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ANTIBACTERIAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF HARUNGANA MADAGASCARIENSIS L (HYPERICACEAE) SEEDS
Afieroho O.E.,Izontimi Susan S.,Okoroafor Dorcas O.,Caleb Blessing
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Clinical cases of resistance to orthodox drugs are on the rise. Medicinal plants are a source of lead compounds in drug discovery. Harungana madagascariensis is known for its ethno medicinal uses in the treatment of dysentery and related bacterial infections. In view of this, investigating its antibacterial drug lead potential is an imperative .The crude methanol extract of the fresh seeds was fractionated with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and acetone successively. Agar dilution method was used for the antibacterial evaluation with clinical and ATCC strains of .E. coli and S.aureus as test microorganisms. Phytochemical methods were by using standard phytochemical screening reagents.The Chloroform fraction was the most active against the test pathogenic organisms with observed minimum inhibitory concentration MIC trend: chloroform (0.03125 mg/ml) > ethyl acetate (0.50000 mg/ml). Anthraquinones were found only in the most active chloroform fraction with some amount of flavonoids aglycones, and triterpenoids. This study showed that anthraquinones and/or flavonoids aglycones could be responsible for the antibacterial activity with possible synergistic effect from flavonoids and terpenoids. This further confirmed its ethnomedicinal uses.
Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Orechromis NiloticusTilipia (From the Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike Fresh Water Fish Pond in Abia State with Those Frmom Uzere Fresh Water Pond in Delta State of Nigeria
T.A. Abii,O.E. Afieroho,F.U. Nnamdi
Journal of Fisheries International , 2012,
Abstract: The nutritional value and heavy metals Zn, Fe, Mn, Pb, Pb, Hg and Cd in five different portions; head, scales, flesh, skeleton and internal organs of big size (10-20 cm) and small size ( 10cm) of oreochromis niloticus from the fish pond in Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike (MOUAU) in Abia State and in Evicerated/descaled Orechromis niloticus from fresh water fish pond in Uzere Delata State were analyzed for comparism. Heavy metals concentrations were determined using UNICAM Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) while nutritional values were analyzed by standard methods. Results show detectible concentration in mg kg 1 dried wt of Zn (9.74-23.87), Mn (10.70-164.94), Fe (11.02-12.49), Cd (0.29-1.78) for the two O. niloticus from both locations, Hg and Pb were Below Detection Limit (BDL)for the University location while a range of Pb (7.07-7.39), Hg (147.00-200.16) for the Uzere location. The values for the Uzere location were generally higher than FDA/WHO safe limits while those for the University location were lower. On tissue accumulation the internal organs showed highest concentration (BDL-5.53) thereby reflecting their water concentration (BDL-0.6204 mg L 1). A no significant variation in fat and water content was observed while protein, ash, carbohydrate and energy values varied significantly (p = t95). Fat and ash content increase with size. The toxicological implications of the result were discussed.
ANTITUBERCULOSIS AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE DICHLOROMETHANE EXTRACT PLEUROTUS TUBER-REGIUM (FRIES) SINGER SCLEROTIUM
Afieroho O.E,Lawson L,Olutayo M. Adedokun,Emenyonu N
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: Incidence of tuberculosis infections is on the rise. The cost and length of orthodox treatment regimen coupled with the rise in multidrug resistance cases make the development of more effective and relatively cheaper alternative therapies imperative. The cold percolation method was used with dichloromethane as an extraction solvent to obtain dichloromethane extract of the edible mushroom Pleurotus tuber-regium. The extract was soluble in n-hexane and labeled PTHS. Antituberculosis screening was by using the colorimetric BACTEC MGIT 960 SIRES method. Phyto-constituents determination was by using standard phytochemical test reagents.The PTHS of Pleurotus tuber-regium inhibited the growth of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the test concentration of 32.5 μg/ml. Terpenoids and steroids were detected as the phytochemical constituents. This study confirmed the nutraceutical benefits of some edible mushrooms.
The Influence of Environmental and Personal Factors on Kwara State Secondary School Students' Educational Outcome
O.E. Abdullahi
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/pjssci.2010.214.217
Abstract: This study is concerned with the influence of environmental and personal factor on Kwara State secondary school students educational outcome. Using the responses from a sample of 750 students in randomly selected junior secondary school from each of the delimited urban; semi-urban and rural areas of the state with the results of their terminal examination, the results showed that there were significant differences (p≤0.05) among the three sets of students. The urban secondary students out-performed the semi-urban and the rural secondary students in their educational outcome. The researcher, therefore suggested that rather than uniformity, the educational goal should be diversified educational opportunities with maximum individual opportunity for finding the right niche and the reality of the individual differences and differences in cultural environment need not and should not mean reward for some and frustration for others.
Comparative Study of Kwara State Secondary School Students' Study Habits in English Language: Implication for Counselling
O.E. Abdullahi
The Social Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/sscience.2010.514.519
Abstract: The thrust of the study was to compare Kwara State Secondary School Students study habits in English using some variables in their home-background and personal factors so as to examine the implication for counselling purposes. About 200 male and female students aged between 15 and 20 years were involved in the study. Results from students t-test statistical procedure revealed that there is significant difference between the various categories of students in the study habits variables of home-researchers and assignment, time allocation to study, reading and note-taking, concentration and teacher consultations. The counselling implications were examined and suggestions were made to these effects.
Traditional Beliefs and Their Effect on Farm Output: Evidence from Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
O.E. Emmanuel
Agricultural Journal , 2013,
Abstract: This study assesses the effects of traditional beliefs and market day system of food distribution, on the use of environmentally sustainable farm practices and the subsequent impact on the farmers’ output in some farming communities in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The result shows that both practices reduce the ability of the farmers to apply environmental friendly and sustainable agricultural practices. In particular, every unit of traditional practices applied on crop farms reduce output by 0.43 units, whereas the continued use of the market day system of distribution of farm produce places a limit on the quantity of output the farmer can supply.
Effect of Socio-Economic Factors on Risk Behaviour of Farming Households: An Empirical Evidence of Small-Scale Crop Producers in Kwara State, Nigeria
O.E. Ayinde
Agricultural Journal , 2013,
Abstract: The effect of socio-economic factors on risk behaviour of farming households in Kwara state was examined. Data were collected from 192 farming household randomly selected from two out of four agricultural zones in kwara state Nigeria. Data analysis was the use of frequency, percentage and ordinary least square multiple regression model. The results showed that majority of the farming households have larger household size with above 70% having more than 5 people in the families. It was also found out that more than 76% of the respondents cultivating below 1.5 ha of land. Positive relationships were found between the risk coefficient of the household and their access to extension services, Disposable income, amount of capital and membership of cooperative society. However, negative relationships were also found between the risk coefficient of the household and their household size, off farm income, proportion of cropped land, membership of cooperative society and their risk averseness. Hence, it is recommended that programmes and policies for small scale farmers should incorporate their risk behaviour and its relationship with their socio-characteristics.
A Late Tertiary Pollen Record from Niger Delta, Nigeria
O.E. Ige
International Journal of Botany , 2009,
Abstract: This study presents the results of palynological investigations carried out on Atala-1 well, Niger Delta, Nigeria. The samples yielded pollen and spores and the identification of the pollen and spores, their relative diversity and abundance provide data on which the palaeoenvironmental interpretations were based. Nine informal lithological units were delineated for the well, characterized by silty clay and very fine to very coarse sand grains which are typical of Benin and Agbada formations of the Niger Delta. Four pollen zones (PZ I-IV) were recognized from the pollen diagram and attempt was made at the reconstruction of the vegetation for the zones. The early part of the zone (I) was characterized by unstable wet and dry climatic conditions characterized by contrasting fluctuations between the percentage occurrence of Rhizophora sp. and Poaceae. The vegetation was gradually dominated by mangrove swamp vegetation towards the later part of the zones (II-IV), indicating a wet and moist climates for the period and a rise in sea level.
Some Consequences of Adding a Constant to at Least One of the Variables in the Simple Linear Regression Model
O.E. Okereke
Asian Journal of Mathematics & Statistics , 2011,
Abstract: This study improves on the alternative method of obtaining least squares estimates of the parameters of a simple linear regression model by virtue of adding constant to at least one of the associated variables. It is observed that the estimate of the slope is not affected by addition of a constant to any or both of the variables. The estimate of the intercept is a function of the added constant(s). The relationships between the several intercepts of those models involving the transformed values of the variables and that of the original model are then obtained so to facilitate comparison and referencing. These theoretically obtained results have been validated with the help of empirical data analysis.
Effect of Transformation on the Parameter Estimates of a Simple Linear Regression Model: A Case Study of Division of Variables by Constants
O.E. Okereke
Asian Journal of Mathematics & Statistics , 2011,
Abstract: The ability to forecast accurately the future values of a given variable within the minimum possible time gives organizations, governments and business enterprises the opportunity for appropriate decision and policy making. Accurate predictions can be made with a correctly specified model. It is evident that an estimated model comprises parameter estimates. Hence, different sets of estimates may give rise to different forecasts. Again, researchers and experimenters often report large values in some standard forms which include thousands, millions and billions so as to save time required for compilation and computation. In this study, an attempt was made to provide estimates of the parameters of the models involving the transformation obtained by dividing the variables by constants. The effect of the transformation on the parameter estimates was also emphasized. The relationships between the estimates of the parameters of the original model and those involving the transformed variables were derived. It has been shown that the division of the independent variable by a constant did affect the estimate of the slope only. On the other hand, the estimate of the slope of the original model remained unaffected when both variables were divided by the same constant where as other obtained parameter estimates appeared to differ from those of the original model. The theoretically derived estimates were substantiated by empirical data analysis. Moreover, the regression models fitted based on the various transformed variables differed from that of the original model. As a result, transformation by means of dividing the variables by constants affects the parameter estimates as well as the predictability of the model.
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