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Engineered cellular carrier nanoerythrosomes as potential targeting vectors for anti-malarial drug
Agnihotri Jaya,Gajbhiye Virendra,Jain Narendra
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: The present investigation was aimed at developing and exploring the use of nanoerythrosomes (nEs) for targeted delivery of anti-malarial drug, pyrimethamine (PMA). The formulation was prepared by the extrusion method and drug was conjugated to nEs with the help of gluteraldehyde used as a cross-linking agent. The nEs formulation was optimized for drug concentration, surface morphology, viscosity, and sedimentation volume. The drug-loaded nEs showed delayed in vitro release, good stability at 4±1°C, and controlled in vivo release. Tissue distribution studies showed higher accumulation of drug in liver (17.34±1.3 μg/ml) at 3 h in the case of nEs as compared to free drug (12.82±0.7 μg/ml). A higher amount of drug i.e. 13.14±0.9 μg/ml was found after 24 h in liver in the case of nEs as compared to free drug concentration of 9.72±0.5 μg/ml. Data showed that developed PMA-loaded nEs hold promise for targeting and controlling the release of drug and improve treatment of malaria.
Periodontal Status amongst Substance Abusers in Indian Population
Shantipriya Reddy,Sanjay Kaul,Chaitali Agrawal,M. G. S. Prasad,Jaya Agnihotri,Nirjhar Bhowmik,D. Amudha,Soumya Kambali
ISRN Dentistry , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/460856
Abstract: Background. In India there have been limited number of studies on periodontal status among drug addicts, and thus this study aims to assess the Oral hygiene and periodontal status in substance abusers and compare it with non-substance abusers. Methods. A comparative study was conducted to assess the periodontal status in substance abusers. Non-substance abusers were procured from the general population of Bangalore. From the control group 250 non-substance abusers were age and sex matched with the study population of substance abusers. The oral hygiene and periodontal condition of all subjects was assessed using Oral hygiene index- simplified (OHI-S), Russell's periodontal indices and Gingival bleeding index. Results. The mean of OHI-S and Periodontal Index (Russell's Index) scores were higher (2.70 and 3.68, resp.) in substance abusers than the control group (2.45 and 2.59, resp.). The mean Gingival bleeding score was lower (9.69) in substance abusers than the control group (22.7) and found to be statistically significant. A positive correlation found between OHI-S and Russell's periodontal index whereas negative correlation was found between OHI-S and Gingival bleeding in substance abusers. Conclusions. Though the oral hygiene was fair, more periodontal destruction and less of gingival bleeding were observed in substance abusers as compared to control group. 1. Introduction Drug abuse and narcotic addiction are acknowledged problems all over the world having both social and medical implications. They affect a wide range of the population from all socioeconomic classes, and both genders are equally affected. The health consequences of drug abuse are serious, and the oral health is negatively affected in any society where drug dependency is widespread. This is most likely because of the physical and emotional instability of the addict along with lack of concern for oral health. The prevalence of dental caries and periodontal diseases has been reported to be higher among drug abusers than the rest of the general population. 1.1. Alcohol and Periodontal Disease Several plausible biological explanations exist for a detrimental effect of alcohol on the periodontitis risk. Alcohol impairs neutrophil function and increases monocyte production of inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF α), interleukins 1 and 6, in the gingival crevice contributing to bacterial overgrowth and increased bacterial penetration that may lead to periodontal inflammation. And lastly, alcohol may have a direct toxic effect on periodontal tissue similar to
Whole blood donor deferral analysis at a center in Western India
Agnihotri Naveen
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction: Deferrals lead to loss of precious whole blood donors (WBD) and blood units available for transfusion purposes. Knowledge of rate and causes of donor deferral can guide the recruitment strategy for WBD. Aim: To find the incidence and causes of deferral in Indian WBD and apply relevant findings to modify recruitment strategy for blood donors. Materials and Methods: Data for WBD presenting for donation in a blood center and outdoor camps over one and half year were analyzed retrospectively. National guidelines were used for selection and deferral of WBD. Result: 736 (11.6%) WBD were deferred out of 6357 presenting for donation during the study period. Most (69.8%) of the donors were deferred on physical examination and hemoglobin (Hb) testing. Most common reasons for deferral were low Hb (55.8%), abnormal blood pressure (11.1%), medication (6.9%) and underweight donors (2.9%). Significantly more volunteers were deferred than relative donors (13.97% vs 5.80%; P<0.000). Females were found to have higher deferral rate than males (53.5% vs 6.9%; P=0.000) and higher odds ratio for deferral (15.4). Donors older than 40 years of age had significantly higher chance of being deferred (P<0.05). Discussion and Conclusion: It is important to determine the rate and causes of WBD deferral to guide the recruitment and retention efforts at local, regional, and national level.
Authorship
Smriti Agnihotri
Internet Journal of Medical Update - EJOURNAL , 2012,
Abstract:
New Models for the Correlation in Sensor Data
Samar Agnihotri
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: In this paper, we propose two new models of spatial correlations in sensor data in a data-gathering sensor network. A particular property of these models is that if a sensor node knows in \textit{how many} bits it needs to transmit its data, then it also knows \textit{which} bits of its data it needs to transmit.
Analog Network Coding in Nonlinear Chains
Samar Agnihotri
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: The problem of characterizing the optimal rate achievable with analog network coding (ANC) for a unicast communication over general wireless relay networks is computationally hard. A relay node performing ANC scales and forwards its input signals. The source-destination channel in such communication scenarios is, in general, an intersymbol interference (ISI) channel which leads to the single-letter characterization of the optimal rate in terms of an optimization problem with nonconvex, non closed-form objective function and non-convex constraints. For a special class of such networks, called layered networks, a few key results and insights are however available. To gain insights into the nature of the optimal solution and to construct low-complexity schemes to characterize the optimal rate for general wireless relay networks, we need (1) network topologies that are regular enough to be amenable for analysis, yet general enough to capture essential characteristics of general wireless relay networks, and (2) schemes to approximate the objective function in closed-form without significantly compromising the performance. Towards these two goals, this work proposes (1) nonlinear chain networks, and (2) two approximation schemes. We show that their combination allows us to tightly characterize the optimal ANC rate with low computational complexity for a much larger class of general wireless relay networks than possible with existing schemes.
Some New Estimators of Integrated Volatility  [PDF]
Jaya P. N. Bishwal
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2011.12008
Abstract: We develop higher order accurate estimators of integrated volatility in a stochastic volatility models by using kernel smoothing method and using different weights to kernels. The weights have some relationship to moment problem. As the bandwidth of the kernel vanishes, an estimator of the instantaneous stochastic volatility is obtained. We also develop some new estimators based on smoothing splines.
Estimation in Interacting Diffusions: Continuous and Discrete Sampling  [PDF]
Jaya Prakash Narayan Bishwal
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.29160
Abstract: Consistency and asymptotic normality of the sieve estimator and an approximate maximum likelihood estimator of the drift coefficient of an interacting particles of diffusions are studied. For the sieve estimator, observations are taken on a fixed time interval [0,T] and asymptotics are studied as the number of interacting particles increases with the dimension of the sieve. For the approximate maximum likelihood estimator, discrete observations are taken in a time interval [0,T] and asymptotics are studied as the number of interacting particles increases with the number of observation time points.
Maximum Quasi-likelihood Estimation in Fractional Levy Stochastic Volatility Model  [PDF]
Jaya Prakasah Narayan Bishwal
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2011.13008
Abstract: Usually asset price process has jumps and volatility process has long memory. We study maximum quasi- likelihood estimators for the parameters of a fractionally integrated exponential GARCH, in short FIECO- GARCH process based on discrete observations. We deal with a compound Poisson FIECOGARCH process and study the asymptotic behavior of the maximum quasi-likelihood estimator. We show that the resulting estimators are consistent and asymptotically normal.
Fault Plane Identification Using Three Components Local Waveforms  [PDF]
Bagus Jaya Santosa
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2013.46092
Abstract:

A research has been conducted to estimate earthquake source parameters that occurred on June 3rd, 13th, 18th and 19th, 2008. The data used to determine the parameters of earthquakes source are three components local waveform that are recorded by three MY broadband stations (IPM, KOM and KUM) and PSI, Poseidon. In this research, we report a focal mechanism of events using three components local waveform analysis. The seismogram data are inverted to achieve the earthquake source parameters. Source parameters of earthquakes extracted after the reduction variant of each event are over 56%. To identify the fault plane, the HC-plot method is used.

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