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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 195781 matches for " Airin D. Martinez "
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Older People and Social Connectedness: How Place and Activities Keep People Engaged
Irene H. Yen,Janet K. Shim,Airin D. Martinez,Judith C. Barker
Journal of Aging Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/139523
Abstract: To understand how older adults perceive and navigate their neighborhoods, we examined the implications of activity in their neighborhoods for their health. We interviewed 38 adults (ages 62–85) who lived in San Francisco or Oakland, California. Seven key themes emerged: (1) people express a wide range of expectations for neighborliness, from “we do not bother each other” to “we have keys to each other’s houses”, (2) social distance between “other” people impede a sense of connection, (3) ethnic differences in living arrangements affect activities and activity locations, (4) people try to stay busy, (5) people able to leave their homes do many activities outside their immediate residential neighborhoods, (6) access to a car is a necessity for most, and (7) it is unusual to plan for the future when mobility might become limited. Multiple locations influence older adults’ health, including residential neighborhoods. Older adults value mobility, active lives, and social connections. 1. Introduction The phenomenon known as “aging in place” refers to the people wanting to stay in their residence as they age [1–3]; indeed, in the US only, about 5% of people age 55 and over move each year, and half of those who do move stay in the same county [4]. Therefore, understanding the dynamic of older adults in their residential neighborhoods is important for social policy and public health programs in an aging US. As people age and their physical mobility decreases, it is assumed that their geographic world shrinks [5]. While it is relatively unclear at what ages, what levels of functional ability, or in what ways or why older adults pare down the territory in which they act, the residential neighborhood is assumed to be at the center of range. Here, neighborhood refers to individuals’ perceptions of their residential environment. This could be a historically recognized area with a name (e.g., Chinatown) or an area that is bounded by certain streets generally accepted by those who live within it to be a neighborhood. In this paper, we examine the perceptions and uses older people make of their neighborhood and the implications for health. A review of the quantitative literature (1997–2007) describing how neighborhoods might be associated with health for older adults identified some key limitations: (1) primarily cross-sectional studies, (2) not taking into consideration specific characteristics of older people (e.g., functional capacity and household composition), and (3) few studies which featured ethnic minority study samples [6]. Most of the quantitative literature
Qos- based rate allocation in wireless mesh networks
Airin Mardokhpour
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper, we present a centralized algorithm for QoS based rate allocation in wireless mesh networks. The main objective is to find approach that also satisfy user-specified QoS constraints, specifically with respect to rate and delay demands. Our approach provides higher priority to real-time flows than elastic flows by reserving the necessary bandwidth for the former and fairly allocating the left-over bandwidth to the latter. We first consider the network with truthful nodes. Then we extend that to cases where nodes are selfish and non-cooperative. We propose the an efficient and protocol-compliant mechanism to incentivize nodes to be truthful. Although earlier algorithms in this area have demonstrated performance improvements in terms of QoS parameters, the proposed QoS based rate allocation approach provides a framework that guarantees QoS constraints are actually met over the network.
The coming-of-age of the hygiene hypothesis
Fernando D Martinez
Respiratory Research , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/rr48
Abstract: There is now convincing evidence indicating that the prevalence of allergic diseases in general, and of asthma in particular, is on the rise in high income societies [1]. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain these increases, but the most widely discussed and the most controversial is the so-called 'hygiene hypothesis' [2,3]. This hypothesis was first enunciated in quite straightforward terms: the Western lifestyle has succeeded in markedly decreasing the incidence of infections in early life, and these infections may have a protective effect on the subsequent development of allergies.Initially, the hypothesis was mainly based on epidemiologic evidence of an inverse relation between indirect markers of increased infectious burden and prevalence of allergic diseases and allergic sensitization (reviewed in [4]). Concomitant studies on the development of the immune system in early life seemed to provide a biological basis for the hypothesis' main postulate. It has been reported that mononuclear cells obtained from cord blood showed markedly decreased cytokine responses to nonspecific stimuli [5]. This included both responses that characterize the T-helper (Th) 1 type (ie IFN-γ) and the Th2 type (ie IL-4). When studied both in cord blood and during the first year of life [6,7], however, Th1-like responses were particularly decreased among children with a family history of allergies and among those who would subsequently become sensitized to aeroallergens. Since IFN-γ is known to downregulate Th2-type responses, and these responses are essential for IgE synthesis by B cells, it was suggested that the development of IFN-γ responses could be stimulated by exposure to infectious agents postnatally [3,8], and that this could be the mechanism by which these infections protected against the development of allergic diseases.Presented in this fashion, the 'hygiene hypothesis' was tested in relation to several infectious diseases. The results were contradictory: whereas m
Maturation of a hypothesis
Fernando D. Martinez
Mediators of Inflammation , 2001, DOI: 10.1080/09629350152700984
A Robust Determination of Milky Way Satellite Properties using Hierarchical Mass Modeling
Gregory D. Martinez
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv942
Abstract: We introduce a new methodology to robustly determine the mass profile, as well as the overall distribution, of Local Group satellite galaxies. Specifically we employ a statistical multilevel modelling technique, Bayesian hierarchical modelling, to simultaneously constrain the properties of individual Local Group Milky Way satellite galaxies and the characteristics of the Milky Way satellite population. We show that this methodology reduces the uncertainty in individual dwarf galaxy mass measurements up to a factor of a few for the faintest galaxies. We find that the distribution of Milky Way satellites inferred by this analysis, with the exception of the apparent lack of high-mass haloes, is consistent with the Lambda cold dark matter (Lambda-CDM) paradigm. In particular we find that both the measured relationship between the maximum circular velocity and the radius at this velocity, as well as the inferred relationship between the mass within 300 pc and luminosity, match the values predicted by Lambda-CDM simulations for halos with maximum circular velocities below 20 km/sec. Perhaps more striking is that this analysis seems to suggest a more cusped "average" halo shape that is shared by these galaxies. While this study reconciles many of the observed properties of the Milky Way satellite distribution with that of Lambda-CDM simulations, we find that there is still a deficit of satellites with maximum circular velocities of 20-40 km/sec.
High-order Harmonic Generation and Dynamic Localization in a driven two-level system, a non-perturbative solution using the Floquet-Green formalism
D. F. Martinez
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1088/0305-4470/38/46/006
Abstract: We apply the Floquet-Green operator formalism to the case of a harmonically-driven two-level system. We derive exact expressions for the quasi-energies and the components of the Floquet eigenstates with the use of continued fractions. We study the avoided crossings structure of the quasi-energies as a function of the strength of the driving field and give an interpretation in terms of resonant multi-photon processes. From the Floquet eigenstates we obtain the time-evolution operator. Using this operator we study Dynamic Localization and High-order Harmonic Generation in the non-perturbative regime.
A higher dimensional generalization of taut foliations
D. Martinez-Torres
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: A higher dimensional generalization of taut foliations is introduced. Tools from symplectic geometry are used to describe surgery constructions, and to study the space of leaves of this class of foliations.
Learning class-to-class selectional preferences
E. Agirre,D. Martinez
Computer Science , 2001,
Abstract: Selectional preference learning methods have usually focused on word-to-class relations, e.g., a verb selects as its subject a given nominal class. This papers extends previous statistical models to class-to-class preferences, and presents a model that learns selectional preferences for classes of verbs. The motivation is twofold: different senses of a verb may have different preferences, and some classes of verbs can share preferences. The model is tested on a word sense disambiguation task which uses subject-verb and object-verb relationships extracted from a small sense-disambiguated corpus.
SUSY QM, symmetries and spectrum generating algebras for two-dimensional systems
D Martinez,R D Mota
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.aop.2007.07.001
Abstract: We show in a systematic and clear way how factorization methods can be used to construct the generators for hidden and dynamical symmetries. This is shown by studying the 2D problems of hydrogen atom, the isotropic harmonic oscillator and the radial potential $A\rho^{2\zeta-2}-B\rho^{\zeta-2}$. We show that in these cases the non-compact (compact) algebra corresponds to so(2,1) (su(2)).
Basic Psychological Needs in Predicting Exercise Participation  [PDF]
Jennifer V. Martinez, Crystal D. Oberle, Alexander J. Nagurney
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2013.31004
Abstract: This study examined propositions stemming from self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), which contends that motivational consequences and positive outcomes are predicted by the needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy. Participants completed the Psychological Need Satisfaction in Exercise (Wilson, Rogers, Rodgers, & Wild, 2006) scale and had their gym access activity monitored for six weeks. Regression analyses revealed that only competence emerged as a statistically significant predictor of exercise participation, and that this prediction was true for women only (p = .04). These findings suggest that exercise and health professionals must take care to ensure that this need is met, particularly in their female clients who may be impacted by traditional gender roles in sport contexts.
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