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Analysis of the Impact of P-Ratio on BER, Q-Factor and OSNR of Radio over Fiber (RoF) System  [PDF]
Vishal Sharma, Amarpal Singh, Ajay K. Sharma
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2011.14029
Abstract: The impact of p-ratio i.e. ratio of carrier power to total received RF power at control office (CO) on Bit error rate (BER), Q- performance parameter and Optical signal noise ratio (OSNR) of RoF communication system is theoretically analyzed using angular full-linewidth at half maximum (FWHM) of Lorentzian shape for the RF oscillator in this paper. As reduction in Laser linewidth improves the performance of RoF system, the RF oscillator linewidth at FWHM also plays an important role in improving the performance of RoF system.
The Generalized Conversion Factor in Einstein's Mass-Energy Equation
Ajay Sharma
Progress in Physics , 2008,
Abstract: Einstein's September 1905 paper is origin of light energy-mass inter conversion equation ($L = Delta mc^{2}$) and Einstein speculated $E = Delta mc^{2}$ from it by simply replacing $L$ by $E$. From its critical analysis it follows that $L = Delta mc^{2}$ is only true under special or ideal conditions. Under general cases the result is $L propto Delta mc^{2}$ ($E propto Delta mc^{2}$). Consequently an alternate equation $Delta E = A ub c^{2}Delta M$ has been suggested, which implies that energy emitted on annihilation of mass can be equal, less and more than predicted by $Delta E = Delta mc^{2}$. The total kinetic energy of fission fragments of U-235 or Pu-239 is found experimentally 20-60 MeV less than Q-value predicted by $Delta mc^{2}$. The mass of particle Ds (2317) discovered at SLAC, is more than current estimates. In many reactions including chemical reactions $E = Delta mc^{2}$ is not confirmed yet, but regarded as true. It implies the conversion factor than $c^{2}$ is possible. These phenomena can be explained with help of generalized mass-energy equation $Delta E = A ub c^{2}Delta M$.
STUDY OF VARIOUS SOLVENTS FOR PHOLCODINE DETERMINATION USING UV SPECTROPHOTOMETER
Ajay Sharma
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: Pholcodine is an opioid cough suppressant (anti-tussive). The objective of this work was study of various solvents for Pholcodine determination using UV Spectrophotometer and to develop a new method for determination of the Pholcodine by using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer that would be more accurate and cheapest. A number of solvents were used during the study those were methanol, chloroform, water, 0.1N KOH and 0.1N HCL that were soluble in Pholcodine and by using absorbance method at (285±1) nm wave length we finds that methanol (r2=0.999) and 0.1N HCL (r2=0.999) are the best solvents for the determination of Pholcodine by using UV Spectrophotometer.
VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES: A COMPARISON OF ICH Vs PHARMACOPOEIA (USP) Vs FDA
Sharma Ajay,Sharma Rohit
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Method validation is the process used to confirm that the analytical procedure employed for a specific test is suitable for its intended use. Results from method validation can be used to judge the quality, reliability and consistency of analytical results; it is an integral part of any good analytical practice. When extended to analytical procedure, depending upon the application, it means that a method works reproducibly, when carried out by same or different persons, in same or different laboratories, using different chemicals or reagents and using different equipments at different condition or environment. So In this review article we discussed about the importance and strategy of validation of analytical procedure.
On Channel Estimation of OFDM-BPSK and -QPSK over Generalized Alpha-Mu Fading Distribution  [PDF]
Neetu Sood, Ajay K. Sharma, Moin Uddin
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2010.34048
Abstract: This paper evaluates the performance of OFDM-BPSK and -QPSK system in α-µ distribution. A fading model which is based on the non-linearity present in the propagation medium is utilized here for generation of α-µ variants. Different combinations of α and µ provides various fading distributions, one of which is Weibull fading. Investigations of channel estimation schemes gave an idea of further reducing the BER as to improve the performance of OFDM based systems. In flat fading environment, channel estimation is done using phase estimation of the transmitted signal with the help of trained symbols. Final results show the improvement in BER. However, the amount of results improved depends upon the amount of trained symbols. The more trained symbols will result into more improved BER.
Performance Analysis of WDM RoF-EPON Link with and without DCF and FBG  [PDF]
Baljeet Kaur, Ajay K. Sharma, Vinod Kapoor
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2013.32027
Abstract:

Performance of WDM ethernet passive optical network (EPON) with radio over fiber (RoF) optical link has been analyzed with the use of dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) and fiber bragg grating (FBG) to compensate the dispersion and four wave mixing. With the use of DCF and FBG, performance of the system is improved by 77.67%. Results are compared with and without DCF + FBG for different optical power and fiber length. The BER, Q factor and eye diagrams have been obtained for evaluating the performance of the system.

Wavelet Adaptive Reduced Order Observer Based Tracking Control for a Class of Uncertain Time Delay Nonlinear Systems Subjected to Actuator Saturation
Manish Sharma,Ajay Verma
International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications , 2012,
Abstract: This Paper investigates the mean to design the reduced order observer and observer based controllers for a class of delayed uncertain nonlinear system subjected to actuator saturation. A new design approach of wavelet based adaptive reduced order observer is proposed. The proposed wavelet adaptive reduced order observer performs the task of identification of unknown system dynamics in addition to the reconstruction of states of the system. Wavelet neural network (WNN) is used to approximate the uncertainties present in the system as well as to identify and compensate the nonlinearities introduced in the system due to actuator saturation. Using the feedback control, based on reconstructed states, the behavior of closed loop system is investigated. In addition robust control terms are also designed to attenuate the approximation error due to WNN. Adaptation laws are developed for the online tuning of the wavelet parameters and the stability of the overall systems is assured by using the Lyapunov- Krasovskii functional. A numerical example is provided to verify the effectiveness of theoretical development.
Wavelet Neural Network Observer Based Adaptive Tracking Control for a Class of Uncertain Nonlinear Delayed Systems Using Reinforcement Learning
Manish Sharma,Ajay Verma
International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications , 2012,
Abstract: This paper is concerned with the observer designing problem for a class of uncertain delayed nonlinear systems using reinforcement learning. Reinforcement learning is used via two Wavelet Neural networks (WNN), critic WNN and action WNN, which are combined to form an adaptive WNN controller. The “strategic” utility function is approximated by the critic WNN and is minimized by the action WNN. Adaptation laws are developed for the online tuning of wavelets parameters. By Lyapunov approach, the uniformly ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop tracking error is verified. Finally, a simulation example is shown to verify the effectiveness and performance of the proposed method.
Comparative Investigation for Energy Consumption of Different Chipsets Based on Scheduling for Wireless Sensor Networks
Monica,Ajay K Sharma
International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications , 2010,
Abstract: Rapid progress in microelectromechanical system (MEMS) and radio frequency (RF) design has enabledthe development of low-power, inexpensive, and network-enabled microsensors. These sensor nodes arecapable of capturing various physical information, such as temperature, pressure, motion of an object,etc as well as mapping such physical characteristics of the environment to quantitative measurements. Atypical wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of hundreds to thousands of such sensor nodes linked by awireless medium. In this paper, we present a comparative investigation of energy consumption for fewcommercially available chipsets such as TR1001, CC1000 and CC1010 based on different schedulingmethods for two types of deployment strategies. We conducted our experiment within the OMNeT++simulator.
Comparative Performance Investigations of different scenarios for 802.15.4 WPAN
Sukhvinder Bamber,Ajay Sharma
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2010,
Abstract: This paper investigates the performance of WPAN based on various topological scenarios like: cluster, star and ring. The comparative results have been reported for the performance metrics like: Throughput, Traffic sent, Traffic received and Packets dropped. Cluster topology is best in comparison with star and ring topologies as it has been shown that the throughput in case of cluster topology (79.887 kbits / sec) as compared to star (31.815 kbits / sec) and ring (1.179 kbits / sec).
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