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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 561 matches for " Akande Oladimeji Ajayi "
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Pattern of Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies as Seen at Endoscopy in Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria  [PDF]
Akande Oladimeji Ajayi, Ebenezer Adekunle Ajayi, Olusoji Abidemi Solomon, Emmanuel Abidemi Omonisi, Samuel Ayokunle Dada
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102731
Aims and Objective: Gastrointestinal malignancies are among the most lethal of all malignancies and are equally notorious for rapidly progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms, thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, type, pattern and the histologic characteristics of upper gastrointestinal tumors seen in patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at the Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a three year cross-sectional study involving 78 patients with suspected upper gastrointestinal tumor referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The study was conducted from January 2011 to December 2013 at the Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital (EKSUTH), Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Relevant clinical information such as age, gender, clinical presentations, smoking history, alcohol use, spices, and consumption of opiates were obtained from the patients. Tissue biopsies were taken from the suspected lesions for histological confirmation and characterization. An ethical clearance for this study was obtained from the EKSUTH Ethical and Research committee and all the patients gave written consent for the study. SPSS version 15.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA) was applied for statistical analysis using the t-test for quantitative variables and χ2 test for qualitative variables. Differences were considered to be statistically significant if P value was less than 0.05. Results: Seventy eight patients were enrolled into this study comprising 22 females and 56 males. The mean age of the population was 55.75 ± 7.20 years. The presenting symptoms were; abdominal mass in 30.8%, abdominal pain in 29.5%, weight loss in 20.5%, dysphagia in 6.4%, haematemesis in 5.1%, melaena in 5.1% and anaemia in 2.6% of the patients. The risk factors identified in the study included; tobacco use or smoking in 25.6%, alcohol in 19.2%, spices in 14.1%, opiates in 3.8% and combination of the above risk factors in 37.2%. 67.9% of the tumors were located in the stomach, 16.7% in the oesophagus and 15.4% in the first part of the duodenum. Of those located in the stomach, 62.3% were in the antrum while 37.7% were in the corpus. Of the oesophageal tumors, 61.5% were in the mid oesophagus, 30.8% were in the lower oesophagus and 7.8% in the upper oesophagus. Tissue histology showed 70.5% were adenocarcinoma, 26.9% were squamous cell carcinoma, 1.3% lymphoma and 1.3% malignant polyp. This was statistically significant p =< 0.05. Conclusion: In view of the fact that upper GI tumors can rapidly progress to advanced stages in the absence of serious symptoms, gastroduodenoscopy is advocated in patients with signs and symptoms of dyspepsia to avoid delayed diagnosis and improve the disease outcome.
Burden of Hepatitis B Viral Infection among Workers in a Tertiary Health Institution in Southwestern Nigeria  [PDF]
Odimayo Michael Simidele, Ajayi Oladimeji, Adejoke Adijat Joseph, Victor Aduayi, Nwadioha Ihenacho Samuel
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2018.84008
Abstract: Background: Health care workers (HCWs) are particularly at risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections due to contact with infectious material like contaminated blood and body fluids or contact with HBV contaminated fomites. HBV vaccine is efficient in preventing infection though 5% - 10% of individuals are non-responders. HBV vaccine was introduced into Nigerian childhood immunization services in year 2004. However, routine vaccination of HCWs is often not implemented due to cost in resource limited settings like ours. Therapeutic options are also not affordable and available options do not guarantee complete cure. This study aimed at determining the burden of HBV infection among HCWs in Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital (EKSUTH), Ado Ekiti, Nigeria, in order to institute prompt treatment as a way of curbing HBV spread and disease progression. Materials and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted between October and December, 2016. Staff from various cadres in EKSUTH, who accepted to participate, was recruited into the study. Following informed consent, 5 mls of blood collected from each participant was screened for HBV markers using HBV serologic combo test kit. Demography and Information on risk factors were collected with questionnaire. Results: A total of 965 participants, of which 323 (33.5%) were males and 642 (66.5%) were females, were recruited. Majority (72.6%) were married. History of unprotected sexual contact and multiple sexual partners was found in 62.3% and 54% of participants, respectively. In this study, 43 (4.5%) were HBsAg positive, out of which 40 (93%) had HBV infection (HBcAb positive). Prevalence of HBV infection was significantly higher among males than females (p value 0.004). Majority (60.5%) of infected individuals were 30 to 49 years of age. All infected participants had no previous vaccination, but no serologic evidence of previous vaccination was seen among vaccinated individuals. Conclusion and Recommendation: We concluded that Hepatitis B virus infection is still high among HCWs and significantly higher among males than females. Vaccinated individuals were found to be HBsAg negative, but had no detectable protective immunoglobulin against HBV. We recommend pre-employment screening and free vaccination of all staff in our health institutions, post vaccination immunization status assessment and provision of standard and affordable treatment for infected individual in order to achieve vision 2030 of HBV eradication.
Gastric acid secretion and experimental ulceration in rats fed soybean diet preparations
ARA Alada, FF Ajayi, OO Alaka, OO Akande
African Journal of Biomedical Research , 2005,
Abstract: Effects of different preparations of Soybean diet on histamine or carbachol-induced acid secretion and indomethacin a induced ulceration were studied in male albino Wister rats. The animals were divided into four dietary groups (groups I, II, III and IV) and fed normal rat diet, 75% soybean diet, 50% soybean diet and 25% soybean diet respectively. Rats in group I served as control. After six weeks of feeding, acid secretion studies using histamine (3mg/Kg) or carbachol (50μg/Kg) and ulcer studies were carried out. While histamine and carbachol produced 400% and 350% increases respectively in acid output in rats fed normal diet, the acid output in soybean diet fed rats were between 210% and 280%. Also, rats fed soybean diets had lower ulcer scores than rats fed normal diet. Indeed, the higher the concentration of soybean in the diet the lesser the ulcer scores. The results therefore seem to suggest that soybean has buffering effect on induced acid secretion and protect the stomach against ulcer formation.
Urinary Schistosomiasis around Oyan Reservoir, Nigeria: Twenty Years after the First Outbreak
OP Akinwale,MB Ajayi,DO Akande,PV Gyang
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2010,
Abstract: "nBackground: Oyan reservoir, South-West Nigeria was constructed in 1984 to generate electricity but has altered the exist-ing physical, biological and socio-economic environment of the people. This study, carried out between October 2006 and March 2008, aimed at investigating the current status of Schistosoma haematobium infection around the reservoir."nMethods: Urine samples from 536 participants in five communities were examined for haematuria using reagent strips and S. haematobium ova was detected using sedimentation by gravity method. The participants were drawn from Abule Tuntun (n= 115), Ibaro (n= 156), Imala Odo (n= 88), Imala (n= 103) and Apojula (n= 74) communitie."nResults: Prevalence rates by haematuria were (Abule Tuntun- 33.04%; Ibaro- 73.07%; Imala odo- 60.22%; Imala- 7.77%; Apojula - 39.19%) and by presence of parasite ova were (Abule Tuntun- 39.13%; Ibaro- 83.97%; Imala Odo- 62.5%; Imala- 20.39%; Apojula- 54.05%)."nConclusion: S. haematobium transmission has been sustained in the reservoir since the outbreak was first reported in 1988. Mass treatment with praziquantel was conducted 8 years ago (2001) in two of the communities. However, the infection has persisted due to lack of pipe borne water and safe waste disposal system.
How Group-Based Cardiovascular Health Education Affects Treatment Adherence and Blood Pressure Control among Insured Hypertensive Nigerians: A Pre-Test, Post-Test Study  [PDF]
Aina Olufemi Odusola, Heleen Nelissen, Marleen Hendriks, Constance Schultsz, Ferdinand Wit, Oladimeji Akeem Bolarinwa, Tanimola Akande, Charles Agyemang, Gbenga Ogedegbe, Kayode Agbede, Peju Adenusi, Akin Osibogun, Karien Stronks, Joke Haafkens
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2015.57021
Abstract: In sub Saharan Africa (SSA), access to affordable hypertension care through health insurance is increasing. But due to poor adherence, hypertension treatment outcomes often remain poor. Patient-centered educational interventions may reverse this trend. Using a pre-test/post-test design, in this study we investigated the effects of a structured cardiovascular health education program (CHEP) on treatment adherence, blood pressure (BP) control and body mass index (BMI) among Nigerian hypertensive patients who received guideline-based care in a rural primary care facility, in the context of a community based health insurance program. Study participants included 149 insured patients with uncontrolled BP and/or poor self-reported medication adherence after 12 months of guideline-based care. All patients received three group-based educational sessions and usual primary care over 6 months. We evaluated changes in self-reported adherence to prescribed medications and behavioral advice (primary outcomes); systolic BP (SBP) and/or diastolic BP (DBP) and BMI (secondary outcomes); and beliefs about hypertension and medications (explora- tory outcomes). Outcomes were analyzed with descriptive statistics and regression analysis. 140 patients completed the study (94%). At 6 months, more participants reported high adherence to medications and behavioral advice than at baseline: respectively, 101 (72%) versus 70 (50%), (p < 0.001) and 126 (90%) versus 106 (76%), (p < 0.001). Participants with controlled BP doubled from 34 (24%) to 65 (46%), (p = 0.001). The median SBP and DBP decreased from 129.0 to 122.0 mmHg, (p = 0.002) and from 80.0 to 73.5 mmHg, (p < 0.001), respectively. BMI did not change (p = 0.444). Improved medication adherence was associated with a decrease in medication concerns (p = 0.045) and improved medication self-efficacy (p < 0.001). By positively influencing patient perceptions of medications, CHEP strengthened medication adherence and, consequently, BP reduction among insured hypertensive Nigerians. This educational approach can support cardiovascular disease prevention programs for Africa’s growing hypertensive population.
Prevalence of schistosoma haematobium infection in a neglected community, south western Nigeria
O Akinwale, M Ajayi, D Akande, M Adeleke, P Gyang, A Adeneye, A Dike
International Journal of Health Research , 2009,
Abstract: Purpose: Schistosomiasis ranks second to malaria among parasitic diseases of socio-economic and public health importance. In Nigeria, urinary schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma haematobium is endemic. This study aimed at producing an accurate data on the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in Apojula, a neglected community located around Oyan Dam, southwest Nigeria, using parasitological and molecular techniques. Methods: Parasitological examinations were carried out on urine samples from 63 participants whose ages ranged between 7 and 63 years. Matched blood and urine samples were also screened for S. haematobium infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the schistosome Dra1 repeat. Results: Of the 63 participants, 33 (52.4%) were positive for heamaturia while 6 (9.5%) had S. haematobium ova in their urine. PCR amplification of S. haematobium Dra1 repeat from their urine and blood samples showed that 59 (93.65%) and 62 (98.4%) were infected respectively. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of S. haematobium infection as detected by PCR amplification of schistosome Dra1 repeat from the urine and blood samples of the study participants. In addition, the PCR was able to detect schistosome infection in cases otherwise shown to be negative by parasitological examinations thereby making them also to receive chemotherapy.
Influence of Varying Crude Protein Levels and Balanced Amino Acids on the Performance and Haematological Characteristics of Laying Hens at the Second Phase of Production  [PDF]
Gbemiga Oladimeji Adeyemo
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.41003

Varying levels of dietary crude proteins and balanced amino acids were fed to layers for a period of eight weeks starting from the twenty-sixth week of age of birds and six weeks into egg production. Effects on performance and haematological characteristics were investigated at this second phase of production. Sixty Black Nera hens were randomly allotted into four (4) dietary treatments, containing the following levels of crude protein 14%, 15%, 16%, 17% and the metabolizable energy was iso-caloric for each treatment. The results showed that there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) observed for lymphocyte, Haemoglobin (Hb), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Red Blood Cell (RBC) and White Blood Cell (WBC), these haematological parameters were within the range for healthy birds. Thus crude protein level of 14% can be used in diets of layers at the second phase of production provided that adequate amino acids are given, without adverse effect on egg laying, feed intake and measured blood parameters.

Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens Fed Fossil Shell Growth Promoter  [PDF]
Gbemiga Oladimeji Adeyemo
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.41004

A study was carried out to determine the influence of fossil shell (diatomaceous earth) supplemented diets on the performance and bone composition of broiler chickens. A total of 120 day old broiler chicks were used for the experiment and randomly allotted to 5 treatments (T10.9%, T21.2%, T31.5%, T41.8% and T50% inclusion levels respectively). Fossil shell inclusion had no significant influence on feed intake and feed conversion ratio, but had significant impact on weight gain. At the finisher phase no significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed for weight gain, feed intake and feed: gain ratio. Bone analysis showed that calcium content was not affected but fossil shell had significant influence on phosphorus content of the analyzed bones.

Intestinal intussusception due to concurrent infections with Hymenolepis nana and Dentostomella translucida in an African giant rat (cricetomys gambianus). A case report
M.A Olude, O.L Ajayi, A.O Adebayo, F.A Akande, E.I Olugbogi
Science World Journal , 2010,
Abstract: A rare case of intestinal intussusception due to multiple worm infections (Hymenolepis nana and Dentostomella translucida) was observed in an African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse, 1840). The condition was observed as an incidental finding before an experimental dissection of the animals in the Department of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Nigeria. The rat was anorexic and depressed with rough hair coat, and died before the commencement of the experiment. Grossly, the intussusception was 7 cm in length and 27 cm caudal to the stomach and 81cm to the ileo-caecal junction. The affected part of the small intestine was moderately distended with worms and the associated mesenteric blood vessels were engorged. Microscopically, worms (H. nana and D. translucida) were observed in the lumen of the intestine with severe cellular infiltration mostly eosinophils, neutrophils and macrophages. Eggs of both worms, at different stages of development and a focus of attachment of the worms were observed on the intestinal mucosa. The zoonotic implications of these worms were discussed especially H. nana. This report appears to be the first reported case of intestinal intussusception due to multiple helminth infections in an African giant rat. KEYWORDS: Hymenolepis nana, Dentostomella translucida, Intestinal intussusception, African giant rat.
Cardiovascular disease prevention in rural Nigeria in the context of a community based health insurance scheme: QUality Improvement Cardiovascular care Kwara-I (QUICK-I)
Marleen Hendriks, Lizzy Brewster, Ferdinand Wit, Oladimeji Bolarinwa, Aina Odusola, William Redekop, Navin Bindraban, Albert Vollaard, Shade Alli, Peju Adenusi, Kayode Agbede, Tanimola Akande, Joep Lange, Constance Schultsz
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-186
Abstract: Design: prospective observational hospital based cohort study.Setting: a primary health care centre in rural Nigeria.Study population: 300 patients at risk for development of CVD (patients with hypertension, diabetes, renal disease or established CVD) who are enrolled in the Hygeia Community Health Plan.Measurements: demographic and socio- economic data, physical and laboratory examination, CVD risk profile including screening for target organ damage. Measurements will be done at 3 month intervals during 1 year. Direct and indirect costs of CVD prevention care will be estimated.Outcomes: 1) The adjusted cardiovascular quality of care indicator scores based on the "United Kingdom National Health Services Quality and Outcome Framework". 2) The average costs of CVD prevention and treatment per patient per year for patients, the clinic and the insurance company. 3) The estimated net health care costs of standard CVD prevention care per quality-adjusted life year gained.Analysis: The primary outcomes, the score on CVD quality indicators and cost data will be descriptive. The quality scores and cost data will be used to describe the feasibility of CVD prevention care according to international guidelines. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be done using a Markov model.Results of QUICK-I can be used by policy makers and professionals who aim to implement CVD prevention programs in settings with limited resources. The context of the insurance program will provide insight in the opportunities community health insurance may offer to attain sustainable chronic disease management programs in low resource settings.This protocol has been registered at ISRCTN, ID number: ISRCTN47894401.Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are well established as a leading contributor to the burden of disease in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC). Over 80% of global CVD mortality occurs in LMIC [1]. The burden of non-communicable diseases in LMIC is likely to increase substantially over the nex
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