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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 197911 matches for " Adrián Gadano "
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Evolving Trends in the Hepatitis C Virus Molecular Epidemiology Studies: From the Viral Sequences to the Human Genome
Julieta Trinks,Adrián Gadano,Pablo Argibay
Epidemiology Research International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/856810
Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents a major worldwide public health problem. The search for the key molecular biomarkers that may provide insight on the basis of the differences in disease progression, severity, and response to therapy is crucial for understanding the natural history of HCV, for estimating the burden of infection and for developing preventive interventions. Initially, molecular epidemiology studies have focused on studying the viral genetic diversity (genotypes, genetic variants, specific nucleotide and amino acid substitutions). However, the clinical heterogeneities of HCV infection and the imperfect predictability of the response to treatment have suggested the need to search for host genetic biomarkers. This led to the discovery of genetic polymorphisms playing a major role in the evolution of infection, as well as in treatment response and adverse effects, such as IL-28B, ITPA, and IP-10. As a consequence, nowadays the focus of molecular epidemiology studies has turned from the viral to the human genome. This paper will cover recent reports on the subject describing the most relevant viral as well as host genetic risk factors analyzed by past and current HCV molecular epidemiology studies. 1. Introduction HCV represents a major health problem with approximately 3% of the world population—that is, more than 170 million people—infected. While only 20–30% of individuals exposed to HCV recover spontaneously, the remaining 70–80% develop chronic HCV infection (CHC) [1]. Moreover, 3–11% of those people will develop liver cirrhosis (LC) within 20 years [2], with associated risks of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [3] which are the leading indications of liver transplantation in industrialized countries [4]. The socioeconomic impact of HCV infection is therefore tremendous and the burden of the disease is expected to increase around the world as the disease progresses in patients who contracted HCV years ago. Since the discovery of HCV more than 20 years ago [5], epidemiological studies have described complex patterns of infection concerning not only the worldwide prevalence of this virus but also its clinical presentation and its therapeutic response. HCV presents highly variable local prevalence rates between countries and within countries [6]; for example, in Argentina the overall prevalence of HCV infection is close to 2%, but higher rates have been reported in different small rural communities (5.7–4.9%) [7, 8]. The outcome of HCV infection is—as previously stated—heterogeneous ranging from an asymptomatic self-limiting
Transplante de órganos en pacientes con infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana: Actualización y recomendaciones
Barcán,Laura; Gadano,Adrián; Cassetti,Isabel; Villamil,Federico; ,;
Medicina (Buenos Aires) , 2011,
Abstract: until few years ago, hiv infection was an absolute contraindication to consider organ transplants. since haart introduction, patient survival increased dramatically, but high mortality due to liver and kidney diseases became evident. for these reasons, this group of patients is now reconsidered for organ transplantation. in 2008, the argentine society of transplants (sat) and the argentine infectious diseases society (sadi), encouraged by the increasing published experience on kidney and liver transplants in this population, decided to form a working group, to prepare an update on this issue and elaborate practical recommendations for the better management of these patients. the first meeting was held on december 4th 2008. the most important conclusion was that hiv infection did not contraindicate a solid organ transplant. later on, taking into account the accumulated experience and the available literature, the current document was prepared. hiv infected patients must fulfill certain clinical, immunological, virological and psychosocial criteria to be considered for solid organ transplants. hiv infected recipients of kidney and liver transplants currently show similar short and middle term survival to non hiv infected patients. there is not yet enough data on intrathoracic transplants in these patients in order to include them on a waiting list for these organs-transplants. interactions between immunosupressors and antiretroviral drugs (specially protease inhibitors) are very important, and require a strict monitoring of immunosupressor levels.
Transplante de órganos en pacientes con infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana: Actualización y recomendaciones Organ transplants in HIV infected patients: Update and recommendations
Laura Barcán,Adrián Gadano,Isabel Cassetti,Federico Villamil
Medicina (Buenos Aires) , 2011,
Abstract: Hasta hace pocos a os la infección por HIV era una contraindicación absoluta para el trasplante de órganos. Desde la introducción del HAART y el aumento de la superivencia de los pacientes, comenzó a evidenciarse alta mortalidad por enfermedades terminales hepáticas y en menor grado renales. Por estos motivos los pacientes HIV+ hoy son reconsiderados para trasplante. En el a o 2008, motivada por la creciente experiencia publicada sobre trasplantes renales y hepáticos en esta población, la Sociedad Argentina de Trasplantes (SAT) y la Sociedad Argentina de Infectología (SADI) decidieron conformar un Grupo de Trabajo para realizar una actualización del tema y emitir recomendaciones. La reunión inicial se llevó a cabo el 4 de diciembre de 2008. La principal conclusión de esta reunión fue que el status HIV+ no era una contraindicación para recibir un trasplante de órgano sólido. Posteriormente se revisó la experiencia acumulada y la bibliografía disponible que dieron lugar al documento actual. Los pacientes HIV+ candidatos a trasplante de órganos sólidos deben cumplir con una serie de requisitos clínicos, inmunológicos, virológicos y psicosociales. La supervivencia a corto y mediano plazo de los receptores HIV+ de trasplante renal y hepático es hoy comparable a la de los pacientes HIV negativos. Todavía no existen datos suficientes como para incluir pacientes HIV+ en lista de espera para trasplante de órganos intratorácicos. Las interacciones entre los inmunosupresores y los antirretrovirales (inhibidores de proteasas en especial) son muy importantes y requieren una supervisión y vigilancia estrictas de los niveles sanguíneos de inmunosupresores. Until few years ago, HIV infection was an absolute contraindication to consider organ transplants. Since HAART introduction, patient survival increased dramatically, but high mortality due to liver and kidney diseases became evident. For these reasons, this group of patients is now reconsidered for organ transplantation. In 2008, the Argentine Society of Transplants (SAT) and the Argentine Infectious Diseases Society (SADI), encouraged by the increasing published experience on kidney and liver transplants in this population, decided to form a Working Group, to prepare an update on this issue and elaborate practical recommendations for the better management of these patients. The first meeting was held on December 4th 2008. The most important conclusion was that HIV infection did not contraindicate a solid organ transplant. Later on, taking into account the accumulated experience and the available literature, the cur
Intraparenchymal intracranial pressure monitoring in patients with acute liver failure
Rabadán, Alejandra T.;Spaho, Natalia;Hernández, Diego;Gadano, Adrián;Santiba?es, Eduardo de;
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-282X2008000300018
Abstract: background: elevated intracranial pressure (icp) is a common cause of death in acute liver failure (alf) and is determinant for decision-making regarding the timing of liver transplantation. the recommended type icp monitoring device is controversial in alf patients. epidural devices had less risk of hemorrhagic complications, but they are less reliable than intraparenchymal ones. method: twenty-three patients with alf were treated, and 19 of them received a liver transplant. seventeen patients had icp monitoring because of grade iii-iv encephalopathy. all patients received fresh plasma (2-3 units) before and during placing the intraparenchymal device. results: eleven cases (64.7%) had elevated icp, and 6 patients (35.2%) had normal values. one patient (5.9%) had an asymptomatic small intraparenchymal haemorrhage <1cm3 in ctscan, which did not prevent the liver transplantation. conclusion: in our experience, intraparenchymal icp monitoring in patients with alf seems to be an accurate method with a low risk of complications.
Hepatitis C Virus Diversification in Argentina: Comparative Analysis between the Large City of Buenos Aires and the Small Rural Town of O'Brien
Marcelo D. Golemba, Andrés C. A. Culasso, Federico G. Villamil, Patricia Bare, Adrián Gadano, Ezequiel Ridruejo, Alfredo Martinez, Federico A. Di Lello, Rodolfo H. Campos
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084007
Abstract: Background The estimated prevalence of HCV infection in Argentina is around 2%. However, higher rates of infection have been described in population studies of small urban and rural communities. The aim of this work was to compare the origin and diversification of HCV-1b in samples from two different epidemiological scenarios: Buenos Aires, a large cosmopolitan city, and O'Brien, a small rural town with a high prevalence of HCV infection. Patients and Methods The E1/E2 and NS5B regions of the viral genome from 83 patients infected with HCV-1b were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis and Bayesian Coalescent methods were used to study the origin and diversification of HCV-1b in both patient populations. Results Samples from Buenos Aires showed a polyphyletic behavior with a tMRCA around 1887–1900 and a time of spread of infection approximately 60 years ago. In contrast, samples from óBrien showed a monophyletic behavior with a tMRCA around 1950–1960 and a time of spread of infection more recent than in Buenos Aires, around 20–30 years ago. Conclusion Phylogenetic and coalescence analysis revealed a different behavior in the epidemiological histories of Buenos Aires and óBrien. HCV infection in Buenos Aires shows a polyphyletic behavior and an exponential growth in two phases, whereas that in O'Brien shows a monophyletic cluster and an exponential growth in one single step with a more recent tMRCA. The polyphyletic origin and the probability of encountering susceptible individuals in a large cosmopolitan city like Buenos Aires are in agreement with a longer period of expansion. In contrast, in less populated areas such as O'Brien, the chances of HCV transmission are strongly restricted. Furthermore, the monophyletic character and the most recent time of emergence suggest that different HCV-1b ancestors (variants) that were in expansion in Buenos Aires had the opportunity to colonize and expand in O’Brien.
Torsadogenic Index: Its Chinese Medical Origin  [PDF]
Adrián ángel Inchauspe
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2013.47A1001
Abstract: The foundational chronology of Torsadogenic Index is introduced to explain the relationship between impending death situations and drug prescription, combination, self-indication, or abuse of torsadogenic pharmacological products. The pathophysiological basis of Torsade de Pointes is presented with the most frequent causes of Long QT syndrome. Traditional Chinese Medical principles are exposed in order to help people to understand its para-logical sequence, providing another view of medical explanations upon scientific evidence. Development of Torsadogenic Risk Management Project and Torsadogenic Traceability concepts derived from these Chinese Medical perpetual axioms are presented in this paper.
“Between Heaven and Earth” Scientific Basis of the Action of Shao Yin: Lightning’s Physical-Mathematical Analysis  [PDF]
Adrián Angel Inchauspe
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.52024
Abstract:

In an analytic methodological approach, TCM Shao Yin circuit and Lightning physics are compared in order to provide an academic support to relate these phenomena. The aim of this work is to offer a scientific description contrasting both events, so to find an electrophysiological explanation for the complementary resuscitation maneuver over K-1 Yongquan acupuncture point.

Resuscitation on the K-1 Yongquan: Ethical and Methodological Aspects of Its Pilot Study  [PDF]
Adrián ángel Inchauspe
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.77095
Abstract: K-1 Yongquan complementary resuscitation maneuver, systematized since 1987, has been consistently performed in sudden death and cardiac arrest conditions as a final resource in both basic and advanced CPR failure. Experimental analytical studies identify the prevention, control and assessment of treatments set up as well as the determination of their efficiency offering; in that way, there are more possibilities than risks during the trial period. That type of study refers to the random criterion in order to measure differences and, in that way, it establishes causal associations which may better determine the intervention mechanism. As inferred by this criterion, control groups would not profit from the benefit of providing a second chance by means of the proposed maneuver during rescue. Such determination leaves those included in the control group deserted to their own ill-fate, adding—consequently—a certain lethal risk, which should basic and advanced CPR fail. In view of this panorama, we tried to find a methodology that should ensure the validation process according to the model presented; to that end, we propose the Cohort Retrospective Study. All of the above has given evidence that there is a difference if one takes into consideration as control the group of “deceased patients” instead of considering among them “patients that may be deceased”. Such apparently simple consideration—thanks to the Cohort Retrospective model—manages to efface the high possibility of a “fatal damage”, as proposed by the randomness principle upon a prospective non-intervention group. Beyond the scientific methodology that supports it the efficiency of the maneuver derives mainly from the sustained increase in survival rates presented in the successive statistics published since its application.
Therapeutic Acupunctural Resonance: The Original Research  [PDF]
Adrián ángel Inchauspe
Chinese Medicine (CM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/cm.2015.64024
Abstract: The Chinese managed to interpret not only the natural rhythms of cosmic and seasonal cycles but the chrono-biological rhythms present in human body. What since long ago was merely taken to be a pre-scientific tradition has currently become a tangible reality. Nowadays, the specific frequencies pulsating along each meridian can be measured in hertz—according to its own resonance—as Acupuncture determined thousands of years ago. Their effort to establish a taxonomic classification of all environmental and human phenomena is closely related to Mathematics propositions of Euclid Five Regular Polyhedra, in order to consolidate the axiomatic-deductive model which we can now relate to the Chinese Theory of the Five Elements and their constant changes. As presented in OMICS Group Traditional Medicine-2015 Conference in Birmingham, it could be also proved that there also exists an inescapable relationship between Pythagoras and the Mathematical foundation of the Pentatonic Chinese Musical Scale. A simple way to incorporate the ideal frequency rhythm for each channel to correct its unbalanced situation is to insert said frequencies through the needles, by way of “antennae”, restructuring the meridian’s resonance affected and through it, of the Element it belongs to. Therapeutic Acupunctural Resonance therefore finds effective application when pins are used as “resonators”, putting the frequency of said Element of the channel in line, so that they transmit by means of punctures pure vibratory patterns which shall recondition the Qi flow frequency which has been altered by the Chinese syndrome diagnosed to be treated.
Heidegger: Being and Time and the Care for the Self  [PDF]
Jesús Adrián Escudero
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.32047
Abstract: The secret of Being and Time and of its constant cultural and philosophical presence lies in its unusual hermeneutical richness. Being and Time becomes, so to speak, a precise seismometer capable of detecting the slips and falls of the contemporary era with surprising accuracy. It offers us an exact scan of the ethical and moral conscience of our time. Being and Time does not develop a philosophical theory among others, rather it faces the challenge of thoroughly reflecting upon the dilemma that is constantly present in philosophy, namely the question of human being and its relation to being in general. From this point of view, I would like to consider the possibility of reading this fundamental work of Heidegger as an ethics of the care, that is, as book that promotes a cultivation of the self and the other.
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