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Animal Traction: an Underused Low External Input Technology among Farming Communities in Kaduna State, Nigeria
Adunni Sanni, S.
Tropicultura , 2008,
Abstract: In spite of the slow rate of adoption of animal traction (AT) technology in West Africa, the potential benefit of the technology, in terms of increase in hectares cultivated and the reduction in drudgery has been a subject of discussion by researchers. This paper uses a linear programming and binary choice probit model to analyze the benefits and constraints to AT technologies taking into consideration socio-economic and institutional factors and perception variables. One hundred and twenty households from Maigana and Yakawada villages in Kaduna State were enumerated by a simple random sampling technique using both structured and unstructured interview procedures. The result revealed considerable under-exploitation of AT technology in the study location. The partial use of AT technology for tillage operation only increased gross margin by 32% and labor bottlenecks experienced in the peak of the season can be reduced by 43%. However, the increase in gross margin is over 78% when the full AT technology package is used. The general trend in the models showed that by adopting the complete package of the technology, the full potential could be exploited. The size of family labor force substantially influenced the adoption behavior of the household while the selected perception variables were quite useful in explaining household's perception of the technology. Conversely, the use of tractors showed a highly significant but negative relationship with the adoption of AT technology. Households' managerial know how, financial constraint and the family labor capacity limits the benefits derived from the technology. These results suggest that farm mechanization using complete AT package is a viable panacea for agricultural intensification and increased productivity among the smallholders in the northern guinea savanna ecology of Nigeria. The paper concludes with pragmatic steps of how the identified constraints can be eliminated to sustain holistic adoption of AT technology and exploit its full potential benefits.
Traditional capacity for weather prediction, variability and coping strategies in the front line states of nigeria  [PDF]
Shukurat Adunni Sanni, Kolapo Olatunji Oluwasemire, Nnadozie Okonkwo Nnoli
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.34075
Abstract: This paper is based on the results of a pilot project conducted to strengthen Nigerian Meteorological Agency’s (NIMET) capacity to provide reliable planting date forecast in Nigeria. This aspect of the project aimed at understanding traditional knowledge base and farmers’ prediction methods, community perceptions of impacts of rainfall variability, coping strategies and opportunities in Sokoto, Kano, Jigawa, Kaduna, Bauchi states of Nigeria. Based on prevalence of drought, a community was selected for survey in each of the five states. Semi-structured interview and focus group discussion were used to sources for information. The survey indicates that the farmers had good understanding of weather and climatic dynamics of their community. The farmers in the study locations characterize a year into five seasons based on the atmospheric temperature as felt by the body, changes in wind direction, farming activities, and the behavioral changes of some animal and birds and phenological changes in plant species. Rainfall variability in the community has altered the farming systems, either in terms of changes in cropping pattern, elimination/reduction in the level of producing some crops or introduction of new crop varieties that are drought resistant and early maturing, and diversification of source of livelihood (non-farm activities). Impacts of rainfall variability in the communities were asserted to include; poor yield, low prices of crop/livestock, low dowry for their daughters, high cost of labor as a result of migration to urban centers, inadequate water for dry season farming, low income, low standard of living, and high level of poverty. Farmers recommended an integration of traditional proven methods of rainfall prediction with scientific methods to evolve reliable forecast that will reduce risks in their rainfed farming systems.
Socio-economic Determinants of Household Fertilizer Use Intensity for Maize-based Production Systems in the Northern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria
S. Adunni Sanni,Werner Doppler
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: This study aimed at understanding current status of soil fertility management and the identification of socio-economic characteristics influencing the decision of households on fertilizer use intensity in maize-based production systems in the northern guinea savanna of Nigeria. A total of one hundred and sixty households involved in maize-based production system (2003/2004) were interviewed using structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and binary logit model. Analysis revealed that households combine techniques like application of organic and mineral fertilizer and crop planting pattern in maintaining the fertility of their soils. The ratio of N: P2O5: K2O per hectare from both organic and inorganic sources were 49.5:98.3:56.7 kg in Katsina State and 58.7: 109.4: 53.6 kg in Kaduna State. The estimated logit models revealed that fertilizer use intensity is significantly influenced by previous year`s income, land ownership, engagement in off farm activities and years of experience in maize farming.
The Conversion of Federal Polytechnics into Universities: The Funding Aspect
MR Sanni
African Research Review , 2009,
Abstract: There were only two (2) federally owned universities in Nigeria in 1962. The number increased to 13 in 1975 and went further to 26 in 2008. From the mere 104 pioneer students that enrolled at the University College Ibadan in 1948, the total student enrolment in Federal Universities jumped to 2,754 in 1965, 259,904 in 1998 and 433,871 in 2003. How has funding been over the years? Will the Federal Government be able to cope in area of funding if it carries out its intention of converting all Federal Polytechnics to Universities? The paper traced the history and funding patterns of both University and Polytechnic education right from the inception to the present day, provided reasons for governments reasons for the conversion of the Polytechnics and concluded that the Federal Government definitely has to provide more funds for graduates of Federal Government universities to be accepted as equals of their counterparts in Europe and America.
The Influence of the Economy on Hospitality Industry in Nigeria
MR Sanni
Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management , 2009,
Abstract: In theory, many people patronize the hospitality industry when the economy is buoyant, thereby signifying a positive correlation between the industry and the economy. But is this true of the Nigerian situation? The contributions of the hospitality industry (represented by Hotels and Restaurants) to the Nigerian economy (represented by the Gross Domestic Products – GDP) and the GDP itself from 1980 – 2006 (27 years) were analyzed, using simple regression analysis. Lag variables were introduced in order to safe guard against autocorrelation while white noise heteroscedasticity tests were performed in order to make the conclusions more reliable. It was found that a positive correlation exists between the hospitality industry and the GDP and that the industry depends almost entirely on the economy, thereby confirming a priori expectation. What this means in effect is that for the hospitality industry to continue to be relevant, government must at all times ensure a stable but steadily rising economy.
Distribution Pattern of Healthcare Facilities in Osun State, Nigeria
L Sanni
Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management , 2010,
Abstract: Accessibility to healthcare facilities has generally been identified as a major indicator of development, and the existing spatial pattern of distribution of healthcare facilities play very prominent role in gauging the level of efficiency or otherwise of the existing level of provision of these facilities within any region. In this paper we employed the use of locational quotient, which is a measure of spatial pattern of services, to examine the distribution pattern of healthcare facilities in the thirty local government areas in Osun State, Nigeria. Twelve indices, representing the totality of healthcare delivery by State and local governments in the state were used for the analysis. Our findings indicated existence of gaps in access to healthcare facilities between local government areas in the state, though the observed gap could not easily be attributed to rural-urban dichotomy. We concluded that there was an urgent need for serious intervention on the part of the government in the provision of healthcare facilities in the state, focused on equitable distribution and accessibility to enhance regional development. KEY WORDS: Healthcare facilities; location pattern; location quotient; development gap; Osun state.
Institutionalising Terror in the Name of Religion and Polity: The Nigerian Youth and the Cosmos of Violence
A Sanni
Africa Development , 2011,
Abstract: Religion and ethnicity are two key issues in the economy of violence with which Nigeria has had to contend in the last twenty-five years. The protagonists of the issues are the state, the aficionados of religious or ethnic idealism and their opponents. The article argues that the culture of denial or marginalisation has largely been responsible for the tradition of violence, which militant and radical elements in religious and ethnic circles have often employed in their systemic campaigns. It concludes by submitting that a proper appreciation of the real causes of violence by the state, and a genuine commitment to their solution through dialogue and interactive means, remains the viable option in the enthronement of world peace and order.
Teaching geometry in schools: An investigative rather than instructive process
Rasheed Sanni
Pythagoras , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/pythagoras.v0i65.90
Abstract: Research has documented the prevalence of lessons characterised by homework check, followed by teacher lecture and demonstration, followed in turn, by learner practice sequence of classroom instructional activities in our classrooms. This sequence of classroom activities does not allow for the development of sound mathematics practices and mathematical proficiency. Meanwhile, curriculum reforms in South Africa as well as in other parts of the world recommend classroom activities where teachers create opportunities for, listen to and extend learners. This paper presents a sequence of activities to be used in the teaching of geometry and surface areas of solid shapes in a grade 8 classroom. The sequence portrays the teaching of these concepts as an investigative rather than instructive process.
Chemical Composition of Three Traditional Vegetables in Nigeria
Adeleke Rafiu Olaposi,Abiodun Olufunmilola Adunni
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2010,
Abstract: This work was carried out to evaluate the nutritional composition of three traditional vegetables in Iree, Osun State. The leafy vegetables used were Cnidoscolus chayamansa (iyana ipaja), Solanium nodiflorum (Ogumo), and Senecio biafrae (worowo). The vegetables were washed in potable water to remove unwanted matters and were analyzed for proximate and mineral All analyses were carried out in three replicates and the data were evaluated for significant differences in their means with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) (p<0.05). Cnidoscolus chayamansa had higher protein content (5.91%) and carbohydrate content (8.88%) but there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the crude fibre value and that of Senecio biafrae. Senecio biafrae had higher moisture content (89%) while Solanium nodiflorum had higher ash and fat content which were significantly different (p<0.05) from the other vegetables. Cnidoscolus chayamansa had higher values in all the mineral contents determined and these were significantly different (p<0.05) from other vegetable. There were no significant difference (p>0.05) in potassium, calcium and iron contents of Solanium nodiflorum and Senecio biafrae. The three vegetables are good sources of nutrients which could be consumed for normal growth.
Do Mothers’ Knowledge and Practice of ‘Child Survival Strategies’ Affect the Nutritional Status of Their Children?
Rasaki Ajani Sanusi,Adunni Olatokunbo Gbadamosi
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2009,
Abstract: A set of activities collectively called ‘Child Survival Strategies’ (CSS) have been demonstrated to reduce morbidity and mortality in the under-5 year old children. But Under-5 mortality has been consistently high in the past ten years in Nigeria and whether this was due to lack of knowledge or practice of these strategies is not known. It was therefore necessary to evaluate mothers’ knowledge and practice of these activities. A descriptive cross-sectional study of nursing mothers and their children attending well-baby clinics in Ibadan was designed. Two hundred and forty nursing mothers and their children were recruited from three types of well baby clinics (university teaching hospital, state maternity hospital and primary care health centers) in the Ibadan North local government area of Oyo state, Nigeria. Interviewer-administered questionnaire were used to obtain information from mothers about knowledge and practice of breast-feeding, childhood immunizations, oral rehydration, growth monitoring, family planning and relevance of female education to child survival. Anthropometric measurements of the children were taken to determine ‘wasting’, ‘stunting’ and ‘underweight’. Result of the analyses showed that majority of the mothers (74%) were married and 17% were single, 31.3% had completed primary and/or secondary education, 16.7% had no formal education while 51.8% had tertiary education. Exclusive breast-feeding was practiced by 67.5%, oral rehydration therapy by 78.3%, growth monitoring and promotion by 7.5%. Timely and complete immunization was practiced by 93.8% for BCG, 80.4% for one dose, 60.4% for two doses and 49.2% for three doses of DPT and oral polio vaccines, 53.8% for measles and 12.1% for hepatitis B. About 55% of the mothers were currently using family planning methods. Sixty-three percent of the children were underweight, 68% were stunted and 23% were wasted. There was no significant relationship between mothers’ practice of CSS and nutrition of the children. Mothers’ education was negatively correlated to ‘wasting’ in the children. This study reaffirms the importance of female education in the practice of CSS and good nutritional outcomes in children. Basic knowledge of child health, nutrition and related issues should continue to be made available to women and be included in the school curricula. Practice of all the CSS components should be encouraged even at the community level.
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