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A randomized controlled double-blinded prospective study of the efficacy of clonidine added to bupivacaine as compared with bupivacaine alone used in supraclavicular brachial plexus block for upper limb surgeries
Singh Shivinder,Aggarwal Amitabh
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia , 2010,
Abstract: We compared the effects of clonidine added to bupivacaine with bupivacaine alone on supraclavicular brachial plexus block and observed the side-effects of both the groups. In this prospective, randomized,double-blinded, controlled trial, two groups of 25 patients each were investigated using (i) 40 ml of bupivacaine 0.25% plus 0.150 mg of clonidine and (ii) 40 ml of bupivacaine 0.25% plus 1 ml of NaCl 0.9, respectively. The onset of motor and sensory block and duration of sensory block were recorded along with monitoring of heart rate, non-invasive blood pressure, oxygen saturation and sedation. It was observed that addition of clonidine to bupivacaine resulted in faster onset of sensory block, longer duration of analgesia (as assessed by visual analogue score), prolongation of the motor block (as assessed by modified Lovett Rating Scale), prolongation of the duration of recovery of sensation and no association with any haemodynamic changes (heart rate and blood pressure), sedation or any other adverse effects. These findings suggest that clonidine added to bupivacaine is an attractive option for improving the quality and duration of supraclavicular brachial plexus block in upper limb surgeries.
The Learning Continuum: formal and informal learning experiences – enabling learning and creation of new knowledge in an organization.
Amitabh Sinha
International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning (iJAC) , 2012, DOI: 10.3991/ijac.v5i2.2111
Abstract: Over the years, there has been a significant shift in the approach towards ‘learning’ in an organization. The focus of learning is no more limited to only the formal training mediums, such as classroom interventions and e-learning programs. The shift in learning paradigm is more towards the creation of new learning solution that provides formal and informal learning, information and collaboration – thereby enabling the formation of a ‘personal learning environment.’ Now, there is a shift from ‘content focus’ to ‘learner focus’ education. This paper will suggest the appropriate use of technologies and processes to create a rich learning environment that includes a broad array of instructions, information resources, and collaborative solutions. The paper will also focus on the areas or situations where the new learning environment can be applied and the ways in which an organization can leverage the full range of its learning continuum.
Asymptotic Flatness, Taub-NUT, and Variational Principle
Amitabh Virmani
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.84.064034
Abstract: Using hyperbolic temporal and spatial cut-offs to define 4d asymptotically flat spacetimes, we show that supertranslation ambiguities in the asymptotic fields can all be removed even in the presence of gravitational magnetic charges. We then show that configurations with different electric and magnetic four-momenta can be consistently considered in the Mann-Marolf variational principle. This generalizes the previous result where variations over asymptotically flat configurations with fixed magnetic four-momenta were considered. We also express Kerr Taub-NUT metric to the leading and next to leading order in the Beig-Schmidt form, and compare the asymptotic form with the tensor harmonics on 3d de Sitter space.
Subtracted Geometry From Harrison Transformations
Amitabh Virmani
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/JHEP07(2012)086
Abstract: We consider the rotating non-extremal black hole of N=2 D=4 STU supergravity carrying three magnetic charges and one electric charge. We show that its subtracted geometry is obtained by applying a specific SO(4,4) Harrison transformation on the black hole. As previously noted, the resulting subtracted geometry is a solution of the N=2 S=T=U supergravity.
Supertranslations and Holographic Stress Tensor
Amitabh Virmani
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/JHEP02(2012)024
Abstract: It is well known in the context of four dimensional asymptotically flat spacetimes that the leading order boundary metric must be conformal to unit de Sitter metric when hyperbolic cutoffs are used. This situation is very different from asymptotically AdS settings where one is allowed to choose an arbitrary boundary metric. The closest one can come to changing the boundary metric in the asymptotically flat context, while maintaining the group of asymptotic symmetries to be Poincare, is to change the so-called `supertranslation frame' \omega. The most studied choice corresponds to taking \omega = 0. In this paper we study consequences of making alternative choices. We perform this analysis in the covariant phase space approach as well as in the holographic renormalization approach. We show that all choices for \omega are allowed in the sense that the covariant phase space is well defined irrespective of how we choose to fix supertranslations. The on-shell action and the leading order boundary stress tensor are insensitive to the supertranslation frame. The next to leading order boundary stress tensor depends on the supertranslation frame but only in a way that the transformation of angular momentum under translations continues to hold as in special relativity.
Self-healing systems and virtual structures
Amitabh Trehan
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Modern networks are large, highly complex and dynamic. Add to that the mobility of the agents comprising many of these networks. It is difficult or even impossible for such systems to be managed centrally in an efficient manner. It is imperative for such systems to attain a degree of self-management. Self-healing i.e. the capability of a system in a good state to recover to another good state in face of an attack, is desirable for such systems. In this paper, we discuss the self-healing model for dynamic reconfigurable systems. In this model, an omniscient adversary inserts or deletes nodes from a network and the algorithm responds by adding a limited number of edges in order to maintain invariants of the network. We look at some of the results in this model and argue for their applicability and further extensions of the results and the model. We also look at some of the techniques we have used in our earlier work, in particular, we look at the idea of maintaining virtual graphs mapped over the existing network and assert that this may be a useful technique to use in many problem domains.
Algorithms for Self-Healing Networks
Amitabh Trehan
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Many modern networks are \emph{reconfigurable}, in the sense that the topology of the network can be changed by the nodes in the network. For example, peer-to-peer, wireless and ad-hoc networks are reconfigurable. More generally, many social networks, such as a company's organizational chart; infrastructure networks, such as an airline's transportation network; and biological networks, such as the human brain, are also reconfigurable. Modern reconfigurable networks have a complexity unprecedented in the history of engineering, resembling more a dynamic and evolving living animal rather than a structure of steel designed from a blueprint. Unfortunately, our mathematical and algorithmic tools have not yet developed enough to handle this complexity and fully exploit the flexibility of these networks. We believe that it is no longer possible to build networks that are scalable and never have node failures. Instead, these networks should be able to admit small, and maybe, periodic failures and still recover like skin heals from a cut. This process, where the network can recover itself by maintaining key invariants in response to attack by a powerful adversary is what we call \emph{self-healing}. Here, we present several fast and provably good distributed algorithms for self-healing in reconfigurable dynamic networks. Each of these algorithms have different properties, a different set of gaurantees and limitations. We also discuss future directions and theoretical questions we would like to answer. %in the final dissertation that this document is proposed to lead to.
A Secure Wireless Routing Protocol Using Enhanced Chain Signatures
Amitabh Saxena
Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: We propose a routing protocol for wireless networks. Wireless routing protocols allow hosts within a network to have some knowledge of the topology in order to know when to forward a packet (via broadcast) and when to drop it. Since a routing protocol forms the backbone of a network, it is a lucrative target for many attacks, all of which attempt to disrupt network traffic by corrupting routing tables of neighboring routers using false updates. Secure routing protocols designed for wired networks (such as S-BGP) are not scalable in an ad-hoc wireless environment because of two main drawbacks: (1) the need to maintain knowledge about all immediate neighbors (which requires a discovery protocol), and (2) the need to transmit the same update several times, one for each neighbor. Although information about neighbors is readily available in a fairly static and wired network, such information is often not updated or available in an ad-hoc wireless network with mobile devices. Our protocol is a variant of S-BGP called SS-BGP and allows a single broadcast for routing updates without having the need to be aware of every neighboring router. The protocol is based on a novel authentication primitive called Enhanced Chain Signatures (ECS).
Comparison of the Folstein Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) as a Cognitive Screening Tool in an Inpatient Rehabilitation Setting  [PDF]
Arun Aggarwal, Emma Kean
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2010.12006
Abstract: Identifying the presence of cognitive impairment in patients admitted for inpatient rehabilitation is important as it may impact on their ability to participate in a rehabilitation program. The Folstein Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) has been used by clinicians as a cognitive screening tool for its convenience, even though it is not sensitive, and often fails to detect cognitive impairment. Recently, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) has been developed as a brief cognitive screening tool to detect mild-moderate cognitive impairment. We performed a longitudinal study to compare the utility of the MMSE and MoCA in an inpatient rehabilitation setting. A total of 50 consecutive patients were studied with an average age of 71.7 years of age. The mean test score for MMSE was 26.5 and 22.2 for the MoCA. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the scores was 0.695 (p < 0.003). The mean performance time for the MMSE was 7.4 minutes and 14.8 minutes for the MoCA. MMSE did not perform well as a screening instrument for mild cognitive impairment as there were 43 patients who scored 24 or more on MMSE, and 25 patients (58%) scored 25 or less on MoCA, indicating the presence of cognitive impairment. Even though the MoCA takes longer to administer, the additional important information provided indicates that the MoCA should be used rather than the MMSE as a cogni-tive screening tool.
Design of e-Land Record Information System with Google Map Using Mobile Commerce  [PDF]
Kanwalvir Singh, Himanshu Aggarwal
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2013.64027

e-Governance facilities are being used nowadays by citizens in various Government projects of the country. But the integration of mobile technologies with the e-Governance projects can lead to more human interaction and benefits for the society as a whole. This will result in having more impact on the lives of the common citizens and increase in awareness of such e-Governance projects. The paper introduces the features, technologies and design of the Android mobile device application, mobileLoanapp for the customer (client) of the bank for the loan approval process. The e-Land record information system has been designed and implemented with Google Map using Mobile Commerce by developing this mobile app. This m-app has been developed so as to provide improved and flexible e-Governance facility to the common citizens of the country. The proposed system if adapted will pave the way for the real-time applications to be embedded with the e-Governance facilities. This paper presents the overall system architecture along with its functional components and scope of the very appealing m-application (mobileLoanapp) for bank loan approval process in interconnection with the land server (part of Farad Kendra’s). The overall advantages of the proposed m-app have also been determined in comparison to the existing e-Governance system, giving a viable option to adopt and make use of integration of mobile technologies for providing e-Governance through this m-app.

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