Abstract:
Hexagonal lattice systems (e.g. triangular, honeycomb, kagome) possess a multidimensional irreducible representation corresponding to $d_{x^2-y^2}$ and $d_{xy}$ symmetry. Consequently, various unconventional phases that combine these $d$-wave representations can occur, and in so doing may break time-reversal and spin rotation symmetries. We show that hexagonal lattice systems with extended repulsive interactions can exhibit instabilities in the particle-hole channel to phases with either $d_{x^2-y^2}+d_{xy}$ or $d+id$ symmetry. When lattice translational symmetry is preserved, the phase corresponds to nematic order in the spin-channel with broken time-reversal symmetry, known as the $\beta$ phase. On the other hand, lattice translation symmetry can be broken, resulting in various $d_{x^2-y^2}+d_{xy}$ density wave orders. In the weak-coupling limit, when the Fermi surface lies close to a van Hove singularity, instabilities of both types are obtained in a controlled fashion.

Abstract:
Motivated by recent observations of charge order in the pseudogap regime of hole-doped cuprates, we show that {\it crisscrossed} stripe order can be stabilized by coherent, momentum-dependent interlayer tunneling, which is known to be present in several cuprate materials. We further describe how subtle variations in the couplings between layers can lead to a variety of stripe ordering arrangements, and discuss the implications of our results for recent experiments in underdoped cuprates.

Abstract:
Because a material with an incommensurate charge density wave (ICDW) is only quasi-periodic, Bloch's theorem does not apply and there is no sharply defined Fermi surface. We will show that, as a consequence, there are no quantum oscillations which are truly periodic functions of $1/B$ (where $ B$ is the magnitude of an applied magnetic field). For a weak ICDW, there exist broad ranges of $1/B$ in which approximately periodic variations occur, but with frequencies that vary inexorably in an unending cascade with increasing $1/B$. For a strong ICDW, e.g. in a quasi-crystal, no quantum oscillations survive at all. Rational and irrational numbers really are different.

Abstract:
We propose the possible detection of broken mirror symmetries in correlated two-dimensional materials by elastotransport measurements. Using linear response theory we calculate the shearconductivity $\Gamma_{xx,xy}$, defined as the linear change of the longitudinal conductivity $\sigma_{xx}$ due to a shear strain $\epsilon_{xy}$. This quantity can only be non-vanishing when in-plane mirror symmetries are broken and we discuss how candidate states in the cuprate pseudogap regime (e.g. various loop current or charge orders) may exhibit a finite shearconductivity. We also provide a realistic experimental protocol for detecting such a response.

Abstract:
Harper's equation (aka the "almost Mathieu" equation) famously describes the quantum dynamics of an electron on a one dimensional lattice in the presence of an incommensurate potential with magnitude $V$ and wave number $Q$. It has been proven that all states are delocalized if $V$ is less than a critical value $V_c=2t$ and localized if $V> V_c$. Here, we show that this result (while correct) is highly misleading, at least in the small $Q$ limit. In particular, for $VE_c$, form a set of narrow bands with exponentially small bandwidths $ \sim t\ \exp[-(2\pi\alpha/Q)]$ (where $\alpha$ is an energy dependent number of order 1) separated by band-gaps $ \sim t Q$. Thus, the states with $|E|> E_c$ are "almost localized" in that they have an exponentially large effective mass and are easily localized by small perturbations. We establish this both using exact numerical solution of the problem, and by exploiting the well known fact that the same eigenvalue problem arises in the Hofstadter problem of an electron moving on a 2D lattice in the presence of a magnetic field, $B=Q/2\pi$. From the 2D perspective, the almost localized states are simply the Landau levels associated with semiclassical precession around closed contours of constant quasiparticle energy; that they are not truly localized reflects an extremely subtle form of magnetic breakdown.

Abstract:
The elastoresistivity tensor $m_{ij,kl}$ characterizes changes in a material's resistivity due to strain. As a fourth-rank tensor, elastoresistivity can be a uniquely useful probe of the symmetries and character of the electronic state of a solid. We present a symmetry analysis of $m_{ij,kl}$ (both in the presence and absence of a magnetic field) based on the crystalline point group, focusing for pedagogic purposes on the $D_{4h}$ point group (of relevance to several materials of current interest). We also discuss the relation between $m_{ij,kl}$ and various thermodynamic susceptibilities, particularly where they are sensitive to critical fluctuations proximate to a critical point at which a point group symmetry is spontaneously broken.

Abstract:
Using an exact numerical solution and semiclassical analysis, we investigate quantum oscillations (QOs) in a model of a bilayer system with an anisotropic (elliptical) electron pocket in each plane. Key features of QO experiments in the high temperature superconducting cuprate YBCO can be reproduced by such a model, in particular the pattern of oscillation frequencies (which reflect "magnetic breakdown" between the two pockets) and the polar and azimuthal angular dependence of the oscillation amplitudes. However, the requisite magnetic breakdown is possible only under the assumption that the horizontal mirror plane symmetry is spontaneously broken and that the bilayer tunneling, $t_\perp$, is substantially renormalized from its `bare' value. Under the assumption that $t_\perp= \tilde{Z}t_\perp^{(0)}$, where $\tilde{Z}$ is a measure of the quasiparticle weight, this suggests that $\tilde{Z} \lesssim 1/20$. Detailed comparisons with new YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{6.58}$ QO data, taken over a very broad range of magnetic field, confirm specific predictions made by the breakdown scenario.

Abstract:
Measurements of the differential elastoresistance of URu$_2$Si$_2$ reveal that the fluctuations associated with the 17 K Hidden Order phase transition have a nematic component. Approaching the "Hidden Order" phase transition from above, the nematic susceptibility abruptly changes sign, indicating that while the Hidden Order phase has a nematic component, it breaks additional symmetries.

Abstract:
The aim of the National Water Resource Strategy developed by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry as the public trustee of the country's water resources, is to ensure that there is enough water of the right quality for the people of South Africa. This is to be achieved through proper use and management of water resources. The Strategy describes the ways in which South Africa's water resources will be protected, used, developed, conserved, managed and controlled. Since this may affect the way in which the various sectors of society use and value water, it is imperative that stakeholders have access to sufficient information and are provided with adequate opportunities to comment on the Strategy. Water means different things to different stakeholders. Because of the diverse nature of the South African population, several different approaches and methods were used to consult about the National Water Resource Strategy. The main principles of consulting the vast diversity of water users across the country included consultation with the various sectors of society both at national and Water Management Area level, building the capacity of the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry staff to conduct their own consultation meetings and consulting stakeholders according to ability. Information was made available to accommodate the different levels of education and in different formats, allowing the broadest range of stakeholders to comprehend the information and thus contribute meaningfully during the consultation process. This multi-pronged approach to consultation resulted in many positive outcomes, which included gathering comments and issues regarding the Strategy from the broadest spectrum of the diverse South African population. Water SA Vol. 30 (5) 2005: pp.125-132

Non Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (NOFDM) systems make use of a transmission signal set which is not restricted to orthonormal bases unlike previous OFDM systems. The usage of non-orthogonal bases generally results in a trade-off between Bit Error Rate (BER) and receiver complexity. This paper studies the use of Gabor basedon designing a Spectrally Efficient Multi-Carrier Modulation Scheme. Using Gabor Transform with a specific Gaussian envelope; we derive the expected BER-SNR performance. The spectral usage of such a NOFDM system when affected by a channel that imparts Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) is estimated. We compare the obtained results with an OFDM system and observe that with comparable BER performance, this system gives a better spectral usage. The effect of window length on spectral usage is also analyzed.