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Hepatoprotective effect of the solvent fractions of the stem of Hoslundia opposita Vahl (Lamiaceae) against carbon tetrachloride- and paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats
Akah Peter,Odo Casmir
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: The hepatoprotective potentials of the stem solvent fractions of Hoslundia opposita Vahl were investigated. The fractions were prepared and tested for hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) and paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Changes in the levels of biochemical markers of hepatic injury viz; -aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin were determined in both treated and control groups of rats. The effects of the extracts were compared with that of sylimarin (100 mg/kg). Phytochemical analysis and acute toxicity studies of the extract were also performed. The results showed that CCl 4 and paracetamol (2 g/kg) elevated the levels of AST, ALT, ALT and bilirubin. Treatment with the methanol extract and methanol and ethyl acetate fractions of Hoslundia opposita (100 mg/kg) ameliorated the effects of the hepatoxins and significantly (P>0.05) reduced the elevated levels of the biochemical marker enzymes, while the chloroform and hexane fractions showed no significant (P< 0.05) hepatoprotective effect. The extracts showed good toxicity profile with an LD50 value above 5000 mg/kg for the methanol extract. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of resins, flavonoids, sterols/triterpenes, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, cardiac glycosides and proteins in the solvent fractions. These results suggest that the stem of Hoslundia opposita contains bioactive principles with hepatoprotective effect.
Antihyperglycemic Studies on the Leaf Extract and Active Fractions of Newbouldia laevis (Bignoniaceae)  [PDF]
Chinyelu C. Osigwe, Peter A. Akah, Chukwuemeka S. Nworu, Theophine C. Okoye, Michel K. Tchimene
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2015.611054
Abstract: Optimal control of chronic hyperglycemia prevents both micro and macro vascular complications—a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic subjects. This study was undertaken to give credence to the traditional use of Newbouldia laevis leaves in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). Dichloromethane-methanol (1:1) extract (DME) of N. laevis leaves was prepared by cold maceration. Separation of DME into column chromatographic fractions yielded the n-hexane fraction (HF), ethylacetate fraction (EF) and methanol fraction (MF). The extract and fractions were evaluated for antihyperglycemic activity in alloxanized diabetic rats. The results showed that the oral administration of extract and fractions (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg) caused a significant (P < 0.5) and dose-dependent reduction in blood glucose level in diabetic rats. The hypoglycemic potency after 24 h was in the order MF (methanol fraction; 56.31%) > DME (dichloromethane/methanol extract; 36.19%) > EF (ethylacetate fraction; 20.70%) > HF (n-hexane fraction; 10.09. The methanol fraction, which showed the highest potency in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), was further separated into column chromatographic sub-fractions—F1, F2, F3 and F4 fractions. These sub-fractions were evaluated for antihyperglycemic activity. Sub-fractions F1, F2 and F3 (1000 mg/kg) did produce significant (P
Efficacy and Safety Assessment of T. Angelica Herbal Tonic, a Phytomedicinal Product Popularly Used in Nigeria
Charles O. Esimone,Peter A. Akah,Chukwuemeka S. Nworu
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep161
Abstract: T. Angelica Herbal Tonic (TAHT) is a herbal product indicated for indigestion and constipation and highly patronized in Nigeria. In this study, the efficacy and safety of the herbal tonic in relation to the label claims were assessed. The effect on peristalsis in mice was evaluated by the charcoal meal model and in vitro using guinea pig ileum. The effects of TAHT on behavior, fertility, birth and organ weights were also determined. Teratogenic potential and reproductive toxicity were studied in pregnant rats. Acute toxicity studies showed that at doses above 5000 mg kg−1, the herbal tonic did not cause lethality and produced no signs of intoxication in mice. The study did not show any gross behavioral changes in mice treated with 1000 mg kg−1 of TAHT as compared with the negative control treatment. TAHT (400 mg kg−1) exhibited a dose-dependent enhancement in the gastrointestinal tract motility in mice when compared with the negative control. At concentrations up to 300 μg mL−1, TAHT did not cause any significant effect on acetylcholine, histamine and nicotine-evoked contractions of guinea pig ileum preparation. It took an average of 31.25 ± 4.52 days for the TAHT-treated animals to litter, which is significantly (P < .05) different from the 55 ± 4.51 days recorded for the control treatment group. TAHT exhibited a modest fertility-promoting effect and showed lack of abortifacient and teratogenic properties in the study. Generally, the results of this study showed some favorable pharmacological effects of TAHT in animals which may authenticate some of the label claims.
Biochemical and Haematological Effects of the Leaf Extract of Newbouldia laevis in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats  [PDF]
Chinyelu Clementina Osigwe, Peter Achunike Akah, Chukwuemeka Sylvester Nworu
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2017.56003
Abstract: Dichloromethane-methanol (1:1) extract (DME) of N. laevis leaves was prepared by cold maceration. The effects of the extract on the haematological and some biochemical parameters of alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated. The results showed that the oral administration of the extract (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg) caused a significant (P < 0.5) and dose-dependent increase in red blood cell count (RBC) and its indices, as well as a significant (p < 0.05) and dose-dependent reduction in the platelet count and the white blood cells (WBC). The activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased. This effect was not dose related. The serum levels of total bilirubin, urea and creatinine were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased. The serum total protein and total antioxidant status (TAS) significantly (p < 0.05) increased dose dependently. Overall, administration of DME has significant ameliorative effect on alloxan-induced anaemia and other haematological alterations in diabetes and this may be of immense benefits in the management of diabetes and its associated haematological complications. Improved liver and kidney functions as well as improved antioxidant status are beneficial in the management of chronic diseases such as diabetes.
ASSESSMENT OF THE SUB-ACUTE AND DELAYED TOXICITY OF ARTEMETHER-LUMEFANTRINE COMBINATION IN RATS
Ukekwe Ikechukwu Francis,Akah Peter Achunike,Ezike Adaobi Chioma,Okoli Charles Ogbonnaya
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy , 2013, DOI: 10.7897/2277-4343.04216
Abstract: Considering the current surge in the use of artemether-lumefantrine combination (AL), as a treatment regimen for malaria infection, this research elucidated its sub-acute and delayed toxicity profile. Adult albino wistar rats were randomly placed in 7 groups (n=8). Groups 1-3 received oral AL 14, 28 and 56 mg/kg and were used for the sub-acute toxicity study. Groups 4-6 equally received oral AL 14, 28 and 56 mg/kg and were used for the delayed toxicity study. Animals in group 7 served as control. Treatment was given for 7 days; animals for the sub-acute tests were sacrificed on day 8, while animals for the delayed toxicity test were sacrificed on day 15. Parameters evaluated include random blood sugar levels, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, cholesterol, serum electrolytes and hematological indices. The liver, kidney and heart were also subjected to histopathological evaluation. The random blood sugar level was only significantly (P<0.05) elevated in the sub-acute phase but not in the delayed phase. The AL treated rats had a marginal but non-significant increments in Na+, serum cholesterol, urea and liver enzymes in both the sub-acute and delayed phases. The AL had no effect on total and conjugated bilirubin, but reduced K+, Cl- and HCO3-. There was mild increase in hemoglobin, packed cell volume, reticulocyte, total white blood cell and lymphocyte, and a decrease in neutrophil counts. Histology sections showed dose-related increase in severity of hepatic congestion and inflammation. Renal sections showed no significant changes. However, about 25% of animals that received 14, 28 and 56 mg/kg of AL respectively had granular and eosinophilic hyaline casts in renal tubules. There were no remarkable histopathologic changes in the heart in both sub-acute and delayed phases. However, one animal that received 56 mg/kg in the sub-acute phase had organizing fibrinous pericarditis, with intense lymphocytic infiltration and tubular coagulative necrosis. Though oral administration of normal to quadruple strength of AL affected vital organs and clinical parameters, no significant deleterious toxic effect was observed.
EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR THE ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF CAJANUS CAJAN LEAVES IN RATS
Adaobi C. Ezike,Peter A. Akah,Charles C. Okoli,Chinwe B. Okpala
Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: The antidiabetic activity of methanol leaves extract of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.(Fabaceae) was studied in alloxan-diabetic and in oral glucose loaded rats. The acute toxicity and lethality (LD50) and the phytochemical analysis of the extract were also evaluated. The results showed that the extract (400 and 600 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) reduced fasting blood sugar of alloxan diabetic rats in a dose-related manner, with maximum hypoglycemic effect at 4 – 6 h. The extract (400 and 600 mg/kg) also significantly (P<0.05) suppressed the peak postprandial rise in blood glucose of normal rats by 101.8 and 57.40 % respectively. Acute toxicity and lethality test of the extract in rats gave an oral LD50 greater than 5 g/kg. The findings indicate that the leaves of C. cajan may be beneficial as an antidiabetic therapy.
Antimicrobial Effects of a Lipophilic Fraction and Kaurenoic Acid Isolated from the Root Bark Extracts of Annona senegalensis
Theophine Chinwuba Okoye,Peter Achunike Akah,Charles Ogbonnaya Okoli,Adaobi Chioma Ezike,Edwin Ogechukwu Omeje,Uchenna Estella Odoh
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/831327
Abstract: Root bark preparation of Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae) is used in Nigerian ethnomedicine for treatment of infectious diseases. Extraction of the A. senegalensis powdered root bark with methanol-methylene chloride (1 : 1) mixture yielded the methanol-methylene extract (MME) which was fractionated to obtain the ethyl acetate fraction (EF). The EF on further fractionation gave two active subfractions, F1 and F2. The F1 yielded a lipophilic oily liquid while F2 on purification, precipitated white crystalline compound, AS2. F1 was analyzed using GC-MS, while AS2 was characterized by proton NMR and X-ray crystallography. Antibacterial and antifungal studies were performed using agar-well-diffusion method with 0.5 McFarland standard and MICs calculated. GC-MS gave 6 major constituents: kaur-16-en-19-oic acid; 1-dodecanol; 1-naphthalenemethanol; 6,6-dimethyl-bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene-2-ethanol; 3,3-dimethyl-2-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienyl)cyclohexane-1-methanol; 3-hydroxyandrostan-17-carboxylic acid. AS2 was found to be kaur-16-en-19-oic acid. The MICs of EF, F1, and AS2 against B. subtilis were 180, 60, and 30 μg/mL, respectively. AS2 exhibited activity against S. aureus with an MIC of 150 μg/mL, while F1 was active against P. aeruginosa with an MIC of 40 μg/mL. However, the extracts and AS2 exhibited no effects against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Therefore, kaurenoic acid and the lipophilic fraction from A. senegalensis root bark exhibited potent antibacterial activity.
Acanthus montanus: An experimental evaluation of the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunological properties of a traditional remedy for furuncles
Charles O Okoli, Peter A Akah, Nkemjika J Onuoha, Theophine C Okoye, Anthonia C Nwoye, Chukwuemeka S Nworu
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-8-27
Abstract: The aqueous root extract (obtained by hot water maceration of the root powder) was studied for effects on the growth of clinically isolated strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using acute topical edema of the mouse ear induced by xylene, acute paw edema induced by agar in rats, formaldehyde arthritis in rats, vascular permeability induced by acetic acid in mice and heat- and hypotonicity-induced haemolysis of ox red blood cells (RBCs). Also evaluated were the effects on in vivo leukocyte migration induced by agar, phagocytic activity of macrophages on Candida albicans and specific cell-mediated immune responses (delayed type hypersensitivity reaction (DTHR) induced by sheep red blood cell (SRBC)). The acute toxicity and lethality (LD50) in mice and phytochemical constituents of the extract were also determined.The extract moderately inhibited the growth of the test organisms and significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited (57%) topical acute edema in the mouse ear. It significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the development of acute edema of the rat paw in a non-dose-related manner and was not effective in inhibiting the global edematous response to formaldehyde arthritis. It also inhibited vascular permeability induced by acetic acid in mice and the haemolysis of ox RBCs induced by heat- and hypotonicity. The extract increased total leukocyte and neutrophil counts and caused a significant (P < 0.05) dose-related increase in the total number of macrophages at the 800 mg/kg dose. On phagocytic activity, the extract evoked a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the number of macrophages with ingested C. albicans at 800 mg/kg dose, and significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited DTHR in a dose-related manner. Phytochemical tests on the extract revealed an abundant presence of alkaloids and carbohydrates while saponins, glycosides, and terpenoids occurred in trace amounts. Acute toxicity test established an oral and intrap
Potentials of leaves of Aspilia africana (Compositae) in wound care: an experimental evaluation
CO Okoli, PA Akah, AS Okoli
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-7-24
Abstract: The effect of the methanol extract (ME) and the hexane (HF) and methanol (MF) fractions (obtained by cold maceration and graded solvent extraction respectively) on bleeding/clotting time of fresh experimentally-induced wounds in rats, coagulation time of whole rat blood, growth of microbial wound contaminants and rate of healing of experimentally-induced wounds in rats were studied as well as the acute toxicity and lethality (LD50) of the methanol extract and phytochemical analysis of the extract and fractions.The extract and fractions significantly (P < 0.05) reduced bleeding/clotting time in rats and decreased coagulation time of whole rat blood in order of magnitude of effect: MF>ME>HF. Also, the extract and fractions caused varying degrees of inhibition of the growth of clinical isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as typed strains of Ps. aeruginosa (ATCC 10145) and Staph. aureus (ATCC 12600), and reduced epithelialisation period of wounds experimentally-induced in rats. Acute toxicity and lethality (LD50) test in mice established an i.p LD50 of 894 mg/kg for the methanol extract (ME). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, resins, sterols, terpenoids and carbohydrates.The leaves of A. africana possess constituents capable of arresting wound bleeding, inhibiting the growth of microbial wound contaminants and accelerating wound healing which suggest good potentials for use in wound care.Wounds occur when the continuity of the skin or mucous membrane is broken [1]. Injury to tissues results in bleeding (which may be life-threatening depending on the severity) with subsequent activation of acute inflammatory reactions. Bleeding from damaged blood vessels in the injured tissue must be arrested through the process of haemostasis. The injury and associated acute inflammatory response result to necrosis of specialized cells and damage to the surrounding matrix [2] and the host tissues
The haematinic activity of the methanol leaf extract of Brillantasia nitens Lindau (Acanthaceae) in rats
PA Akah, CE Okolo, AC Ezike
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: Ethnopharmacological information indicates that the leaves of Brillantasia nitens are used in the treatment of anaemia in the south eastern states of Nigeria. In this study, the methanol extract of the leaves of B. nitens was tested for haematinic activity in rats using phenylhydrazine (PHZ- 10 mg/kg. po)- induced anaemia. The red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), white blood cell count (WBC) and haemotocrit (PCV) were analyzed as indices of anaemia. The phytochemical and mineral contents, as well as the acute toxicity (LD50) of the extract were determined. Oral administration of B. nitens extract (400 - 3200 mg/kg/day) to rats previously treated with PHZ increased the Hb, RBC, WBC and PVC within one week. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, saponin, terpernoids, carbohydrates and resins. The extract also contained substantial amounts of vitamins B6, C and E, as well as folic acid and iron. The LD50 value of the extract was greater than 5000 mg/kg. These results lend credence to the traditional use of B. nitens leaves in the treatment of anaemia.
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