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OALib Journal期刊

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REVIEW ON CASEIN PRODUCTION AND CASEIN BASED NANO-FORMULATIONS
Arora Neha,Garg Tarun,Bilandi Ajay
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Biodegradable systems have the ability to release the drug for a prolonged period of time and subsequently degrade which can be easily cleared from the body. This property makes use of them for the design of carriers for the controlled delivery of therapeutic agents, since it will release the entrapped drug over an extended period of time. Due to its non toxic, biocompatible and slow digesting nature it is an effective matrix in drug delivery. Milk has many proteins, including the nine essential amino acids. The two basic types of proteins in milk are called casein and whey. The ability of casein to modify drug dissolution from compacts was reported. The high tensile strength of casein film, favours its use as an acceptable film-coating for tablets. Casein floating beads were developed to increase the residence time of drugs in the stomach based on its emulsifying and bubble-forming properties. Casein-based microparticles bioactive molecules were prepared via emulsification-chemical cross linking Casein nanoformulations were also prepared to deliver nutraceuticals and synthetic drugs via enzymatic crosslinking, graft copolymerization, heat-gelation and polyelectrolyte ionic complexation. It can be concluded that casein-based formulations are promising materials for controlled drug delivery.
SCAFFOLD: TISSUE ENGINEERING AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE
Garg Tarun,Bilandi Ajay,Kapoor Bhawna,Kumar Sunil
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Scaffolds are the central components, which are used to deliver the cells, drug and gene into the body. Polymeric scaffolds may be prepared as typical 3-D porous matrix, nanofibrous matrix, thermo sensitive sol-gel transition hydrogel or porous microsphere, which provide suitable substrate for cell attachment, cell proliferation, differentiated function, and cell migration. Scaffold matrices have specific advantage over other novel drug delivery systems by achieving high drug loading. This study has been conducted to illustrate the various fabrication techniques of scaffold like Particulate leaching, freeze-drying, Supercritical fluid technology, thermally induced phase separation, Rapid prototyping, powder compaction, sol-gel, melt moulding etc. These techniques allow the preparation of porous structures with regular porosity. The main conclusion of this study is Scaffold provides adequate signals (e.g., through the use of adhesion peptides and growth factors) to the cells, to induce and maintain them in their desired differentiation stage and for their survival and growth and their successful utilisation in various fields like bone formation, joint pain inflammation, tumor, periodontal regeneration, In-vivo generation of dental pulp, diabetes, osteochondrogenesis, wound dressing, inhibit bacterial growth, heart disease, repair of nasal and auricular malformation, cartilage development, regulated non-viral gene delivery, as artificial corneas, as heart valve, antiepileptic effect, tendon repair, ligament replacement, plasmid delivery, etc.
MICRONEEDLE: AS A FUTURE PROSPECTIVE TOOL
Arora Neha,Singh Kamaljit,Bilandi Ajay,Garg Tarun
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Optimization of drug delivery through human skin is important in modern therapy. With the limitations of oral drug delivery and the pain and needle phobias associated with traditional injections, drug delivery research has focused on the transdermal delivery route. These processing techniques incorporate one or more technologies that enable the precise machining, extrusion, casting, and/or forming of from one to an array or grid of micro needles. Evolving micro needle systems will be well positioned to address a significant segment of the large –molecule biological drugs expected to emerge from the convergence of automated discovery and genome mapping. To overcome the problems of oral route skin has been extensively studied as an alternative route of drug delivery. Using the tools of the microelectronics industry, microneedles have been fabricated with a range of sizes, shapes and materials. To address practical applications of microneedles, the ratio of microneedle fracture force to skin insertion force (i.e. margin of safety) was found to be optimal for needles with small tip radius and large wall thickness. Microneedles inserted into the skin of human subjects were reported as painless. Together, these results suggest that microneedles represent a promising technology to deliver therapeutic compounds into the skin for a range of possible applications.
CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS OF NEW DRUG DELIVERY TECHNOLOGIES
Garg Tarun,Bilandi Ajay,Kapoor Bhawna,Kumar Sunil
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: New drug delivery systems based products have significantly increased in the past few years, and this growth is expected to continue in the near future. Today a large number of companies are busy developing protein- and peptide-based drugs. Large molecules that degrade rapidly in the blood stream so these biopharmaceuticals (proteins, peptides, carbohydrates, oligo-nucleotides, and nucleic acids in the form of DNA) present drug delivery challenges. Moreover, they have a limited ability to cross cell membranes and generally cannot be delivered orally. Such molecules will be much more difficult to deliver via conventional routes, and injections may be the only means of delivery (at least as of today). This review is an update on some of the existing drug delivery technologies for oral controlled-release, delivery of large molecules, liposomes, taste masking, fast-dispersing dosage forms, and technology for insoluble drugs, nasal, pulmonary, vaginal, and rectal routes.
ORGANOGELS: ADVANCED AND NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Garg Tarun,Bilandi Ajay,Kapoor Bhawana,Kumar Sunil
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Organogel, is a non crystalline, non-glassy thermoreversible (thermoplastic) solid material and viscoelastic system, can be regarded as a semi-solid preparation which has an immobilized external apolar phase. The apolar phase gets immobilized within spaces of the three-dimensional networked structure formed due to the physical interactions amongst the self assembled structures of compounds regarded as gelators. Often, these systems are based on self-assembly of the structurant molecules. In general, organogels are thermodynamically stable in nature and have been explored as matrices for the delivery of bioactive agents. Organogels have potential for use in a number of applications, such as in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, art conservation, and food. An example of formation of an undesired thermoreversible network is the occurrence of wax crystallization in petroleum. In the current manuscript, attempts have been made to understand the properties of organogels, various types of organogelators and some applications of the organogels in controlled delivery.
TRANSCUTANEOUS DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW
Sandhu Premjeet,Kataria Sahil,Bilandi Ajay,Jain Sonam
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Conventional drug delivery systems are often not suitable for new protein based and other Therapeutic compounds produced by modern technology. Therefore an alternative Approach to deliver these drugs can be achieved through the skin in the form of transcutaneous drug delivery system. Modern medicine has responded with the development of methods to deliver drug transcutanously (through) the skin for therapeutic use as an alternative to traditional route including oral, intravascular, intramuscular, subcutaneous, and sublingual. Transcutaneous drug delivery has many theoretic and practical advantage and disadvantages, and such issues are often a concern for both clinicians and patients. Transcutaneous patches are flexible pharmaceutical preparations of varying sizes, containing one or more active ingredient, intended to be applied to the unbroken skin in order to deliver the active ingredient to the systemic circulation after passing through the skin barriers. A Transcutaneous patch or skin patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. Often, this promotes healing to an injured area of the body. In this method, the drug enters the bloodstream directly through skin and it avoid first pass effect. Characterization of Transcutaneous patch are necessary because check it’s quality, size, time of onset & duration, adhesive property, thickness, weight of patch, moisture of content, uniformity & cutaneous toxicological studies. Their requirements for evaluation are HPLC, U.V. spectrophotometer, screw gauge, digital balance, desiccators, thin layer chromatography & K.C. Cell used.
PROBIOTIC: AS EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF DISEASES
Arora Neha,Singh Kamaljit,Bilandi Ajay,Garg Tarun
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Probiotic are defined as live organisms, which confer benefits to the host. Their efficiency was demonstrated for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory infections, and allergic symptoms, but their use is mostly limited to bacterial and viral diseases. During the last decade, probiotic as means for the control of parasite infections were reported covering mainly intestinal diseases but also some nongut infections that are all of human and veterinary importance. In most cases, evidence for a beneficial effect was obtained by studies using animal models. In a few cases, cellular interactions between probiotic and pathogens or relevant host cells were also investigated using in vitro culture systems. WHO have given special guidelines for probiotic. Bifidobacteria have been studied for their efficacy in the prevention and treatment of a broad spectrum of animal and/or human gastrointestinal disorders, such as colonic transit disorders, intestinal infections, and colonic adenomas and cancer.
MICROENCAPSULATION: ADVANCEMENTS IN APPLICATIONS
Arsh Chanana,Mahesh Kumar Kataria,Monish Sharma,Ajay Bilandi
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: Microcapsule is a tiny sphere including core material/internal phase or fill, coated with/surrounded by wall know as shell, coating or membrane. The usual size range of the microcapsule lies between 1 to 1000 μm. The technique is usually applied for targeted drug delivery, protection of the molecule and stability if the core material. Microencapsulation system offers potential advantages over conventional drug delivery systems and also established as unique carrier systems for many pharmaceuticals. This article contains the traditional and the recent pharmaceutical applications of microecapsules. The microcapsules are widely applied in pharmaceutical for Novel drug Delivery System (NDDS), latest formulations, Delivery of DNA Vaccines, Pro Drug Approach, Biodegradable and biocompatible material. Other then pharmaceutical microcapsules are widely used in delivery of probiotic, pesticide industry, food technology, beverages and cell immobilization etc. Although significant advances have been made in the field of microencapsulation, still many challenges need to be rectified during the appropriate selection of core materials, coating materials and process techniques.
TABLET COATING TECHNIQUES: CONCEPTS AND RECENT TRENDS
Gupta Ankit,Bilandi Ajay,Kataria Mahesh Kumar,Khatri Neetu
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Tablet coating is a common pharmaceutical technique of applying a thin polymer-based lm to a tablet or a granule containing active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Solid dosage forms are coated for a number of reasons, the most important of which is controlling the release profiles. The amount of coating on the surface of a tablet is critical to the effectiveness of the oral dosage form. Tablets are usually coated in horizontal rotating pans with the coating solution sprayed onto the free surface of the tablet bed. The advantages of tablet coating are taste masking, odour masking, physical and chemical protection, protects the drug from the gastric environment etc. There are various techniques for tablet coating such as sugar coating, film coating, and enteric coating. Recent trends in pharmaceutical technologies are the development of coating methods which overcomes the various disadvantages associated with solvent based coatings. In these latest technologies coating materials are directly coated onto the surface of solid dosage forms without using any solvent. Various solventless coatings are available such as electrostatic dry coating, magnetically assisted impaction coating, compression coating, hot melt coating, powder coating, and supercritical fluid coating. Supercell Coating Technology is a revolutionary tablet coating that accurately deposits controlled amounts of coating materials on tablets even if they are extremely hygroscopic or friable. Magnetically assisted impaction coating, electrostatic dry coating in solventless coatings, aqueous film coating and Supercell coating technology are also available recent technique of coating. An ideal tablet should be free from any visual defect or functional defect. The advancements and innovations in tablet manufacture have not decreased the problems, often encountered in the production, instead have increased the problems, mainly because of the complexities of tablet presses; and/or the greater demands of quality. This review deal in detail about history, recent tablet coating technique and remedies associated with the tablet coating.
A REVIEW ON MASS SPECTROMETRY DETECTORS
Khatri Neetu,Gupta Ankit,Taneja Ruchi,Bilandi Ajay
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique for "weighing" molecules. Obviously, this is not done with a conventional scale or balance. Instead, mass spectrometry is based upon the principle of the motion of a charged particle that is called an ion, in an electric or magnetic field. The mass to charge ratio (m/z) of the ion affects particles motion. Since the charge of an electron is known, the mass to charge ratio (m/z) is a measurement of mass of an ion. Mass spectrometry research focuses on the formation of gas phase ions, and detection of ions. Detectors in mass spectrometer detect the separated ions according to m/z ratio. The main disadvantages of conventional detectors are very low sensitivity and poor detection efficiency. Detectors are of a great interest to a wide range of industrial, military, environmental and even biological applications. In recent developments, molecules of higher mass can also be detected and enhanced lifetime under the less than ideal environments typically encountered in mass spectrometers. This review deals in detail about the design, working and principle of mass spectrometric detectors and their recent developments.
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