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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 650 matches for " Ahmadu Usman Dahiru "
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Comparative Study of The Hepatoprotective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of aTelfairia occidentalis (Ugu) Leaves And Silymarin on Paracetamol Induced Liver Damage in Wistar Rats
Jibrin Danladi,Kafeelat Bolajoko Abayomi,Mairiga. A.A.,Ahmadu Usman Dahiru
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Telfairia occidentalis is use as vegetable in number of countries. Extract of Telfairia occidentalis leaves have been reported to have medicinal use in traditional medicine system, in most often an hepatoprotectant agent. In this study, the effect of Telfairia occidentalis leaves and Silymarin on paracetamol induced liver damage was investigated in rats. A total number of 20 young adult wistar rats consisting of both sex and weighing between 150- 350 g were use for the study. The animals were grouped in to (5) groups of four rats in each. Group 1, served as normal control and receive distilled water orally for 7 days. Group 2 receive 2000 mg/kg body weight of paracetamol orally for 3 days while Group 3 animals were administered 500 mg/kg body weight of plant extract orally for 7 days. Group 4 animals received 2000 mg/kg body weight of paracetamol orally for 3 days and 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract orally for 7 days while Group 5 received 2000 mg/kg body weight of paracetamol orally for 3 days and Silymarin orally for 7 days respectively. At the end of the experiment the animals showed increased in body weight which is highly significant in group 3 and showed significant decreased in organ weight (liver) of group 2 animals. Biochemical parameter shows that, there is significant decrease in the level of liver enzymes (ALT) in group 2 when compared to other groups, the level of AST showed significant decreased in group 5, 4 and 2 when compared to group 1 and 3 and the level of ALP showed a significant increased in group 2 when compared to other groups and significant decreased in group 4. The histological features of the liver showed central vein congestion with eroded endothelium and haemolised blood vessels, pkynotic nucleic, sinusoidal dilatatoin and fatty infiltration in group 2, normal liver appeared in group 3, 4 and 5. This study showed that, ethanolic extract of Telfairia occidentalis leave possess hepatoprotective property at a dose (500 mg/kg).
Assessing gestational age of babies: Performance of obstetric ultrasound scan compared to that from the combination of Naegle’s rule and Dubowitz score in the 21st century  [PDF]
Baba Usman Ahmadu
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.58A2005

Background: Some researchers have suggested that when Naegle’s rule (NR) and Dubowitz score (DS) are combined, it could out-perform obstetric ultrasound scan (USS). Others still believe that obstetric USS alone is still effective relative to the combination of NR rule and DS in assessing the gestational age (GA) of babies. Objectives: To determine and compare the GA of babies using obstetric USS, NR and DS; and to provide relevant public health information on obstetric USS in the 21st century. Methods: Subjects were selected using systematic random sampling and the GA of babies was determined using obstetric USS, NR, and DS. Statistical package for social science (SPSS) statistical software version 16, Illinois, Chicago USA was used for all data analysis. Results: Eightyfive mother-baby pairs were studied. Forty-four babies (52%) were males and 41 (48%) females. Sixty four (75%) were term with a mean (SD) BW of 3.02 (0.59) at 95%CI (2.89 - 3.14) kg. The overall mean GA of the babies was 38.49 (2.89) at 95%CI (38.14 - 38.85) weeks. The mean GA using obstetric USS, NR and DS were 38.52 (1.98) at 95%CI (38.14 - 38.99), 38.09 (4.13) at 95%CI (37.20- 38.99) and 38.82 (2.02) at 95%CI (38.39 - 39.26), but comparison of these means was not significant (p = 0.256). Combined mean GA by NR and DS was 38.46 (3.26) at 95%CI (37.96 - 38.95). Comparing this mean with mean GA obtained by obstetric USS was also not significant (p = 0.885). Conclusion: The GA assessments by Obstetric USS, NR and DS were all reliable, and Obstetric USS performed effectively relative to combined NR and DS.

Looking at maternal inequalities (socioeconomic class, age and human immunodeficiency virus status) to predict well-being of neonates during infancy  [PDF]
Baba Usman Ahmadu
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.58A4001

Background: Infant health inequalities responsible for high infant sicknesses and deaths in our setting could depend to a large extend on maternal inequalities like socioeconomic class (SEC), age and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Objective: To look at maternal inequalities (SEC, Age and HIV), to predict well-being of neonates during infancy. Methods: Subjects were selected using systematic random sampling. Maternal education, occupation, age and HIV status were obtained using a questionnaire; their SEC was derived using the Oyedeji’s model. Gestational age (GA) of the neonates was estimated from their mother’s last menstrual period, obstetric ultrasound scan reports or the Dubowitz criteria; and birthweight (BW) was determined using the basinet weighing scale, which has a sensitivity of 50 grams. Results: Ninety mother-neonatal pairs were enrolled, 47 (52.2%) neonates were males and 43 (47.8%) females. Most of the neonates were term 66 (73.3%) and of normal BW 75 (83.4%). A significant association existed between maternal variables and the likely hood of the subjects being less healthy during infancy (χ2 = 126.528, p < 0.005). Maternal age had a negative correlation coefficient with GA (r = -0.200) and BW (r = -0.115) and comparison of MA, GA and BW was significant (F = 2662.92, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The combine effects of maternal SEC, Age and HIV have predicted less healthy neonates during infancy. Neonates in the present work are more prone to sicknesses and ill-health during infancy.

Management Issues of HIV Infection in Poor Resource Setting Due to Unavailability of Drug Sensitivity Testing
Baba Usman Ahmadu
Journal of Nepal Paediatric Society , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/jnps.v33i2.7699
Abstract: Despite the obvious benefits that rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has had on cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), treatment failure that is mostly associated with the emergence of HIV drug resistance still remains a major challenge. Index case is a stage 4 HIV patient who failed multiple ART, including nucleoside and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NNRTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs). His clinical and immunological markers continued to fail despite completion of anti tuberculosis drugs, adequate nutrition, and treatment for opportunistic infections. This case indicates an emerging need to consider providing facility for HIV drug sensitivity testing at various sites in order to select appropriate second line antiretrovirals that would be of benefit to a patient. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jnps.v33i2.7699 ? J Nepal Paediatr Soc. 2013; 33(2):141-143
An Inquiry on the Affordability of Legal Services and the Appropriateness of the Regular Courts for Consumer Redress in Nigeria  [PDF]
Dahiru Jafaru Usman, Nurli Yaacob, Aspalella A. Rahman
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2016.72009
Abstract: The paper assessed the appropriateness of the regular courts for consumer redress in Nigeria in view of delays, and the cost of legal services before the ordinary courts. The paper adopted a phenomenological qualitative research approach in exploring the perspectives and experience of government officials and other private bodies involved in consumer protection and consumer re-dress. Twenty face-to-face interviews were conducted, transcribed and thematically analysed. The study found that legal services are not affordable to the consumers and that the ordinary courts are inappropriate for consumer dispute resolution. The research participants were limited to officials of consumer protection, products standard setting agencies, legal aid, academics, and heads of consumer organizations. The participants excluded the ordinary consumer of goods and services in the country. The study recommends the establishment of a cheap, simple and expeditious redress mechanism for redressing the widespread consumer injustice in the country. A well-funded legal aid scheme to bridge the gap between the poor consumer and the justice system is equally suggested. This study is the first attempt at qualitatively exploring in-depth the appropriateness of the justice delivery system for consumer redress in Nigeria.
Achondrogenesis Type II in a Live Term Newborn Infant: A Case Report  [PDF]
Mustapha Bello, Tope Bello, Ahmadu Baba Usman, Adzu Yusuf, Simon Pius, Harifarta Difirwiti, Yakubu Sani
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2018.81008
Abstract: Background: Achondrogenesis type II is a lethal form of osteochondrodysplasia characterized by short trunk, disproportionately large head, prominent forehead, micrognathia, extreme micromelia, anasarca, large abdomen and poor ossification of the bones. The children with achondrogenesis are usually born premature, or die in the neonatal period mostly from respiratory failure. We report the case of a live term newborn infant with achondrogenesis type II who died shortly after birth. Methods: We report a case of achondrogenesis type II in a live male newborn. Results: We report the case of a term male infant delivered to a 24-year-old woman with a chondrogenesis type II confirmed radiologically but died at age 5 days. Conclusion: Whenever a skeletal dysplasia in a fetal dwarfism is suspected, a proper work-up plan should be done to evaluate family history. A clinical, radiographic and histopathologic examination, should be done and confirmed by genetic study. Following evidence-based diagnosis, patients could be offered termination of pregnancy after counseling.
Maize Farmers’ Perception of Commercialization and Privatization of Agricultural Extension Services in North Senatorial District of Gombe State, Nigeria
BA Sa’adatu, S Usman, B Dahiru
Journal of Agricultural Extension , 2011,
Abstract: A survey of maize farmers in Gombe north senatorial district of Gombe state was conducted in 2010 on their perception on commercialization and privatization of agricultural extension services. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 100 maize farmers, which were randomly selected. Descriptive statistics and binary probit model were the tools of analyses. The results indicate that majority (83%) of the respondents were against commercialization and privatization of extension services. About 31% expressed willingness to pay economic rates only if qualitative and timely extension services would be provided. Moreover farm size, extension contact, educational level, membership of cooperative and access to credit were found significantly favouring commercialization and privatization of extension services. Additionally the main barriers to the acceptance of the idea by the farmers identified included high cost of other production inputs / low profit, poor quality of extension agents, high farmer -extension agent ratio and financial constraints. Therefore enhancing farmer’s accessibility to qualitative extension services and affordable credit will help in promoting the commercializing and privatizing process of agricultural extension activities.
Congenital Bochdalek’s Diaphragmatic Hernia
Baba Usman Ahmadu,Chinda John Yola,Kaleb Abalis Abew
Journal of Nepal Paediatric Society , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/jnps.v32i3.6968
Abstract: Diagnosis of a rare Bochdalek’s congenital diaphragmatic hernia may be challenging. Our patient presented with respiratory and gastrointestinal findings. Chest radiograph revealed the stomach in the left thorax. Diagnosis of recurrent bacterial pneumonia was incorrectly made because of repeated symptoms. Chest radiograph can provide sufficient information for rapid diagnosis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jnps.v32i3.6968 J. Nepal Paediatr. SocVol.32(3) 2012 254-256
Compliance and Usability of Weber and Rinne’s Tests For Audio Acuity Among Primary School Children From a Health Resource Poor Community
Baba Usman Ahmadu,Joshua Danji Solomon,Fate Bala Zira,Abdallah Joda Aisha,Musa Rimamchika,Ahmad Ibrahim
Journal of Nepal Paediatric Society , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/jnps.v33i2.7673
Abstract: Background: Normal auditory acuity is needed for transmission and reception of speech between teachers and students, and from student to student for effective communication and learning. Hearing impairment in school children will potentially cause difficulty perceiving speech clearly in the educational environment. Materials and Methods: Auditory acuity measurements were conducted on 300 primary school children using the Weber and Rinne’s tests. Results: Nearly all the children 292 (97.3%) had good hearing. Eight (2.7%) had ipsilateral conduction hearing impairment. Of these, 5 (62.5%) occurred on the right and 3 (37.5%) on the left ear; they were referred to the otorynolaryngologist for further evaluation and management. Conclusion: Our subjects demonstrated high compliance to Weber and Rinne’s tests which were found to be usable in screening hearing impairment in school children. These tests can be incorporated into the school health programmes in resource poor countries where high tech hearing screening facilities are not readily affordable and available. In addition, the test can be conducted at primary health centers thereby decongesting both secondary and tertiary health facilities. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jnps.v33i2.7673 J Nepal Paediatr Soc. 2013; 33(2):95-98
Fuzzy Logic Inference Applications in Road Traffic and Parking Space Management  [PDF]
Ahmed Tijjani Dahiru
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2015.87034
Abstract: In modern motoring, many factors are considered to realize driving convenience and achieving safety at a reasonable cost. A drive towards effective management of traffic and parking space allocation in urban centres using intelligent software applications is currently being developed and deployed as GPS enabled service to consumers in automobiles or smartphone applications for convenience, safety and economic benefits. Building a fuzzy logic inference for such applications may have numerous approaches such as algorithms in Pascal or C-languages and of course using an effective fuzzy logic toolbox. Referring to a case report based on IrisNet project analysis, in this paper Matlab fuzzy logic toolbox is used in developing an inference for managing traffic flow and parking allocation with generalized feature that is open for modification. Being that modifications can be done within any or all among the tool’s universe of discourse, increment in the number of membership functions and changing input and output variables etc, the work here is limited within changes at input and output variables and bases of universe of discourse. The process implications is shown as plotted by the toolbox in surface and rule views, implying that the inference is flexibly open for modifications to suit area of application within reasonable time frame no matter how complex. The travel time to the parking space being an output variable in the current inference is recommended to be substituted with distance to parking space as the former is believed to affect driving habits among motorist, whom may require the inference to as well cover other important locations such as nearest or cheapest gas station, hotels, hospitals etc.
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