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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9349 matches for " Ahmed Kamruddin "
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Circulating rotaviral RNA in children with rotavirus antigenemia
Ahmed Kamruddin,Bozdayi Gulendam,Mitui Marcelo T,Ahmed Selim
Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1477-5751-12-5
Abstract: Background Rotavirus antigenemia is a common phenomenon in children with rotavirus diarrhea, but information is scarce on aspects of this phenomenon, such as genotype specificity, presence of intact viruses and correlation between genomic RNA and antigen concentration. Such information may help in understanding rotavirus pathogenesis and eventually be useful for diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Methods and findings Serum samples were collected from children who presented at hospitals with diarrhea. Antigenemia was present in 162/250 (64.8%) samples from children with rotavirus diarrhea. No specific rotavirus genotype was found to be associated with antigenemia. Rotavirus particles could not be found by electron microscopy in concentrated serum from children with high levels of antigenemia. In passaged rotavirus suspension a significant correlation (r = 0.9559; P = 0.0029) was found between antigen level and viral copy number, but no significant correlation (r = 0.001480; P = 0.9919) was found between antigenemia level and viral copy number in serum. When intact rotavirus was treated with benzonase endonuclease, genomic double-stranded (ds) RNA was not degraded, but when sera of patients with antigenemia were treated with benzonase endonuclease, genomic dsRNA was degraded, indicating genomic dsRNA was free in sera and not inside virus capsid protein. Conclusions Antigenemia is present in a significant number of patients with rotavirus diarrhea. Rotavirus viremia was absent in the children with rotavirus diarrhea who participated in our study, and was not indicated by the presence of antigenemia. The significance of circulating rotavirus antigen and genomic dsRNA in serum of patients with diarrhea deserves further study.
Twelve Years of Rabies Surveillance in Sri Lanka, 1999–2010
Dushantha Karunanayake,Takashi Matsumoto,Omala Wimalaratne,Susilakanthi Nanayakkara,Devika Perera,Akira Nishizono,Kamruddin Ahmed
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003205
Abstract: Background Rabies is endemic in Sri Lanka, but little is known about the temporal and spatial trends of rabies in this country. Knowing these trends may provide insight into past control efforts and serve as the basis for future control measures. In this study, we analyzed distribution of rabies in humans and animals over a period of 12 years in Sri Lanka. Methods Accumulated data from 1999 through 2010 compiled by the Department of Rabies Diagnosis and Research, Medical Research Institute (MRI), Colombo, were used in this study. Results The yearly mean percentage of rabies-positive sample was 62.4% (47.6–75.9%). Three-fourths of the rabies-positive samples were from the Colombo, Gampaha, and Kalutara districts in Western province, followed by Galle in Southern province. A high percentage of the rabies samples were from dogs (85.2%), followed by cats (7.9%), humans (3.8%), wild animals (2.0%), and livestock (1.1%). Among wild animals, mongooses were the main victims followed by civets. The number of suspect human rabies cases decreased gradually in Sri Lanka, although the number of human samples submitted for laboratory confirmation increased. Conclusions The number of rabid dogs has remained relatively unchanged, but the number of suspect human rabies is decreasing gradually in Sri Lanka. These findings indicate successful use of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) by animal bite victims and increased rabies awareness. PEP is free of charge and is supplied through government hospitals by the Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka. Our survey shows that most positive samples were received from Western and Southern provinces, possibly because of the ease of transporting samples to the laboratory. Submissions of wild animal and livestock samples should be increased by creating more awareness among the public. Better rabies surveillance will require introduction of molecular methods for detection and the establishment of more regional rabies diagnostic laboratories.
A geometric crescent model for black hole images
Ayman Bin Kamruddin,Jason Dexter
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1068
Abstract: The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a global very long baseline interferometry array operating at millimetre wavelengths, is spatially resolving the immediate environments of black holes for the first time. The current observations of the Galactic center black hole, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), and M87 have been interpreted in terms of either geometric models (e.g., a symmetric Gaussian) or detailed calculations of the appearance of black hole accretion flows. The former are not physically motivated, while the latter are subject to large systematic uncertainties. Motivated by the dominant relativistic effects of Doppler beaming and gravitational lensing in many calculations, we propose a geometric crescent model for black hole images. We show that this simple model provides an excellent statistical description of the existing EHT data of Sgr A* and M87, superior to other geometric models for Sgr A*. It also qualitatively matches physically predicted models, bridging accretion theory and observation. Based on our results, we make predictions for the detectability of the black hole shadow, a signature of strong gravity, in future observations.
Treatment of Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis: Platelet Rich Plasma versus Extra-Corporeal Shock Wave Therapy  [PDF]
Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed Othman
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2014.43013
Abstract: Background: Several treatment options have been proposed to treat lateral epicondylitis. Both Platelet rich plasma (PRP) and Extra-corporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) are new treatment modalities for tendinopathy. Patients and Methods: Thirty seven patients suffering from chronic lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) for at least six months were treated in this study. The patients were divided into two treatment groups, the first group including 20 patients treated by ESWT and the second group including 17 patients treated by local injection of platelet-rich plasma. The results were evaluated using the visual analogue scale and the DASH score. Results: In the first group (treated by ESWT), the average follow-up period was 21.55 months. The average VAS improved from 8.2 to 1.95 and the average DASH score improved from 72.25 to 51.7. Moreover, 11 cases were satisfied (55%), 3 cases (15%) were satisfied with reservation and 6 cases (30%) were not satisfied. In the second group (treated by PRP), the average follow-up period was 18.47 months. The average VAS improved from 8.52 to 1.47, the DASH score improved from 72 to 48.23. Concerning patient satisfaction, 13 cases were satisfied (83.33%), 3 cases (10.52%) were satisfied with reservation and 1 case (5.55%) was not satisfied. Conclusion: Platelet rich plasma was proved to achieve superior results when compared to ESWT as regards pain relief, improvement of elbow function and patient satisfaction at follow-up.
Open versus Arthroscopic Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stiff Elbow  [PDF]
Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed Othman
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2014.411047
Abstract: Thirty three patients with post-traumatic stiff elbow were divided into two groups. The first group included 18 patients with an average age of 31.05 years treated by open arthrolysis. The second included 15 patients with an average age of 31.66 years treated by arthroscopic method. The results were evaluated using the Mayo clinic score and DASH score for elbow function. In the open group, after an average period of follow-up 19.33 months, the average range of flexion-extension movement improved from 51.11° to 103.94°. The average Mayo clinic score improved from 63.38 to 92.83 and the average DASH score improved from 68.1 to 40.23. There were 13 cases (72.22%) excellent, 4 cases (22.22%) good and 1 case (5.55%) with the poor result. In the arthroscopic group, after an average period of follow-up 17.73 months, the average range of flexion-extension movement improved from 59.46° to 101.53°. The average Mayo clinic score improved from 62.93 to 92.73 and the average DASH score improved from 69.25 to 46.4. There were 10 cases (66.66%) excellent, 3 cases (20%) good and 2 cases (13.33%) with the poor result. Both open and arthro-scopic treatment can be effective in treatment of post-traumatic stiff elbow. Arthroscopic treatment is associated with less post-operative pain and morbidity. However, open treatment provides better range of motion and marked improvement of elbow function.
Energy-Efficient and Reliable Transport Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks: State-of-Art  [PDF]
Ahmed Ayadi
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2011.33011
Abstract: New wireless sensor network applications (e.g., military surveillance) require higher reliability than a simple best effort service could provide. Classical reliable transport protocols like Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) are not well suited for wireless sensor networks due to both the characteristics of the network nodes (low computing power, strong energy constraints) and those of the main applications running on those nodes (low data rates). Recent researches present new transport protocols for wireless sensor networks providing various type of reliability and using new mechanisms for loss detection and recovery, and congestion control. This paper presents a survey on reliable transport protocol for WSNs.
Modular Spaces Topology  [PDF]
Ahmed Hajji
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.49175
Abstract:

In this paper, we present and discuss the topology of modular spaces using the filter base and we then characterize closed subsets as well as its regularity.

Acquisition of the Inter-Dental Fricatives /θ/ and /ð/ in ESL/EFL and Jamaican Creole: A Comparative Study  [PDF]
Ahmed Mousa
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.41004
Abstract:

This study aims at investigating to what extent the linguistic processes exhibited in creolization parallel those manifested by Arab learners of English in particular and those of child language and second/foreign language in general. Another aim of the study is to highlight the link between second/foreign language learning and historical change. To this end, the speech of two speakers of the Broad Jamaican Creole was compared with the performance of Saudi school and university learners of English as a foreign language and data from child language, with respect to the pronunciation of English inter-dental fricatives /θ/ and /e/. The results show that learning in the above three situations takes place according to the same principles. Furthermore, the sound substitutions made in the three situations (i.e. [t], [d] respectively) are the same as those witnessed in historical sound change.

Does FDI Crowd in or out Domestic Investment? New Evidence from Emerging Economies  [PDF]
Ahmed Kamaly
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.54038
Abstract: Foreign direct investment (FDI) has been for a while now an acronym associated with improvement in competitiveness and economic growth. To assess the expediency of FDI, it is imperative to answer the following question: what is the dynamic effect of FDI on total investment? In other words, what is the effect of FDI on domestic investment (DI); does it crowd in or out domestic investment? Research addressing this question is relatively recent and its empirical findings are ambiguous. This paper attempts to dodge the pitfalls in the theoretical and especially the empirical literature in assessing the link between FDI and domestic investment. The paper develops a simple theoretical model which is commonly used in the literature to come up with a reduced-form equation. Using data on 16 emerging countries over a 30-year period, the empirical model is estimated as a system of equations where each equation represents a country. Grouping all individual country regression in one system of equations aims to take into account the common contemporaneous errors associated with global shocks affecting FDI flows. This system of equations is estimated using 3SLS to account for both the existence of contemporaneous errors among individual country equations as well as the endogeneity of FDI. Results show that in general the effect of FDI on DI is country specific; however, in most countries, on impact, FDI has a positive and significant effect on DI. In subsequent periods, FDI may crowd out DI. In most countries included in the sample, FDI has a neutral long-term effect on DI. Crowding in or crowding out effect of FDI on DI is only found in few countries. This indicates that the rule is the neutrality of FDI on DI and the exception is otherwise (whether crowding in or out).
Assessment and Evaluation of Band Ratios, Brovey and HSV Techniques for Lithologic Discrimination and Mapping Using Landsat ETM+ and SPOT-5 Data  [PDF]
Ahmed Madani
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.51002
Abstract:

This study aims to assess and to evaluate band ratios, brovey and HSV (Hue-Saturation-Value) techniques for discrimination and mapping the basement rock units exposed at Wadi Bulghah area, Saudi Arabia using multispectral Landsat ETM+ and SPOT-5 panchromatic data. FieldSpec instrument is utilized to collect the spectral data of diorite, marble, gossan and volcanics, the main rock units exposed at the study area. Spectral profile of diorite exhibits very distinguished absorption features around 2.20 μm and 2.35 μm wavelength regions. These absorption features lead to lowering the band ratio values within the band-7 wavelength region. Diorite intrusions appear to have grey and dark grey image signatures on 7/3 and 7/2 band ratio images respectively. On the false color composite ratio image (7/3:R; 7/2:G and 5/2:B), diorite, marble, gossan and volcanics have very dark brown, dark blue, white and yellowish brown image signatures respectively. Image fusion between previously mentioned FCC ratio image and high spatial resolution (5 meters) SPOT-5 panchromatic image is carried out by using brovey and HSV transformation

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