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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1406 matches for " Aileen; Ayala "
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Mindfulness as a Factor in the Relationship between Insecure Attachment Style, Neurotic Personality and Disordered Eating Behavior  [PDF]
Aileen Pidgeon, Alexandra Grainger
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2013.24B005
Abstract:

Mindfulness, conceptualized as a dispositional trait that differs across individuals, may potentially influence disordered eating behaviors. Previous research has independently identified insecure attachment style and neurotic personality traits as correlates of disordered eating behavior. Thus this current study will investigate whether neurotic personality traits, insecure attachment style and mindfulness predict disordered eating behavior controlling for gender differences. Participants (N = 126) completed the Adult Attachment Scale [1], the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire – Revised 18 [2], The Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale – Revised [3] and the International Personality Item Pool [4]. The results of this cross-sectional study indicated that neurotic personality traits, insecure attachment style and mindfulness were related to disordered eating behaviors. The variance in disordered eating behaviors that was accounted for by neurotic personality traits and insecure attachment style was significantly reduced with the introduction of mindfulness. The results provides preliminary support for the inclusion of mindfulness training in disordered eating behavior interventions for individuals exhibiting an insecure attachment style and neurotic personality traits. Limitations and implications for further research are discussed.

Body-focused Anxiety in Women: Associations with Internalization of the Thin-ideal, Dieting Frequency, Body Mass Index and Media Effects  [PDF]
Aileen Pidgeon, Rachel A. Harker
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2013.24B004
Abstract:

Exposure to media that portrays thin women as ideal and attractive can lead to women internalizing the thin ideal, which results in incorporating societal standards of thinness into belief systems. Internalization of the thin-ideal is associated with numerous detrimental effects on women, including decreased levels of self-esteem and increased levels of body-focused anxiety, negative emotions and disordered eating. The present study utilized a sample of women (N = 208) aged between 18 and 67 years (M = 29.44, SD = 13.08) to examine the relationship between internalization of the thin- ideal, body-focused anxiety, body mass index (BMI), and dieting frequency. Correlational, regression and mediation analyses conducted on the data showed that internalization of the thin-ideal, BMI and dieting frequency significantly contributed to body-focused anxiety in women. In addition, body-focused anxiety fully mediated the relationship between internalization of the thin-ideal and dieting frequency among women. BMI did not moderate the relationship between internalization of the thin-ideal and body-focused, indicating that women who internalize the thin-ideal are less vulnerable to dieting unless experiencing body-focused anxiety. The results of the current study enhance our understanding of the relationship between internalization of the thin-ideal, body-focused anxiety, BMI, and dieting frequency among women. Clinical implications will be discussed.

Protección inducida por nanococleatos derivados de proteoliposomas de Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola
Tamargo,Beatriz; Rosario,Luis Alfredo; Batista,Niurka; Arencibia,Daniel Francisco; Fernández,Kenia; Villegas,Aileen; Ayala,Juan Alfonso; Sierra,Victoriano Gustavo;
Vaccimonitor , 2012,
Abstract: whole cell leptospirosis vaccines have been developed and used from the 20`s of last century up today , most of them are not adjuvated and do not confer a long-lasting immunity. these vaccines are mainly against different serogroups of leptospira interrogans contained in the preparation. though several attempts to obtain a vaccinal formulation more effective, purer, with wider spectrum and longer protection than the bacterines of inactivated whole cells have been made no vaccine with these characteristics have been registered yet. this paper deals with the obtainment of outer membrane antigens from a cuban autochthonous strain (strain 87, l. interrogans serovar canicola), by a modification of the technology for the production of outer membrane vesicles, patented by researchers from finlay institute these antigens with nanoproteoliposomic structure were formulated/adjuvated by different strategies, obtaining five preparations with cochlear structures which are nanoparticles of approximately 100 to 150 nm of lenght and from 15 to 30 nm of diameter. two doses of the immunogens are inoculated in the biomodel mesocrisetus aureatus, with an interval of six weeks. the challenge was carried out with 100.000 dl 50 . results showed that the new vaccinal formulations confer protection against the homologous challenge and were able to eliminate the carrier status. this, together with the robutness of the preparation method, the higher level of purity, compared to the bacterines, and the no need of aluminium hydroxide make the formulations an alternative of interest for continuing their development
Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Related Hepatocellular Nodular Lesions in Cirrhosis: Controversies, Challenges, and Expectations
Aileen Wee
Pathology Research International , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/587936
Abstract: The role of hepatic fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy has evolved. Advances in imaging modalities have obviated the need for tissue confirmation in most hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). There is risk of needle-tract seeding. Increasingly, small nodules are being detected on ultrasound surveillance of high-risk patients. Diagnostic challenges associated with cirrhosis include distinction of benign hepatocellular nodules, namely, large regenerative nodules and dysplastic nodules, from reactive hepatocytes; and distinction of well-differentiated HCCs from benign hepatocellular nodules. This paper will discuss (i) controversies regarding preoperative/pretransplantation FNA diagnosis of HCC, (ii) update of biological evolution, nomenclature, and histopathologic criteria for diagnosis of precancerous nodules and small HCCs, and (iii) algorithmic approach to FNA diagnosis of hepatocellular nodules. Optimal results depend on dedicated radiologist-cytopathologist team, on-site cytology service; combined cytohistologic approach, immunohistochemistry, and clinicopathologic correlation. Hepatic FNA is likely to be incorporated as a point of care as we move towards personalized medicine. 1. Introduction The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has risen as a result of increased global burden of chronic liver disease due to hepatitis B and C virus infections, aflatoxin B1, alcoholism, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis associated with the metabolic syndrome. It is now the sixth most common cancer worldwide and the third most common cause of cancer deaths [1]. The natural history in high-risk patients is the occurrence of dysplastic foci in a cirrhotic background from which precancerous dysplastic nodules may ensue with some transforming to become HCC [2, 3]. Much progress has been achieved over the years with regard to detection/screening, diagnosis, surveillance, and multimodal treatment approaches leading to improvement in prognosis of HCC [4, 5]. Surgery, and in particular liver transplantation, is considered the best option; but this is not widely available, and many patients still present with advanced disease. Increasing knowledge of molecular hepatocarcinogenesis has led to the advent of molecular targeted therapy [6]. Sorafenib, the antiproliferative and antiangiogenic multikinase inhibitor, has broadened the therapeutic horizon for advanced cases [5]. Early detection with appropriate therapy is still the optimal approach that offers the patient the best prognosis. High-risk patients undergo 6-monthly ultrasound
Man's best genome?
Aileen Constans
Genome Biology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20051209-01
Abstract: The study authors have "pretty much unlocked a treasure chest of genetic variability that underlies phenotypic variability, that helps us to understand not only what regulates traits in dogs but also what regulates traits in humans," canine geneticist Patrick Venta of Michigan State University, who was not involved in the study, told The Scientist. "There's no other mammalian species that has as much genetic variability that causes so much phenotypic variability."The assembled sequence, which spans 2.41 Gbp, represented 99% of the genome of a female boxer named Tasha, who was chosen for the study because genetic marker assays showed she was highly inbred.A previous survey sequence of a male standard poodle provided enough information for comparative genomic studies. But the relatively low coverage (roughly 75%) meant that there were a lot of gaps in the sequence. "Occasionally you get a gap that's too big" with lower coverage, said Venta. In the current study, there are much fewer gaps in coverage, "which makes it so much easier for us to just go in and identify a gene that we want to study." Venta is currently using the data to identify sequences underlying behavioral phenotypes.The authors performed a cross-breed analysis of SNP distribution to determine the amount of haplotype sharing within and across breeds, generating a 2.5 million SNP map with an average density of 1 SNP per 1,000 bp. They used this map to compare regions of the boxer sequence with those of nine other breeds, and found that within-breed linkage disequilibrium extends over a 50-fold greater distance than in humans. This suggests that association studies in dog would require only 10,000 evenly-based SNPs, compared to 300,000 in humans. The authors also assembled a population genetic history of domestic dogs, which demonstrated that two bottlenecks — divergence from wolves and the creation of individual breeds — likely determined the haplotype structure of the modern canine genome."We know that
Implementing Task-Based Instruction to Facilitate Language Learning: Moving Away from Theory
Aileen Griffiths
TEFLIN Journal , 2001,
Abstract: The use of tasks has gained growing acceptance in the field of language teaching. In the task-based teaching, the organization of th language classroom is learner-centered and the learning activities involve communicative language use. This paper discuss task-based teaching by presenting a brief overview of its underlying rationales. The rationales for incoporating task-based activities are dirived from the psycholinguistic and pedagogical perpectives. Some practical insights in this paper might be useful for English teachers and language experts.
Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the liver: Algorithmic approach and current issues in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma
Wee Aileen
CytoJournal , 2005,
Abstract: The role of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in the evaluation of focal liver lesions has evolved. Guided FNAB is still useful to procure a tissue diagnosis if clinical, biochemical and radiologic findings are inconclusive. Major diagnostic issues include: (i) Distinction of benign hepatocellular nodular lesions from reactive hepatocytes, (ii) Distinction of well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (WD-HCC) from benign hepatocellular nodular lesions, (iii) Distinction of poorly differentiated HCC from cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic carcinomas, (iv) Determination of histogenesis of malignant tumor, and (v) Determination of primary site of origin of malignant tumor. This review gives a general overview of hepatic FNAB; outlines an algorithmic approach to cytodiagnosis with emphasis on HCC, its variants and their mimics; and addresses current diagnostic issues. Close radiologic surveillance of high-risk cirrhotic patients has resulted in the increasing detection of smaller lesions with many subjected to biopsy for tissue characterization. The need for tissue confirmation in clinically obvious HCC is questioned due to risk of malignant seeding. When a biopsy is indicated, core needle biopsy is favored over FNAB. The inherent difficulty of distinguishing small/early HCC from benign hepatocellular nodular lesions has resulted in indeterminate reports. Changing concepts in the understanding of the biological behavior and morphologic evolution of HCC and its precursors; and the current lack of agreement on the morphologic criteria for distinguishing high-grade dysplastic lesions (with small cell change) from WD-HCC, have profound impact on nomenclature, cytohistologic interpretation and management. Optimization of hepatic FNAB to enhance the yield and accuracy of diagnoses requires close clinicopathologic correlation; combined cytohistologic approach; judicious use of ancillary tests; and skilled healthcare teams.
The eye of the storm: discursive power and resistance in thedevelopment of a professional qualification for adultliteracies practitioners in Scotland
Aileen Ackland
European Journal for Research on the Education and Learning of Adults , 2011,
Abstract: The claim to be a profession traditionally assumes the need for a University levelqualification. In a previously unregulated area of practice, the development of aprofessional qualification is thus central to the professionalisation process. In Scotland,the development of a Teaching Qualification for Adult Literacies practitioners becamethe focal point for the tensions in the broader professionalisation project and a site ofdiscursive contestation in an emergent field of practice. This paper explores the play ofpower and resistance, drawing primarily on two separate but related research studies–a policy analysis and an exploration of practitioners' conceptualisations of practice.Whilst the first study explicitly used the methodological framework of CriticalDiscourse Analysis (Fairclough, 2003) and the second, Personal Construct Theory(Kelly, 1955), they are connected by their postmodern focus on language use and aninterest in how practitioners are managed by and, in turn, manage and mediatemanagerial and professional forms of power; both aimed to examine 'how discoursefigures in the processes of change' (Fairclough, 2003, p. 205). Brought intorelationship with one another in the context of the nexus of power relations formed bythe development of the new qualification, they illuminate the multiple 'projects'competing discursively in the space.
Feasibility and Efficacy of Willpower Strengthening Exercises with University Students: A Randomised Control Pilot Study  [PDF]
Aileen M. Pidgeon, Sophie L. Monteath
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2013.16002
Abstract: This study examined the feasibility and efficacy of implementing intense brief willpower strengthening exercises with university students. Thirty-nine university students were randomly allocated into one of three groups: willpower strengthening exercise intervention groups, 4-7-8 Hands or postural adjustments, or a control group. Participants assigned to the active intervention groups were required to practice the relevant willpower strengthening exercise every hour, for six hours per day, over three days. The high participation and compliance rates of participants in the two active intervention groups, along with positive feedback, supported the feasibility of the willpower strengthening exercises with university students. Additionally, the 4-7-8 Hands and posture groups reported directional improvements in willpower compared to the control group. Future research is recommended to evaluate the efficacy of willpower strengthening exercises over a longer time period to allow for more practice and effect time.
Investigation of the Relationship between Resilience, Mindfulness, and Academic Self-Efficacy  [PDF]
Michelle D. Keye, Aileen M. Pidgeon
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2013.16001
Abstract: Resilience, mindfulness, and academic self-efficacy are topics of interests to psychologists; however, little is known about the relationships among the three. The primary purpose of this research was to explore the role of mindfulness and academic self-efficacy in predicting resilience among university students. 141 participants (m = 39, f = 102) completed The Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory, The Beliefs in Educational Success Test, and The Connor Davidson Resilience Scale. The results found that in the regression models, mindfulness and academic self-efficacy were significant predictors of resilience. This finding suggests that mindfulness and academic self-efficacy have a significant impact on resilience.
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