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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 58 matches for " Adrianna Mendrek "
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Individuals Diagnosed with Schizophrenia Assign Emotional Importance to Neutral Stimuli: An fMRI Study
Nadia Lakis,Adrianna Mendrek
ISRN Psychiatry , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/965428
Abstract: The majority of functional neuroimaging studies investigating neural correlates of emotion processing in schizophrenia report a significant deficit in limbic structures activation in patients relative to control participants. Recently it has been suggested that this apparent “deficit” could be due to an enhanced sensitivity of the neutral material in individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, rather than due to their inefficiency in emotion processing. The purpose of the present study was to test this supposition and verify if the potential effect is present in both men and women diagnosed with schizophrenia. In order to do that we examined the pattern of cerebral activation associated with processing of neutral stimuli in schizophrenia. Thirty-seven schizophrenia patients and 37 healthy controls viewed neutral and emotional images while in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Schizophrenia patients rated the neutral images as more emotionally salient than controls. Additionally, patients showed significant activation during processing of neutral images in limbic and prefrontal regions; similar areas were underactivated in patients relative to controls during processing of emotional information. Investigation of sex differences revealed that the enhanced responsiveness to the emotionally neutral material was attributed primarily to men with schizophrenia. 1. Introduction Functional neuroimaging studies, which explored processing of emotional material in schizophrenia, have often reported “deficits” in cerebral activation in patients compared to control participants in various limbic, paralimbic, and prefrontal regions (e.g., [1–4]). A few other studies documented “abnormal overactivation” in patients relative to controls or no difference between the groups [5–10]. These divergent findings have been attributed to the type of emotional task (passive viewing, emotion identification, emotional memory, etc.) and to the characteristics of the recruited patients (first-episode versus chronic, medicated versus unmediated, presence of prominent negative versus prominent positive symptoms, etc.). However, what could have played an equally or even more important role in the obtained results is the kind of functional neuroimaging contrast used in the statistical analysis. It should be pointed out to readers less familiar with the functional neuroimaging literature that the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in various clinical populations (including schizophrenia and related psychoses) have relied primarily on comparisons between two
Emotion Processing in Women with Schizophrenia Is Menstrual Cycle Phase and Affective Valence Dependent: An fMRI Study
Adrianna Mendrek,Josiane Bourque,Annie Dubé,Nadia Lakis
ISRN Psychiatry , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/656274
Abstract:
Emotion Processing in Women with Schizophrenia Is Menstrual Cycle Phase and Affective Valence Dependent: An fMRI Study
Adrianna Mendrek,Josiane Bourque,Annie Dubé,Nadia Lakis,Julie Champagne
ISRN Psychiatry , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/656274
Abstract: Despite a large number of functional neuroimaging investigations of emotion processing in schizophrenia, very few have included women. In the present study 21 schizophrenia and 23 healthy women underwent functional MRI (3T) on two occasions (during the follicular and luteal phase of their menstrual cycle) while viewing blocks of emotionally negative, positive and neutral images. During exposure to negatively charged images patients showed relatively less activations than controls during the luteal phase, but no between-group differences were observed during the follicular phase. In contrast, the exposure to positively valenced material produced no significant interaction, but the main effect of group; schizophrenia patients exhibited less activation than healthy controls during both phases of the menstrual cycle. This is the first study demonstrating that atypical neural activations associated with emotion processing in women diagnosed with schizophrenia depend on the menstrual cycle phase and on the affective valence of presented stimuli. 1. Introduction Schizophrenia is a complex and clinically heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with unknown etiology, age at onset in late adolescence/early adulthood, and a lifetime prevalence of approximately 1% [1, 2]. One of the hallmark characteristics of this devastating disorder is a disturbance in emotion processing, which has been demonstrated in numerous behavioral, physiological, and functional neuroimaging investigations that employed tasks ranging from passive viewing of emotional material, through to facial emotion identification and emotional memory [3–8]. Although widely investigated, the neural correlates of atypical emotion processing in schizophrenia patients are still not well understood. For instance, while the majority of studies report diminished activations in patients relative to healthy subjects in several regions implicated in affect (e.g., hippocampus, amygdala, medial prefrontal, orbitofrontal cortex, and cingulate cortices) (e.g., [9–12]), others have found no effect or increased neural reactivity to emotionally charged material (e.g., [13–15]). In our recent study we have observed diminished activations during retrieval of negatively valenced emotional material but enhanced activations during positively valenced condition in clinically stable schizophrenia patients relative to controls [8]. Thus, one important factor to consider is affective valence of presented stimuli. Another important variable is gender of tested individuals, as numerous studies in the general population have
Progesterone and Cerebral Function during Emotion Processing in Men and Women with Schizophrenia
Julie Champagne,Nadia Lakis,Josiane Bourque,Emmanuel Stip,Olivier Lipp,Adrianna Mendrek
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/917901
Abstract: Schizophrenia has been associated with disturbed levels of sex-steroid hormones, including estrogen and testosterone. In the present study we have examined the implication of a less studied hormone progesterone. Forty-three patients with schizophrenia (21 women) and 43 control participants (21 women) underwent functional MRI while viewing emotionally positive, negative, and neutral images. Blood samples were taken prior to the scanning session to evaluate progesterone levels. Simple regression analyses between levels of progesterone and brain activations associated with emotion processing were performed using SPM5. A positive correlation was found between progesterone levels and brain activations during processing of emotionally charged images in both healthy and schizophrenia men, but no significant relationship was revealed in women. These preliminary results indicate that progesterone is significantly associated with brain activations during processing of positive and negative affect in healthy and schizophrenia men, but not in women. Further investigation is warranted.
Progesterone and Cerebral Function during Emotion Processing in Men and Women with Schizophrenia
Julie Champagne,Nadia Lakis,Josiane Bourque,Emmanuel Stip,Olivier Lipp,Adrianna Mendrek
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/917901
Abstract: Schizophrenia has been associated with disturbed levels of sex-steroid hormones, including estrogen and testosterone. In the present study we have examined the implication of a less studied hormone progesterone. Forty-three patients with schizophrenia (21 women) and 43 control participants (21 women) underwent functional MRI while viewing emotionally positive, negative, and neutral images. Blood samples were taken prior to the scanning session to evaluate progesterone levels. Simple regression analyses between levels of progesterone and brain activations associated with emotion processing were performed using SPM5. A positive correlation was found between progesterone levels and brain activations during processing of emotionally charged images in both healthy and schizophrenia men, but no significant relationship was revealed in women. These preliminary results indicate that progesterone is significantly associated with brain activations during processing of positive and negative affect in healthy and schizophrenia men, but not in women. Further investigation is warranted. 1. Introduction There is some evidence of a relationship between sex-steroid hormones (i.e., estrogen, testosterone, and less commonly progesterone) and emotion processing in the general population [1–3]. Fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone have been linked with increased vulnerability to mood disorders in women, while elevated levels of testosterone have been primarily associated with antisocial behaviours, behaviours of dominance, and aggressiveness in both men and women [4]. In schizophrenia, some studies have found abnormal levels of estrogens and testosterone in patients, but the results have been equivocal and sometimes attributed to the antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia, which may alter levels of gonadal hormones [5]. Despite numerous studies and clinical observations of lower relapse of clinical symptoms during pregnancy, high relapse postpartum, and the fluctuation of symptoms across the menstrual cycle (attributed typically to the changing levels of estrogens), a link between progesterone and affect in schizophrenia has yet to be examined [6]. The little emphasis that has been placed on the relationship between progesterone and emotional functioning has been explored primarily in healthy women because this hormone is a female reproductive hormone. Nonetheless, it is produced in both men and women, and recent evidence suggests that it is implicated in brain function of both sexes. Thus, progesterone has been shown to play an important role in mood regulation [7],
Sex Differences and Menstrual Cycle Phase-Dependent Modulation of Craving for Cigarette: An fMRI Pilot Study
Adrianna Mendrek,Laurence Dinh-Williams,Josiane Bourque,Stéphane Potvin
Psychiatry Journal , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/723632
Abstract: While overall more men than women smoke cigarettes, women and girls take less time to become dependent after initial use and have more difficulties quitting the habit. One of the factors contributing to these differences may be that women crave cigarettes more than men and that their desire to smoke is influenced by hormonal fluctuations across the menstrual cycle. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was twofold: (a) to examine potential sex/gender differences in functional neuroanatomy of craving and to (b) delineate neural correlates of cigarette cravings in women across their menstrual cycle. Fifteen tobacco-smoking men and 19 women underwent a functional MRI during presentation of neutral and smoking-related images, known to elicit craving. Women were tested twice: once during early follicular phase and once during midluteal phase of their menstrual cycle. The analysis did not reveal any significant sex differences in the cerebral activations associated with craving. Nevertheless, the pattern of activations in women varied across their menstrual cycle with significant activations in parts of the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobe, during follicular phase, and only limited activations in the right hippocampus during the luteal phase. 1. Introduction Although the number of smokers is gradually decreasing in the Western world, the decline has been less pronounced in women than in men [1, 2]. In fact, international and local epidemiological reports from the World Health Organization and the Quebec (Canada) Statistics Institute suggest that cigarette smoking is on the rise in young women and teen girls [3, 4]. Among adults still more men than women smoke, but women take less time to become dependent after initial use, report shorter and less frequent abstinence periods, smoke for longer periods of time in their lives, and have more difficulties quitting the habit, than men [5–7]. The reasons for these sex/gender differences remain unclear, but one of the contributing factors may be that women crave cigarettes with greater intensity than men do. For example, Field and Duka [8] showed that cigarette craving was increased in the presence of smoking cues in women but not in men. Regardless of sex differences, several functional imaging studies have been performed on cigarette cue reactivity. Recently, a meta-analysis of 11 functional imaging studies has shown that cigarette cues evoke activations in the anterior extended visual system, precuneus, anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, medial and dorsal prefrontal cortex, and insula and dorsal
The Neural Correlates of Mental Rotation Abilities in Cannabis-Abusing Patients with Schizophrenia: An fMRI Study
Stéphane Potvin,Josiane Bourque,Myriam Durand,Olivier Lipp,Pierre Lalonde,Emmanuel Stip,Sylvain Grignon,Adrianna Mendrek
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/543842
Abstract: Growing evidence suggests that cannabis abuse/dependence is paradoxically associated with better cognition in schizophrenia. Accordingly, we performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of visuospatial abilities in 14 schizophrenia patients with cannabis abuse (DD), 14 nonabusing schizophrenia patients (SCZ), and 21 healthy controls (HCs). Participants performed a mental rotation task while being scanned. There were no significant differences in the number of mistakes between schizophrenia groups, and both made more mistakes on the mental rotation task than HC. Relative to HC, SCZ had increased activations in the left thalamus, while DD patients had increased activations in the right supramarginal gyrus. In both cases, hyper-activations are likely to reflect compensatory efforts. In addition, SCZ patients had decreased activations in the left superior parietal gyrus compared to both HC and DD patients. This latter result tentatively suggests that the neurophysiologic processes underlying visuospatial abilities are partially preserved in DD, relative to SCZ patients, consistently with the findings showing that cannabis abuse in schizophrenia is associated with better cognitive functioning. Further fMRI studies are required to examine the neural correlates of other cognitive dysfunctions in schizophrenia patients with and without comorbid cannabis use disorder. 1. Introduction Neuropsychological studies have shown that 70% to 75% of patients with schizophrenia have significant cognitive deficits [1]. These deficits encompass attention, reasoning and problem solving, speed of processing, verbal memory, visual memory, and working memory [2]. Cognitive performance of patients with schizophrenia is 1 to 1.5 standard deviations below the performance of the general population [3]. Importantly, cognitive deficits are better predictors of social and occupational functioning than positive and negative symptoms [4]. The cognitive deficits of schizophrenia may be further amplified by the chronic use of psychoactive substances. In schizophrenia, the lifetime prevalence of substance use disorders approaches 50%; this estimate represents a 3- to 5-fold increased risk relative to the general population [5, 6]. Noteworthy, in younger schizophrenia populations, cannabis is one of the most frequently used psychoactive substances with lifetime prevalence rates of cannabis abuse/dependence up to 45% [7]. In addition to producing acute psychotic-like experiences [8], cannabis smoking has been shown to increase the risk for psychotic outcomes in nonpsychosis
"Se pudesse ressurgir, viria como o vento". Narrativas da dor: corporalidade e emo??es na experiência da travestilidade
Figueiredo, Adrianna;
Sexualidad, Salud y Sociedad (Rio de Janeiro) , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1984-64872011000300005
Abstract: based on empirical research with a group of seven transvestis, ages 23 to 40, residents of the city of recife, pernambuco, brazil, this article addresses the way tactics of body modification are performed, re-invented, and lived as central elements of emotional identification in the transvesti experience. narratives of pain illustrate the operation of two languages in transvestis' networks of affection, formulated by a dual qualification of pain. within what we call a 'language of satisfaction,' the pain, risks and danger involved in metamorphic procedures of body self-construction mean little vis-à-vis the satisfaction brought by their results, in face of the desire for transformation that moves them. in contrast, a 'political language,' based on shared histories of social abjection, makes use of the negative symbolic content of pain as ominous to signify travestis' relation with the larger society.
Un análisis desde la cognición distribuida en preescolar: el uso de dibujos y maquetas en la construcción de explicaciones sobre órganos de los sentidos y el sistema nervioso
Gómez, Adrianna;
Revista mexicana de investigación educativa , 2009,
Abstract: this article studies the way cooperation between students and teachers as well as a series of outside representations prepared during a didactic sequence support the construction of explanations of the sense organs and the nervous system. the data consist of transcribed conversations, copies of drawings, photographs of the model, and class journals. the findings indicate that the representations supported the incorporation of theoretical entities and generated a narrative history. the teachers' role consisted of promoting the representations' social negotiation and supporting the students' skill in executing the representations. the integrated use of different representative modes as well as cooperation permitted task completion, generating a system of distributed cognition.
DIALOGUE, AUTHENTICITY, MEETING AND COMMITMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM OF ARTISTIC AND ACADEMIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS WITH THE SPECIAL “ALA” PROGRAM
Adrianna Sarnat-Ciastko
Studia Humanistyczne (Kraków. 2003) , 2010,
Abstract: The political transformation, which took place in Poland in 1989, commenced the process of change of the existing education and teaching system which had been associated with quantity, large-scale, objectivity and institutionalism. The demands appeared to appreciate the quality of education from the perspective of a democratic and pluralistic society, but also to pay attention to the subjectivity of both a pupil and a teacher. It was assumed that there should have been a return to personalism in schools. Have these objectives been accomplished after twenty years since the beginning of change?The author of the hereof discussions decided to answer this question in the selective way. Because in literature there are many texts devoted to effects of the education reform in public schools, the alternative Artistic and Academic Secondary Schools with the special “ALA” program have been brought into focus. Presentation of this particular school is not accidental since in its concept and basic documents there are specific references to Christian and existential personalism and the pedagogy of dialogue where the idea of education is based on four cornerstones: dialogue, authenticity, meeting and commitment.
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