Abstract:
A simple graph G is said to be representable in a real vector space of dimension m if there is an embedding of the vertex set in the vector space such that the Euclidean distance between any two distinct vertices is one of only two distinct values a or b, with distance a if the vertices are adjacent and distance b otherwise. The Euclidean representation number of G is the smallest dimension in which G is representable. In this note, we bound the Euclidean representation number of a graph using multiplicities of the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix. We also give an exact formula for the Euclidean representation number using the main angles of the graph.

Abstract:
This thesis is a study of large sets of unit vectors in $\cx^n$ such that the absolute value of their standard inner products takes on only a small number of values. We begin with bounds: what is the maximal size of a set of lines with only a given set of angles? We rederive a series of upper bounds originally due to Delsarte, Goethals and Seidel, but in a novel way using only zonal polynomials and linear algebra. In the process we get some new results about complex $t$-designs and also some new characterizations of tightness. Next we consider constructions. We describe some generic constructions using linear codes and Cayley graphs, and then move to two specific instances of the problem: mutually unbiased bases and equiangular lines. Both cases are motivated by problems in quantum computing, although they have applications in digital communications as well. Mutually unbiased bases are collections of orthonormal bases with a constant angle between vectors from different bases. We construct some maximal sets in prime-power dimensions, originally due to Calderbank, Cameron, Kantor and Seidel, but again in a novel way using relative difference sets or distance-regular antipodal covers. We also detail their numerous relations to other combinatorial objects, including symplectic spreads, orthogonal decompositions of Lie algebras, and spin models. Peripherally, we discuss mutually unbiased bases in small dimensions that are not prime powers and in real vector spaces. Equiangular lines are collections of vectors with only one angle between them. We use difference sets from finite geometry to construct equiangular lines: these sets do not have maximal size, but they are maximal with respect to having all entries of the same absolute value. We also include some negative results about constructions of maximal sets in large dimensions.

Abstract:
We introduce the concepts of complex Grassmannian codes and designs. Let G(m,n) denote the set of m-dimensional subspaces of C^n: then a code is a finite subset of G(m,n) in which few distances occur, while a design is a finite subset of G(m,n) that polynomially approximates the entire set. Using Delsarte's linear programming techniques, we find upper bounds for the size of a code and lower bounds for the size of a design, and we show that association schemes can occur when the bounds are tight. These results are motivated by the bounds for real subspaces recently found by Bachoc, Coulangeon and Nebe, and the bounds generalize those of Delsarte, Goethals and Seidel for codes and designs on the complex unit sphere.

Abstract:
We investigate upper and lower bounds on the entropy of entanglement of a superposition of bipartite states as a function of the individual states in the superposition. In particular, we extend the results in [G. Gour, arxiv.org:0704.1521 (2007)] to superpositions of several states rather than just two. We then investigate the entanglement in a subspace as a function of its basis states: we find upper bounds for the largest entanglement in a subspace and demonstrate that no such lower bound for the smallest entanglement exists. Finally, we consider entanglement of superpositions using measures of entanglement other than the entropy of entanglement.

Abstract:
We use difference sets to construct interesting sets of lines in complex space. Using (v,k,1)-difference sets, we obtain k^2-k+1 equiangular lines in C^k when k-1 is a prime power. Using semiregular relative difference sets with parameters (k,n,k,l) we construct sets of n+1 mutually unbiased bases in C^k. We show how to construct these difference sets from commutative semifields and that several known maximal sets of mutually unbiased bases can be obtained in this way, resolving a conjecture about the monomiality of maximal sets. We also relate mutually unbiased bases to spin models.

Abstract:
We give two characterizations of crooked functions: one based on the minimum distance of a Preparata-like code, and the other based on the distance-regularity of a crooked graph.

Abstract:
Real spherical designs and real and complex projective designs have been shown by Delsarte, Goethals, and Seidel to give rise to association schemes when the strength of the design is high compared to its degree as a code. In contrast, designs on the complex unit sphere remain relatively uninvestigated, despite their importance in numerous applications. In this paper we develop the notion of a complex spherical design and show how many such designs carry the structure of an association scheme. In contrast with the real spherical designs and the real and complex projective designs, these association schemes are nonsymmetric.

Abstract:
A unitary design is a collection of unitary matrices that approximate the entire unitary group, much like a spherical design approximates the entire unit sphere. In this paper, we use irreducible representations of the unitary group to find a general lower bound on the size of a unitary t-design in U(d), for any d and t. We also introduce the notion of a unitary code - a subset of U(d) in which the trace inner product of any pair of matrices is restricted to only a small number of distinct values - and give an upper bound for the size of a code of degree s in U(d) for any d and s. These bounds can be strengthened when the particular inner product values that occur in the code or design are known. Finally, we describe some constructions of designs: we give an upper bound on the size of the smallest weighted unitary t-design in U(d), and we catalogue some t-designs that arise from finite groups.

Abstract:
We introduce the problem of constructing weighted complex projective 2-designs from the union of a family of orthonormal bases. If the weight remains constant across elements of the same basis, then such designs can be interpreted as generalizations of complete sets of mutually unbiased bases, being equivalent whenever the design is composed of d+1 bases in dimension d. We show that, for the purpose of quantum state determination, these designs specify an optimal collection of orthogonal measurements. Using highly nonlinear functions on abelian groups, we construct explicit examples from d+2 orthonormal bases whenever d+1 is a prime power, covering dimensions d=6, 10, and 12, for example, where no complete sets of mutually unbiased bases have thus far been found.

Abstract:
We show that under a certain condition of local commutativity the minimum von-Neumann entropy output of a quantum channel is locally additive. We also show that local minima of the 2-norm entropy functions are closed under tensor products if one of the subspaces has dimension 2.