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Investigation Correlates of Chlamydia Anti-Body Testing and Hysterosalpingography among Women with Tubal Infertility  [PDF]
Afolabi Korede Koledade, Adebiyi Gbadebo Adesiyun
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2014.416148

Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is an important preventable cause of infertility. In women, up to 70% of genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis are asymptomatic. In the management of infertility patients, a lot of clinicians or centres do not routinely screen for Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Hence all patients being investigated for infertility may potentially be at risk of tubal blockage in addition to non-tubal factor aetiology. Those with primary tubal blockage also are at risk of worsening of the blockage. Objective: To determine if there is a relationship between IgG and IgM Chlamydia antibody testing (CAT) and tubal factor infertility. Design: It was a cross sectional descriptive study. Method: The sera of 400 consecutive consenting infertile patients presenting to the gynaecological clinic of the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Northern Nigeria were tested for Chlamydia antibodies using ELISA IgG and IgM kits produced by Diagnostic Automation, Inc., 23961 Craftsman Road, Suite D/E/F, Calabasas, CA 91302, USA. Results: Up to 264 (66%) of the patients had tubal factor, 64 (16%) had uterine, 56 (14%) had ovarian, 50 (12.5%) had male while 40 (10%) had others. The causative factors were not mutually exclusive. The sero-prevalence of IgG and IgMChlamydia trachomatis

Clinically Diagnosed Guillain-Barre Syndrome in Pregnancy: Case Report and Review of Literature  [PDF]
Afolabi Korede Koledade, Adekunle O. Oguntayo, Sani A. Abubakar, Godfrey K. Katung, Sunday Oladapo Shittu
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2014.38106

Background: Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by a heterogeneous group of pathological and clinical entities. It is associated with ascending areflexic paralysis, some autonomic dysfunction and respiratory failure in severe cases and ultimately death if not promptly diagnosed and treated. It may be preceded by an antecedent event in about two-third of cases. This could be an upper respiratory tract infection, viral illness, recent history of vaccination, pregnancy, cancer or even trauma. The condition is exceedingly rare in pregnancy and only few cases have been reported in literature. Case Report: This is a case of a 28-year-old Gravida 3, Para 1+1 and Estimated Gestational Age of 30 weeks and 4 days. There was a history of upper respiratory tract infection eight weeks prior to presentation which spontaneously resolved. On examination, she was a young woman, anxious, weak, afebrile, not pale, the neck could not hold the head upright and there was bilateral non tender pitting pedal oedema extending to her mid-shin. There were no cranial nerve deficits and no sign of meningeal irritation. There were normal muscle bulk with global hypotonia and flaccid quadriparesis, Power was 3/5. The proximal groups of muscles were more affected than the distal parts. Reflexes were diminished globally with plantar flexor response. She had immunoglobulin as treatment. Conclusion: In a low resource setting like ours it is important to have a high index of suspicion of GBS when an apparently healthy gravid woman presents with progressive weakness of the limbs.

Cutaneous umbilical metastases in post-menopausal females with gynaecological malignancies
Modupeola Omotara Samaila,Adebiyi Gbadebo Adesiyun,Garba Dahiru Waziri,Korede Afolabi Koledade
Journal of the Turkish-German Gynecological Association , 2012,
Abstract: Gynaecological malignancies frequently metastasize to contiguous structures, internal organs and bones. Cutaneous metastasis as a primary or recurrent presentation of these malignancies is rare and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. A twenty year (1991-2010) retrospective search for umbilical metastasis from gynaecological malignancies in our departmental case records showed only four cases. Four post-menopausal females presented with painful cutaneous umbilical (Sister Joseph’s) nodules. The clinical examinations of all four patients revealed well delineated nodules of varying sizes and degrees of ulceration. Other findings were matted axillary and inguinal lymph node enlargement, intra-abdominal and pelvic masses, vaginal discharge and vaginal bleeding. Incisional tissue biopsies from the nodules were processed in paraffin wax and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Histology of the sections showed pigmented skin overlying metastatic malignant tumours consistent with adenocarcinoma from the endometrium and ovary in three cases, and squamous cell carcinoma, large cell keratinizing from the cervix uteri in the fourth case. Gynaecological cancers have a global spread and varied geographic distribution. Cervical cancer is the commonest in our setting and patients often present to hospital with advanced stage disease. Ovarian and endometrial cancers are infrequent and their diagnosis may be delayed by non- specificity of presenting clinical symptoms from other benign tumours at these sites. Although umbilical metastasis is commonly associated with gastro-intestinal malignancies, its presence may be the first harbinger of occult gynaecologic cancer.
Chemical qualities of oils from some fresh and market vegetable crops within Kwara State of Nigeria
IS Afolabi
Biokemistri , 2008,
Abstract: The potential of Nigeria leading Africa and the world in the area of biofuel and oleochemical production was examined by evaluating the oil yield and chemical qualities of oil extracted from fresh and market sample of some naturally abundant vegetables (Mangifera indica, Prunus dulcis Miller, Ricinnus communis, and Elaeis guineensis) in Nigeria. Moisture, ash, and crude fat composition, including the free fatty acid, acid and saponification values of the oils were determined, high mineral composition of almond was observed compared to other vegetables. Moisture content of 5.006, 3.500, 4.870, 37.002, 9.147, and 63.650%; crude fat of 59.195, 67.807, 33.490, 32.303, and 12.511, and 0.939%; and ash levels of 4.605, 2.833, 1.903, 1.728, and 1.305% were reported for seeds obtained from almond, castor, palm kernel, groundnut, mango and kola nuts respectively. Polymerization and esterification of fatty acids induced by the hot ambient storage conditions used by our marketer was attributed to the higher molecular weight of fatty acids in market sample for groundnut and palm oil over the corresponding fresh sample. High level of ash content (4.605%) for almond seed was observed, making a good source of mineral nutrition to consumers. Due to their high oil yield and abundance, oils from almond seed and castor seed, in addition to palm oil and groundnut oil may be considered as Nigeria potential asset for biofuel and oleochemical production.
Status of clean gene (selection marker-free)technology
AS Afolabi
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: The ever-increasing world population has created two major problems: more mouths to feed and less land to farm. While classical breeding has enormously helped in providing more food, a lot still needs to be done. Transformation biotechnology can also help especially where classical breeding lacks solution (e.g. limited availability of stable and durable genetic source of resistance). However, plant transformation technologies require selectable marker genes to produce transgenic plants but such genes are of no value thereafter; in fact, marker genes in transgenic plants are perceived to pose potential bio-safety problems. In all genetic transformation technologies based on direct gene transfer (electroporation of protoplasts, particle bombardment etc) the selectable marker genes generally cointegrate with the gene of interest(s) in one Mendelian locus in the plant genome; hence, their removal is highly desirable. This may also help in the acceptability of transgenic plants by society. Transgenic plants that contain the desired gene of interest but lack the selection marker gene used in its production are termed “clean” and the methods utilized in their production are referred to as “clean gene” technology. There are several proved methods of eliminating selectable marker genes and these include: (A) Marker gene excision consisting of (1) intra-genomic relocation of transgenes via transposable elements, (2) site-specific recombination systems and (3) intra-chromosomal recombination. (B) Gene replacement or Targeted gene replacement; and (C) transformation with multiple T-DNAs, which could result in linked and/or unlinked co-integration of transgenes. Unlinked transgenes are then segregated out during meiosis.
The preservative efficacies of bemul-wax coatings in combination with calcium chloride dip on low temperature stored Citrus O. sinensis
IS Afolabi
Biokemistri , 2009,
Abstract: The capacity of developing countries for citrus fruits exportation is limited by the lack of adequate storage techniques. In studying this problem citrus sinensis Osbeck was treated with, a locally developed bemul-wax, calcium chloride dip, and a combination of the two. The treated fruits were assessed during four month low temperature storage (7.0 ± 3.0oC; 90-94% RH.) for their biochemical and sensory qualities. Fruits treated with bemul-wax and the combination manifested significantly reduced (p<0.05) physiological weight, delayed ripening, and texture values. All the treated oranges showed significantly reduced titratable acidity. Combined treatment significantly reduced (p<0.05) ascorbic acid level, while the combined and calcium chloride dip treatments reduced, and increased significantly (p<0.05) the density of the juice respectively. All treatments showed significantly increased (p<0.05) pH and -amylase activities but no effects on total sugar levels, pectin esterase activities, taste and flavor of the juice. In conclusion, the combined and bemul-wax treatments preserved the nutritional, biochemical, and sensory qualities of the stored oranges for the four month storage period considered adequate to cover the orange off-season period in Nigeria as well as sufficient to export orange from Nigeria to other parts of the world.
Moisture Migration and Bulk Nutrients Interaction in a Drying Food Systems: A Review  [PDF]
Israel Sunmola Afolabi
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.58080

Drying is a technique that involves removal of moisture using heat energy. This heat affects the protein components in foods especially the thiosulphide groups, which causes hydrophobic bond break that has been attributed greatly to denaturation during drying. Safe moisture content (SMC) is the extent to which moisture can be withdrawn from food crops during drying that such crops can be considered safe for storage with minimal loss of nutritional qualities. Several reported minimum moisture contents, and bulk nutrients’ levels of crops were collected for the purpose of this review, and scattered plot graph was employed to determine the levels of bond interaction between moisture content and each bulk nutrients in the various dried food categories. The moisture contents in grains, root and tuber crops, fruits and vegetables, and cash crops formed a SMC threshold boundary within the 6% - 14%; 0% - 10%; 0% - 22%; and 0% - 30% respectively. Crude fibre and most especially the ash content played the most crucial role by providing the strongest bond interaction with migrating moisture during drying of all the food crops’ categories, and are of utmost important in the determination of SMC.

Competitiveness of Togolese Banking Sector  [PDF]
Tunde Ahmed Afolabi
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.811161
Abstract: Development of a country depends on its economic growth which depends also on several factors which can be both micro and macroeconomic. The financial sector is the lung of the economy; more exactly the banking sector contributes in a non negligible part to this growth. The competitiveness, effectiveness and efficiency of banking sector make it reliable to the economy. Unfortunately, evidences have shown that most Sub-Saharan countries don’t rely much on their financial sector, mainly due to challenges they face. This paper aims to analyze the competitiveness and the driving factors in Togolese banking sector with macroeconomic development using Structure-Conduct and Performance (SCP) framework and regression models. The research covers a period of sixteen years (from 2000 to 2015), with ten banks. This research proxies the asset in a panel A and profit in a panel B for the bank’s competitiveness. The results are of panel regressions with fixed effects and robust standard errors. Considering the Panel A, the variables Inter-Banks loans, customers loans, Inter-Banks Debts, Customers Debts are the driving factor of the competitiveness. However, the size of the bank proxied by profit has no impact on the competitiveness. The result suggests that the reform which has started since 1990 should be completed; there should be organizational and financial restructuring.
Contextual Perceptions of Corruption in Contemporary Nigeria
GK Afolabi
African Research Review , 2010,
Abstract: Event around us in Contemporary Nigeria points to the fact that corruption is a cankerworm that has eaten into the fabric of every facet of our national life. Public officials demand payment of ransom before or/and after performing their legitimate functions. Business people shortchange their customers through unfair dealings, while law-enforcement agents demand bribes, and collaborate with fraudulent elements in the society. Employee theft is a common occurrence in many organizations. Studies show that people perceive causes of fraud equally without significant bias to gender or religion, but that level of education, age, and income, as well as changes in marital status, have to do with their perception of fraud.Conventional thinking on the scope and delimitation of fraudulent practices center on financial or economic – related matters. Experience and reality have however dictated broadening the scope to include certain social and “victimless” offences which society does not frown at but which have grave consequences on the nation’s socio-economic life. In the final analysis, the task of combating this malaise should be embraced by all the strata of society if the world is to become a better place for mankind. This Paper focuses on the conceptual framework of corruption, as well as causes and strategies to adopt in curbing this disease. It concludes on the need to adopt a multidimensional approach, which would involve both national and international agencies, in solving the problem.
Teachers’ Attitude and Gender Factor as Determinant of Pupils’ performance in Primary Science
F Afolabi
African Research Review , 2009,
Abstract: Teachers are regarded as the basic tools in education and curriculum implementations. The quality of any nation’s education is determined by the qualities of the teachers and their attitude to the profession. This paper seeks to examine the influence of the teachers’ attitude and gender factor on the academic performance of the primary schools pupils. Fifty science teachers were randomly selected from seventy (70) primary schools out of the ninetyseven (97) primary schools in ondo west local Government in ondo state and two hundred pupils were randomly selected and used for the same study. Two instruments were used to collect data, the Teachers’ attitude questionnaire (TAQ) and Primary science achievement test (PSAT) .The research design adopted for this study was survey design. The reliability of the instrument was 0.78 and 0.84 by using crombach alpha and k-21 respectively. Pearson moment product correlation coefficient was used to analyze the instruments. The result indicated that there exists a significant relationship between teachers’ attitude and pupils’ performance in primary science. The result also indicated that there exists no significant relationship between the performance of pupils taught by male and female teachers in primary science. Recommendations were made on how to promote further development of primary science teaching and learning in Nigeria.
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