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Evaluation of Best Management Practices in Millsboro Pond Watershed Using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Model  [PDF]
Aditya Sood, William F. Ritter
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.25047
Abstract: The Inland Bays in southern Delaware (USA) are facing eutrophication due to the nutrient loading from its watershed. The source of nutrients in the watershed is predominantly agriculture. The Millsboro Pond, a sub-watershed within the Inland Bays basin, was modeled using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. It was found that the contribution of ground water from outside the watershed had a signifi-cant impact on the hydrology of the region. Once the model was calibrated and validated, five management scenarios were implemented, one at a time, to measure its effectiveness in reducing the nutrient loading in the watershed. Among the Best Management Practices (BMPs), planting winter cover crops on the agricul-ture land was the most effective method in reducing the nutrient loads. The second most effective method was to provide grassland riparian zones. The BMPs alone were not able to achieve the nutrient load reduc-tion as required by the Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs). Two extra scenarios that involved in replac-ing agriculture land with forest, first with deciduous trees and then with high yielding trees were considered. It is suggested that to achieve the required TMDL for the watershed, some parts of the agricultural land may have to be effectively converted into the managed forest with some high yielding trees such as hybrid poplar trees providing cellulose raw material for bio fuels. The remaining agriculture land should take up the prac-tice of planting winter cover crops and better nutrient management. Riparian zones, either in form of forest or grasslands, should be the final line of defense for reducing nutrient loading in the watershed.
Developing a Framework to Measure Watershed Sustainability by Using Hydrological/Water Quality Model  [PDF]
Aditya Sood, William F. Ritter
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2011.311089
Abstract: A framework is built, wherein hydrological/water quality model is used to measure watershed sustainability. For this framework, watershed sustainability has been defined and quantified by defining social, environmental and biodiversity indicators. By providing weightage to these indicators, a “River Basin Sustainability Index” is built. The watershed sustainability is then calculated based on the concepts of reliability, resilience and vulnerability. The framework is then applied to a case study, where, based on watershed management principles, four land use scenarios are created in GIS. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used as a hydrology/water quality model. Based on the results the land uses are ranked for sustainability and policy implications have been discussed. This results show that landuse (both type and location) impact watershed sustainability. The existing land use is weak in environmental sustainability. Also, riparian zones play a critical role in watershed sustainability, although beyond certain width their contribution is not significant.
Oscillatory settling in wormlike-micelle solutions: bursts and a long time scale
Nitin Kumar,Sayantan Majumdar,Aditya Sood,Rama Govindarajan,Sriram Ramaswamy,A. K. Sood
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1039/C2SM25077B
Abstract: We study the dynamics of a spherical steel ball falling freely through a solution of entangled wormlike-micelles. If the sphere diameter is larger than a threshold value, the settling velocity shows repeated short oscillatory bursts separated by long periods of relative quiescence. We propose a model incorporating the interplay of settling-induced flow, viscoelastic stress and, as in M. E. Cates, D. A. Head and A. Ajdari, Phys. Rev. E, 2002, 66, 025202(R) and A. Aradian and M. E. Cates, Phys. Rev. E, 2006, 73, 041508, a slow structural variable for which our experiments offer independent evidence.
Trends and Determinants of Unmet Need for Family Planning in Bihar (India): Evidence from National Family Health Surveys  [PDF]
Amit Kumar, Aditya Singh
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.32021

Using data from all three rounds of the National Family Health Survey, this study examines the trends and determinants of unmet need for family planning in the state of Bihar. Bivariate analysis was carried out to examine the level and trends of unmet need for family. Binary logistic regression was used to examine the factor affecting unmet need for family planning. About 25% of the currently married women, aged 15 - 49 years, in Bihar at present have an unmet need for family planning services, 11% for spacing and 12% for limiting. Only 18% of total demand for spacing methods is met compared to about 72% of total demand for limiting methods. The unmet need for family planning among Muslim (32%), rural (24%) and adolescent (36%) and poor women (26%) is relatively higher than other groups. Religious prohibition and husband opposed were the main reasons for not using contraception. A considerable proportion of older women (45 - 49 years) and those living in urban areas cited method-related reasons. About 86% of Muslim women cited opposition to use as the main reason for not using family planning. The same is also substantiated by logistic regression analysis where the odds of unmet need were significantly higher among Muslim women (OR = 1.88; p < 0.05). Women from Other Backward Castes (OR = 0.74; p

Potential Benefits and Challenges in Applying Regional EIA: A Case Study of Special Investment Regions in India  [PDF]
Masoom Mallick, Aditya Singh
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.51004

Development is an ever growing process and its impact is often detrimental to environment which in turn may lead to adverse consequences for human life. Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) is an anticipatory and participatory environment management tool which helps in the decision-making process for different upcoming development projects by analyzing the environmental consequences of the action. The large scale projects like setting up of Special Investment Regions (SIR), Special Economic Zones (SEZ) and Industrial Estates (IE) have cumulative impacts on the environmental condition of the region. This paper intends to describe different practices of impact assessment and seeks to direct this debate towards the potential benefits of applying Regional EIA over the project specific EIA to capture the cumulative impact of large development projects like SIRs and IE on the environmental condition of the region and underline the challenges often faced during the study. Regional EIA is a new concept in India and the process of development of an SIR is different from the other industrial projects such as SEZ or IE. Unlike SEZ which comprises of only industrial activity, SIR also includes residential commercial and other amenities over an area of more than 100 square kilometers. Further, the implementation of Regional EIA in Indian context is also constrained by problem in baseline data collection and lack of exhaustive ecological and socioeconomic indicators for impact assessment and restricted use of state of art technologies such as Geographical Information System due to many factors such as cost involved and lack of awareness among consultants. The whole process of Regional EIA should be made rapid and more participatory.

A Multiobjective Optimization Method for Designing M-Channel NPR Cosine Modulated Filter Bank for Image Compression  [PDF]
Anamika Jain, Aditya Goel
Engineering (ENG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2015.72008
Abstract: This paper proposes a method to design multichannel cosine modulated filter bank for image compression using multiobjective optimization technique. The design problem is a combination of stopband residual energy, least square error of the overall transfer function of the filter bank, coding gain with dc leakage free condition as constraint. The proposed algorithm uses Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA) to minimize the mutually contradictory objective function by minimizing filter tap weights of prototype filter. The algorithm solves this problem by searching solutions that achieve the best compromise between the different objectives criteria. The performance of this algorithm is evaluated in terms of coding gain and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR). Simulation results on different images are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for image compression application.
Dynamic Identity Based Authentication Protocol for Two-Server Architecture  [PDF]
Sandeep K. Sood
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2012.34040
Abstract: Most of the password based authentication protocols make use of the single authentication server for user's authentication. User's verifier information stored on the single server is a main point of susceptibility and remains an attractive target for the attacker. On the other hand, multi-server architecture based authentication protocols make it difficult for the attacker to find out any significant authentication information related to the legitimate users. In 2009, Liao and Wang proposed a dynamic identity based remote user authentication protocol for multi-server environment. However, we found that Liao and Wang's protocol is susceptible to malicious server attack and malicious user attack. This paper presents a novel dynamic identity based authentication protocol for multi-server architecture using smart cards that resolves the aforementioned flaws, while keeping the merits of Liao and Wang's protocol. It uses two-server paradigm by imposing different levels of trust upon the two servers and the user's verifier information is distributed between these two servers known as the service provider server and the control server. The proposed protocol is practical and computational efficient because only nonce, one-way hash function and XOR operations are used in its implementation. It provides a secure method to change the user's password without the server's help. In e-commerce, the number of servers providing the services to the user is usually more than one and hence secure authentication protocols for multi-server environment are required.
Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Food Packaging Papers and Paperboards Used in India  [PDF]
Swati Sood, Chhaya Sharma
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2019.103021
Abstract: In the present study, the varieties of papers and paperboards (PPBs) used in India for food packaging were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed for the heavy metal contamination with the help of ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry). Total 10 different types of food packaging PPBs were procured from local market and analyzed for 14 heavy metals (Al, As, B, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Te, Ti and V). Quantities of heavy metals in the samples were compared with permitted values published by the European Council. Heavy metals like Al, As, Ba, Cr, Co, Ni, Pb and V were observed in more than the permitted concentration in some of the samples. Heavy metals toxicity in food packaging material is a serious concern as the edible items get exposed to these metals and also generate volatile odorous compounds which considerably impact the quality of food and affect consumer's health.
Bacteria in Indian Food Packaging Papers and Paperboards with Various Contents of Pulp Fiber  [PDF]
Swati Sood, Chhaya Sharma
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2019.104027
Abstract: The food packaging industry generally uses papers and paperboards (PPBs) especially for disposable products. According to the Framework Regulation (EC) No. 1935/2004 of the European Union, no transfer of contamination should occur from food packaging material to the food items. The aim of this study was to determine the presence, numbers, source and different kinds of bacteria present in food packaging PPBs with various contents of pulp fiber. The samples were randomly collected from popular confectioners and fast food restaurants in Saharanpur, India. The results indicated the presence of bacteria in all the samples, ranging from 1.3 × 102 to 6.1 × 103 cfu/g. Most of the samples contained bacteria in more than the permitted concentration of 2.5 × 102 cfu/g as set by Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The detected bacteria were from genera Bacillacea, Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas. According to the FDA declaration, pathogenic bacteria such as B. cereus and S. aureus have been associated with food borne diseases (FBD). Some contaminants in food packaging PPBs were found to be B. subtilis and P. aeroginosa, which produce enzymes like peroxidases and lipoxygenases that are odor generating enzymes.
A Rare Case of Vanishing Lung Syndrome
Nidhi Sood,Nikhil Sood
Case Reports in Pulmonology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/957463
Abstract: We describe here a rare case of Idiopathic Bullous Emphysema/Vanishing Lung Syndrome (VLS) in a 33-year-old male patient with a history of marijuana abuse who presents to the hospital with pleuritic chest pain thought to be due to pneumothorax based on the chest radiograph. This case emphasizes the need to obtain chest computed tomography in a relatively stable patient suspected of VLS to reduce the potential risk of overseeing a bronchopleural fistula.
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