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Histological effects of chronic administration of Phyllanthus amarus on the superior colliculus of adult wistar rats
JO Adjene
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: Effects of administration of Phyllanthus amarus commonly used for the treatment of jaundice, diarrhea, dysentery, urogenital disease and wound on the superior colliculus of adult wistar rats was carefully studied. Rats of both sexes (n = 24), with average weight of 200 g were randomly assigned into two treatments (A and B) and control (C) groups of 8 rats each. The rats in the treatment groups (A and B) received 400 and 800 mg of aqueous extract of P. amarus per kg body weight respectively through the orogastric tube administration daily for thirty days. The control group received equal volume of distilled water daily for thirty days through the same route. The rats were fed with growers marsh obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour mill Limited, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the thirty-one days of the experiment. The superior colliculus was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study. The findings indicate that rats in the treated groups (A and B) showed some cellular degenerative changes, hypertrophy, sparse cellular population and vacuolations in the stroma of the superior colliculus as compared to the control group. Chronic administration of P. amarus may therefore have an adverse effect on the visual and somatosensory motor sensibilities by affecting the microanatomy of the superior colliculus of adult wistar rats. It is recommended for further studies aimed at corroborating these observations.
Effects of chronic administration of efavirenz on DNA of the intracranial visual relay centers of adult Wistar rats
JO Adjene
Biology and Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: The effects of chronic administration of efavirenz commonly used as part of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy(HAART) for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) type-1 therapy on the DNA of the intracranial visual relay centre namely the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate body of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=20), with an average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into treatment (n=10) and control (n=10) groups. The rats in the treatment group received 600mg/70kg bogy weight of efavirenz dissolved in distilled water daily for 30 days through the orogastric tube. The control group received equal volume of distilled water daily for 30 days through the same route. The rats were fed with grower’s mash obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation method on the thirty-first day of the experiment. The superior colliculus and lateral geniculate body were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histochemical study. The histochemical findings indicated that the treatment sections of the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate body showed less intense staining and appeared pachychromatic. The stained neurons and glia cells were few as compared to the control sections. There were observations of neuronal enlargement in the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate body of the treated sections. The superior colliculus of the treated rats showed evidence of hypertrophy and microcytic changes in the darkly stained DNA positive granules, while the treated section of the lateral geniculate body showed positively stained DNA granules of various sizes and shapes, with an indication of hypertrophy and microcytic changes ascompared to the control group. Chronic administration of efavirenz may therefore have an adverse effect on the DNA of the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate body of adult Wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.
Oxidative stress induced by chronic administration of Efavirenz on the intracranial visual relay centers of adult Wistar rats
JO Adjene
Biology and Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: The biochemical effects of chronic administration of efavirenz commonly used as part of highly active antiretroviraltherapy (HAART) for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) type-1 on the intracranial visual relaycentres (namely superior colliculus and lateral geniculate body) of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats ofboth sexes (n=30), with an average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into treatment (n=15) and control (n=15)groups. The rats in the treatment group received the recommended dose of 600mg/70kg body weight of efavirenzdissolved in distilled water daily for 30 days (thirty days) through the orogastric tube. The control group receivedequal volume of distilled water daily for 30 days through the same route. The rats were fed with grower’s mashobtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo state, Nigeria and given water liberally. The rats weresacrificed by cervical dislocation method on the thirty-first day of the experiment and the superior colliculus and lateralgeniculate body were carefully dissected out, weighed using the Mettler Toledo weighing balance and homogenized.The homogenates were centrifuged at 3500rpm for 5 minutes and the clear supernatants were collected using amicropipette which was then transferred into an empty specimen container and refrigerated till needed for thebiochemical assays. The findings indicated that the Malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)were consistent. MDA as a non-enzyme biomarker of oxidative stress is higher on the treated tissues, withstatistically significant (P<0.05) difference observed. SOD is consistently lower in the treated tissues with statisticalsignificant (P<0.05) difference as compared with the control group in this experiment. Chronic administration ofefavirenz may therefore have an adverse effect on the visual sensibilities by affecting the superior colliculus andlateral geniculate body of adult Wistar rats.
Effects of Chronic Administration of Efavirenz on the Chromatophilic Substance of the Intracranial Auditory Relay Centres of Adult Wistar Rats
Adjene,J. O; Igbigbi,P. S;
International Journal of Morphology , 2012, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022012000300037
Abstract: the effects of chronic administration of efavirenz commonly used as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart) for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) type-1 therapy on the chromatophilic substance of the intracranial auditory relay centre namely the inferior colliculus and medial geniculate body of adult wistar rats were carefully studied. the rats of both sexes (n=20), with an average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into treatment (n=10) and control (n=10) groups. the rats in the treatment group received 600 mg/70kg body weight of efavirenz dissolved in distilled water daily for 30 days through the orogastric tube. the control group received equal volume of distilled water daily for 30 days through the same route. the rats were fed with grower's mash obtained from edo feeds and flour mill limited, ewu, edo state, nigeria and given water liberally. the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation method on the thirty-first day of the experiment. the inferior colliculus and medial geniculate body were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study. the histological findings indicated that the treated sections of the inferior colliculus and medial geniculate body showed that the chromatophilics substances were less intensely stained as compared to the control. the parenchyme was vacuolated and with evidence of hypertrophy and more spaces between the axonal mesh around the sparsely distributed neurons as compared to the control group. the treated section of the inferior colliculus showed neurons with faintly stained chromatophilics substances in large, medium and small sized neurons while that of the medial geniculate body showed less intense and enlarge chromatophilics substances with some vacuolations. chronic administration of efavirenz may therefore have an adverse effect on the chromatophilics substances of the inferior colliculus and medial geniculate body of adult wistar rats. it is recommen
Effects of Chronic Administration of Efavirenz on the Chromatophilic Substance of the Intracranial Auditory Relay Centres of Adult Wistar Rats Efectos de la Administración Crónica de Efavirenz sobre la Sustancia Cromatofílica de los Centros de Relevo Auditivos Intracraneales de Ratas Wistar Adultas
J. O Adjene,P. S Igbigbi
International Journal of Morphology , 2012,
Abstract: The effects of chronic administration of efavirenz commonly used as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) type-1 therapy on the chromatophilic substance of the intracranial auditory relay centre namely the inferior colliculus and medial geniculate body of adult wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=20), with an average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into treatment (n=10) and control (n=10) groups. The rats in the treatment group received 600 mg/70kg body weight of efavirenz dissolved in distilled water daily for 30 days through the orogastric tube. The control group received equal volume of distilled water daily for 30 days through the same route. The rats were fed with grower's mash obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo state, Nigeria and given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation method on the thirty-first day of the experiment. The inferior colliculus and medial geniculate body were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study. The histological findings indicated that the treated sections of the inferior colliculus and medial geniculate body showed that the chromatophilics substances were less intensely stained as compared to the control. The parenchyme was vacuolated and with evidence of hypertrophy and more spaces between the axonal mesh around the sparsely distributed neurons as compared to the control group. The treated section of the inferior colliculus showed neurons with faintly stained chromatophilics substances in large, medium and small sized neurons while that of the medial geniculate body showed less intense and enlarge chromatophilics substances with some vacuolations. Chronic administration of efavirenz may therefore have an adverse effect on the chromatophilics substances of the inferior colliculus and medial geniculate body of adult wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out. Fueron estudiados los efectos de la administración crónica del efavirenz, comúnmente utilizado como parte del tratamiento antirretroviral de gran actividad para el VIH tipo 1, sobre la sustancia cromatofílica del centro de relevo auditivo intracraneal, el colículo inferior y cuerpo geniculado medial, en ratas Wistar adultas. Ratas de ambos sexos (n = 20), con un peso promedio de 200g fueron asignadas aleatoriamente a tratamiento (n = 10) y control (n = 10). Las ratas del grupo tratado recibieron 600mg/70kg peso
Histological effects of long term consumption of nutmeg on the medial geniculate body of adult Wistar rats
Josiah Obaghwarhievwo Adjene,Ezekiel Uba Nwose
North American Journal of Medical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Nutmeg is commonly used as a spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol. The effect of chronic consumption of nutmeg on the medial geniculate body of adult Wistar rats was carefully studied. Aim: The objective is to observe any possible histological changes. Materials and Methods: Rats of both sexes (n = 24), with average weight of 200g were equally and randomly assigned into two treatment groups [A] and [B]; and untreated Control group [C] of (n = 8) per group. The rats in the treatment groups [A] and [B] were respectively given 1g and 2g of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds on a daily basis for thirty-two days. The control group received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for the thirty-two days period. All rats were fed with grower’s mash and given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation method on day thirty-three of the experiment, medial geniculate body was carefully dissected out from the brain and quickly fixed in 10% formol-saline for histological study. Results: The findings indicate that rats in the treated groups (A & B) showed some cellular degenerative changes like hypertrophy, sparse cellular population, pyknotic nuclei with some microcystic changes, and vacuolation in the stroma of the treated medial geniculate body relative to those in the control group. Conclusion: Long term consumption of nutmeg may have adverse effect on microanatomy of medial geniculate body, which could negatively impact on the auditory sensibilities. Further research, including human observational studies, aimed at corroborating these observations is recommended.
Histological effects of chronic administration of Phyllanthus amarus on the kidney of adult Wistar rat
Josiah Obaghwarhievwo Adjene,Ezekiel Uba Nwose
North American Journal of Medical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Phyllanthus amarus is commonly used for treatment such as in gastro, urogenital diseases and infection. However, it is speculated to have some toxic effects such as renal tubular damage. Aims: This study was to investigate the histological effects of chronic administration of the herb on kidney of adult Wistar rats. Material and Methods: Rats of both sexes (n = 24), with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatments (A and B) and control (C) groups of 8 rats each. Rats in treatment groups (A) and (B) respectively received daily administration of 400mg and 800mg of aqueous Phyllanthus amarus, per 70kg body weight for 30days through the orogastric tube. The control group received distilled water through the same route. All rats were fed with grower’s mash and given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the thirty-first day of the experiment and the kidneys were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study. Results: The observations indicate that rats in the treated groups showed some varying degree of distortion and disruption in microanatomy of the kidney including interstitial oedema and tubular necrosis, when compared to the control section. Conclusion: This report provides further evidence that medicinal use of Phyllanthus amarus has a potential adverse effect. This warrants further studies to establish or rule out any untoward side-effect of chronic renal dysfunctions.
HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF RED PEPPER ON THE STOMACH OF ADULT WISTAR RATS
K. O. Kendabie,Josiah O. Adjene
Electronic Journal of Biomedicine , 2007,
Abstract: Histological effects of red pepper commonly used as spice in food on the stomach of adult wistar rats were carefully investigated. The rats of both sexes (n=24), average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16) and control (n=6) groups. The rats in the treatments groups received 1g and 2g of red pepper thoroughly mixed with 20g of their feeds for 7 and 14 days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without the red pepper added. The rats were fed with grower's mash purchased from Edo feeds and flour mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day eight and fifteen of the experiment respectively.The stomach was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formol saline for routine histological procedure after H & E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the stomach showed some level of cellular hypertrophy, congestion of blood vessels degenerative changes disruption and distortion of the cytoarchitecture of the stomach.These findings indicate that red pepper may have some deleterious effects on the microanatomy of the stomach of adult wistar rat at higher doses. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings be carried out.
EFFECTS OF CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF EFAVIRENZ ON THE BRAIN AND INFERIOR COLLICULUS WEIGHTS OF ADULT WISTAR RATS
J. O. Adjene,F. I. Arukwe.
Electronic Journal of Biomedicine , 2009,
Abstract: The effects of chronic administration of Efavirenz commonly used as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) type-1 on the weight of the brain and inferior colliculus of adult wistar rats was carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=16), with an average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into treatment (n=8) and control (n=8) groups. The rats in the treatment group received 600 mg/70 kg body weight of Efavirenz dissolved in distilled water daily for 30 days (thirty days) through the orogastric tube. The control group received equal volume of distilled water daily for 30 days through the same route. The rats were fed with grower's mash obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo state, Nigeria and given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation method on the thirty-first day of the experiment and the brains were carefully dissected out, dried, weighed and recorded using the Mettler Toledo weighing balance. The findings indicate that there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the dry brain weight and an increase in the relative dry brain weight of the treatment group as compared with the control group in this experiment. There was also a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the weight of the dry inferior colliculus per total dry brain weight in the treatment group when compared with the control group. However, the relative dry inferior colliculus weight was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the treatment group also than that of the control group in this experiment
Histological effects of chronic administration of efavirenz on lateral geniculate body of adult Wistar rats
Josiah Obaghwarhievwo Adjene,Patrick Sunday Igbigbi,Ezekiel Uba Nwose
North American Journal of Medical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Background: The effects of chronic administration of efavirenz commonly used as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) type-1 on the weight of the brain and inferior colliculus of adult Wistar rats was carefully studied. Methods and Materials: The rats of both sexes (n = 24), with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatment (A & B) (n=16) and Control (c) (n=8) groups. The rats in the treatment group received 600mg/70kg bogy weight of efavirenz dissolved in distilled water daily for 30days through the orogastric tube. The control group received equal volume of distilled through the same route. All rats were fed with grower’s mash and given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation method on the thirty-first day of the experiment and the lateral geniculate body was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study. Results: The findings indicate that rats in the treated group showed some cellular degenerative changes like sparse cellular population, pyknotic nuclei with some microcystic changes and edema in the stroma of the lateral geniculate body as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Chronic administration of efavirenz may have an adverse effect on the visual sensibilities by affecting the microanatomy of the lateral geniculate body of adult Wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.
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