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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 492 matches for " Aine Blanchard "
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Alteration of Sequence Specificity of the Type IIS Restriction Endonuclease BtsI
Shengxi Guan,Aine Blanchard,Penghua Zhang,Zhenyu Zhu
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011787
Abstract: The Type IIS restriction endonuclease BtsI recognizes and digests at GCAGTG(2/0). It comprises two subunits: BtsIA and BtsIB. The BtsIB subunit contains the recognition domain, one catalytic domain for bottom strand nicking and part of the catalytic domain for the top strand nicking. BtsIA has the rest of the catalytic domain that is responsible for the DNA top strand nicking. BtsIA alone has no activity unless it mixes with BtsIB to reconstitute the BtsI activity. During characterization of the enzyme, we identified a BtsIB mutant R119A found to have a different digestion pattern from the wild type BtsI. After characterization, we found that BtsIB(R119A) is a novel restriction enzyme with a previously unreported recognition sequence CAGTG(2/0), which is named as BtsI-1. Compared with wild type BtsI, BtsI-1 showed different relative activities in NEB restriction enzyme reaction buffers NEB1, NEB2, NEB3 and NEB4 and less star activity. Similar to the wild type BtsIB subunit, the BtsI-1 B subunit alone can act as a bottom nicking enzyme recognizing CAGTG(-/0). This is the first successful case of a specificity change among this restriction endonuclease type.
Book Review: Youth and Community Work in Ireland: Critical Perspectives
Aine De Roiste
Irish Journal of Applied Social Studies , 2009,
Abstract:
Estimation of Population of Ten Selected Forest Tree Species Used by Communities around Kalinzu Forest Reserve, South-Western Uganda  [PDF]
Adalbert Adalbert Aine-omucunguzi, Grace Kagoro Rugunda, Dominic Byarugaba
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2012.24025
Abstract: Local communities depend on Kalinzu Forest Reserve (KFR) for plant resources. This resource utilization affects the population of tree species in the forest. This study set out to estimate the population of ten tree species in the forest. Results of this study are hoped to provide a basis for studying future changes in population dynamics of the species. The ten species selected were: Newtonia buchananii, Cynometra alexandrei, Teclea nobilis, Prunus africana, Entandrophragma exelsum, Sapium ellipticum, Diospyros abyssinica, Zanthoxylum gilletii, Rytiginia kigeziensis and Spathodea nilotica. Their selection was based on the results of a study (Aine-Omucunguzi et al., 2010) about utilization of plant resources by the local people around KFR. Species with high demand from the local people were selected. Alternate nested quadrants along five line transects, were used to estimate the population. The plants were categorized into three classes as trees (>5 cm diameter at breast height), saplings (2 cm root collar diameter-5 cm diameter at breast height) and wildings (<2 cm root collar diameter). Population, population density, relative density, frequency, and relative frequency of each species were determined. Generally, the number of wildings, saplings and trees of each species increased away from the forest edge inwards. For all the species, wildings had the highest population density followed by saplings and then trees. Teclea nobilis had the highest number of individual per hectare, followed by Newtonia buchananii, while Rytiginia kigeziensis and Spathodea nilotica had the lowest number of individuals per hectare.
Population Structure and Regeneration Status of Trichilia dregeana Sond. in Heavily and Less Disturbed Areas of Kalinzu Forest Reserve, South Western Uganda  [PDF]
Adalbert Aine-Omucunguzi, Dominic Byarugaba, Grace K. Rugunda
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2015.57058
Abstract: The population structure and regeneration status of Trichilia dregeana in heavily and less disturbed habitats of Kalinzu forest reserve were assessed in 2013. The species was used locally for medicines, fire wood and making household utensils, a situation that rendered it vulnerable. Given this dependence by local communities, the population of the species was under human pressure due to demand. This necessitated a critical understanding of how the population structure was affected by such disturbance although in some species, population structure disturbance increased resilience. Size-class distribution and regeneration status were used to determine the population structure as influenced by human disturbance. Four plots of 20 × 10 m were randomly established in each forest type and all T. dregeana trees of diameter ≥ 10 cm were counted and their DBH was measured at 1.3 m from the ground. In each of these plots, a 10 × 10 m plot was made and saplings DBH ≥ 2 - 10 cm were enumerated. Inside each 10 × 10 m plot, a 5 × 5 m plot was made and T. dregeana seedlings (<2 cm diameter) were identified and counted. The density of T. dregeana in the heavily disturbed forest was higher than in the less disturbed forest type. The size-class distribution exhibited a characteristic inverse J-shaped distribution pattern in the heavily disturbed forest whereas it was bell-shaped in the less disturbed forest type. In both forest types, the population of T. dregeana was found to be actively regenerating. This study concludes that the population structure of Trichilia dregeana is dominated by juveniles with total absence of individuals of DBH ≥ 22 cm, due to selective harvesting of mature individuals. In order to stop harvesting of this species from the natural forest, there should be an effort to provide seedlings to local communities so that they grow it on their farms.
Disease, Death and Dhandha: Gharwali’s Perspectives on the Impact of AIDS on Devadasi System and the Sex Work in South India  [PDF]
Kaveri Gurav, James Blanchard
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2013.31004
Abstract:

Traditional Devadasi system based sex work (dhandha) is practiced inIndia. The communities that practice this system are affected severely by AIDS epidemic. Through this paper we present the views of gharwalis (brothel madams) regarding the impact of AIDS on the traditional system (Devadasi system) of initiating girls as sex workers (Devadasis) and on the practice of sex work (dhandha) associated with that system. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with twelve gharwalis as a follow-up of a cohort study, which investigated the patterns and determinants of sex worker migration from northern Karnataka to southern Maharashtra, in India. According to gharwalis, the disease (AIDS) consequences; death, fear and stigma affected dhandha operations, changed the attitude of the Devadasi community against the practice of dhandha and the Devadasi system, besides, influenced the community to take actions to stop the practice of dhandha and the Devadasi system. The findings suggest that the interplay between the disease consequences and the community’s response to those consequences contribute to transition dhandha and the Devadasi system. We discuss our findings, describe the transition and the consequent risk enhancing conditions. Finally, highlight the need to address these conditions to reduce Devadasis risk and vulnerability to HIV infection.

Clostridium septicum Sepsis and Colon Carcinoma: Report of 4 Cases
Eric Mao,Aine Clements,Edward Feller
Case Reports in Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/248453
Abstract: An association exists between colon carcinoma and Clostridium septicum infection, especially bacteremia. We reviewed retrospectively all positive blood cultures for this organism at a 300-bed general hospital over 4 years. Four of 15 cases were associated with concurrent colon carcinoma. C. septicum infection was the presenting feature of previously undiagnosed large bowel malignancy in three patients. We report this small case series to alert clinicians to the diverse spectrum and diagnostic difficulties of this rare, potentially catastrophic association. Although commonly associated with necrotizing skin or soft tissue infections, this bacterium can present with nonspecific or atypical symptoms. All patients with positive blood cultures for C. septicum, even without clinical suspicion of large bowel malignancy, should undergo colonoscopy to evaluate for colon carcinoma.
Fresh frozen plasma induced thrombocytopenia  [PDF]
Alexandra Drakaki, Elizabeth P. Blanchard
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2013.22032
Abstract:

Transfusions of blood products are common in medical practice and can be lifesaving in certain situations. Potentially life threatening reactions could occur and physicians should be alerted. Here we describe a case of thrombocytopenia that was induced by transfusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP). A 52 years old male presented to the emergency department after two episodes of hematochezia that resolved spontaneously. Since he was anticoagulated for atrial fibrillation he was given a unit of FFP to reverse a slightly elevated INR. Within 6 hours from the administration of the FFP he developed an acute decrease only in his platelet count. He was managed conservatively and his thrombocytopenia started resolving gradually. After excluding other causes the potential diagnosis was fresh frozen plasma induced thrombocytopenia. The pathophysiologic mechanism is postulated to be immune mediated by passive transfer of antibodyies from the donor to the recipient. The antibodies that are described in the literature are anti-HPA-1a and anti-CD-36. We reported the event to the American Red Cross. Interestingly a male was the donor of the plasma while in all cases in the literature the donors are females with a prior history of pregnancy. Therefore this is the first reported case of a male blood donor whose blood product caused immune mediated thrombocytopenia post transfusion.

Regard communautaire sur le parcours social et la sexualité des femmes sénégalaises solitaires à Marseille
Melissa Blanchard
SociologieS , 2012,
Abstract: à travers la décision d’émigrer en solitaire , à savoir non accompagnées par un homme de la famille, les femmes réalisent un parcours individuel selon des choix personnels, ce qui leur permet d’exercer aussi un meilleur contr le sur leur corps. Elles bénéficient ainsi d’une plus grande autonomie sexuelle, qu’elles peuvent décider d’exploiter comme une source de revenus complémentaire à leur travail dans le secteur du commerce. Mais, de cette fa on, elles s’exposent aussi aux dynamiques de catégorisation et d’étiquetage, voire de marginalisation, qui se mettent à l’ uvre dans la communauté migrante par rapport aux femmes seules . En effet, la remise en cause des principes traditionnels de l’échange économico-sexuel impliquée par ce choix de vie autonome ébranle en profondeur les règles qui assurent la reproduction de la communauté dans son ensemble et se trouve par conséquent critiquée et contrecarrée tant par les hommes que par les femmes de la communauté immigrée. Ainsi, la censure sur la conduite de ces femmes seules semble s’exercer indépendamment de la connaissance de leurs pratiques réelles et s’exprimer de manière d’autant plus virulente que l’on se trouve en migration, un contexte dans lequel les femmes occupent une place fondamentale dans les stratégies de reproduction, biologique et sociale, des groupes sociaux. Community perspective on the social route and the sexuality of lonesome Senegalese women in MarseilleThrough the decision to emigrate alone , that is, unaccompanied by a male relative, women are marking out an individual path on the basis of personal choices that enables them to exercise more control over their bodies. They thus enjoy greater sexual autonomy, which they may decide to use as a source of income complementary to their work in the trade sector. But this way they are also subject to the dynamics of categorization and labeling, or marginalization, that are at work in the migrant community in relation to lone women. Indeed, the questioning of traditional principles of sexual-economic exchange implied by this choice of independent living deeply undermines the rules that ensure the reproduction of the community as a whole and is therefore criticized and countered by both men and women in the immigrant community. Thus, the censure of the conduct of these lone women appears to be exercised independently of the knowledge of their actual practices and expresses itself more virulently in migration, a context in which women play a fundamental role in the biological and social reproductive strategies of social groups. P
Bolivie, de l'autonomie à l'éclatement ?
Sophie Blanchard
EchoGéo , 2008,
Abstract: Le référendum sur l'autonomie départementale qui s'est tenu le 4 mai 2008 dans le département de Santa Cruz, à l'est de la Bolivie, semble menacer l'unité du pays. La crise politique qui en a résulté témoigne de la fracture croissante qui sépare la Bolivie des hautes terres, bastion du président Evo Morales, emblème de la nouvelle gauche latino-américaine et de la défense des droits des peuples indigènes, et la Bolivie plus riche des plaines qui revendique son autonomie. On the 4th of may 2008, a referendum was held in the department of Santa Cruz, in eastern Bolivia : the results seem to threaten the country's unity. The ongoing political crisis is a sign of the growing gap dividing Bolivia. The poor Bolivian highlands are Evo Morales's electoral basis - the president, leader of the new Latin-American political leftwing, is an eager defender of the rights of indigenous people -, whereas the wealthier and whiter lowlands are claiming for more autonomy.
Lixus Rubellus Randall
Frederick Blanchard
Psyche , 1876, DOI: 10.1155/1876/52730
Abstract:
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