient and economic efficient intercropping system of maize with cowpeas and mungbean. The studies consisted of five intercropping systems (maize sole, cowpeas sole, mungbean sole, maize + cowpeas and maize + mungbean). The results regarding LER showed that maize + cowpeas intercrop average of two locations was 1.29 indicating 29 percent yield advantage which is also biological efficient system. The maize + mungbean indicating 4 percent yield advantage. However, the economic analysis gave a different results which showed that mungbean sole crop gain highest BCR value (return per rupee invested i.e. Rs. 4.82) followed by cowpeas sole crop (Rs. 4.13). It is concluded that apart from biological efficient different economic indices should be computed for comparison and final recommendation for wide spread adoption.
Effect Of Planting Geometry And Weed Control Methods On Yield Components Of Wheat
Akhtar Ali,Mirza Hassan,Naveed Akhtar,Javed Iqbal
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: The three row geometries were wheat planted in 30 cm apart row, 45 cm apart row and 30 cm apart rows with 3rd row skip. The eight weed control treatments were hand hoeing, mechanical hoeing, mechanical hoeing twice, Dicuran-MA, Tribunel, maize stalk mulch, harvesting of weed and seed increase rate. Among all the three row geometries, grain yield was higher in 45 cm apart rows than the usual method of planting in 30 cm row spacing. Tribunel application produced higher yield followed by mechanical hoeing twice. High 1000 grain weight was observed in the application of Tribunel, Dicuran-MA and the mulching of maize stalk. More grains/spike have been noted in the application of Tribunel. The lowest grain yield/ha, 1000 grain weight and grains/spike were recorded in the check
Frequency of Bcr-Abl Fusion Oncogene Splice Variants Associated with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML)  [PDF]
Zafar Iqbal, Fatima Manzoor, Mudassar Iqbal, Shahid Ali, Nadeem Sheikh, Mahwish Khan, Aamer Aleem, Tanveer Akhtar
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2011.22022
Abstract: BCR-ABL fusion oncogene originates from the reciprocal translocation of chromosome 9 and 22 t(9;22) (q34;q11). It translates a chimeric protein, p210, characterized by constitutive activation of its tyrosine kinase, which triggers leukemogenic pathways resulting in onset of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In CML, the classic fusion is b2a2 or b3a2 fusing exon 13 (b2) or exon 14 (b3) of BCR to exon 2 (a2) of ABL. The type of bcr/abl transcripts may be associated with different prognosis and hence useful in therapeutic plan. This study was conducted to calculate the frequency of these splice variants as the frequencies of different fusion oncogenes associated with leukaemia can vary in different geographical regions due to interplay of genetic variation in different ethnic populations, diverse environmental factors and living style. A very sensitive nested RT-PCR was established to detect BCR-ABL splice variants in CML. Sensitivity of RT-PCR assay was of the order of 10–6. Thirty CML patients were subjected to BCR-ABL analysis. Out of 30 Pakistani patients, 19 (64%) expressed b3a2 while 11 (36%) expressed b2a2 transcript. This shows that BCR-ABL splice variants differ in their frequencies which may have an effect on biology and implications for prognosis and management of BCR-ABL positive Leukemias.
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