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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3966 matches for " Aditya Jain "
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A Multiobjective Optimization Method for Designing M-Channel NPR Cosine Modulated Filter Bank for Image Compression  [PDF]
Anamika Jain, Aditya Goel
Engineering (ENG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2015.72008
Abstract: This paper proposes a method to design multichannel cosine modulated filter bank for image compression using multiobjective optimization technique. The design problem is a combination of stopband residual energy, least square error of the overall transfer function of the filter bank, coding gain with dc leakage free condition as constraint. The proposed algorithm uses Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA) to minimize the mutually contradictory objective function by minimizing filter tap weights of prototype filter. The algorithm solves this problem by searching solutions that achieve the best compromise between the different objectives criteria. The performance of this algorithm is evaluated in terms of coding gain and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR). Simulation results on different images are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for image compression application.
Unconstrained Optimization Method to Design Two Channel Quadrature Mirror Filter Banks for Image Coding
Anamika Jain, Aditya Goel
International Journal of Image Processing , 2011,
Abstract: This paper proposes an efficient method for the design of two-channel, quadrature mirror filter (QMF) bank for subband image coding. The choice of filter bank is important as it affects image quality as well as system design complexity. The design problem is formulated as weighted sum of reconstruction error in time domain and passband and stop-band energy of the low-pass analysis filter of the filter bank .The objective function is minimized directly, using nonlinear unconstrained method. Experimental results of the method on images show that the performance of the proposed method is better than that of the already existing methods. The impact of some filter characteristics, such as stopband attenuation, stopband edge, and filter length on the performance of the reconstructed images is also investigated.
Design of M-channel pseudo near perfect reconstruction QMF bank for image compression
Anamika Jain,Aditya P. Goel
Signal & Image Processing , 2012,
Abstract: This paper proposes particle swarm optimization method to design M channel near perfect reconstructionpseudo QMF banks used in transforming stage of image coder. The filter bank is designed to have highest entropy based coder. To achieve high energy compaction and least distortion, design problem is formulated as a combination of the coding gain, low dc leakage conditions and stopband attenuation. For distortion free signal representation perfect reconstruction and good visual quality measures are imposed as constraints. The design problem is solved using (particle swarm optimization) PSO technique for minimizing filter tap weights. The technique find out solution by searching feasible solutions that achieve the best solution for the objectives criteria mentioned above. The performance of this optimization technique in filter bank design for image compression is evaluated in terms of both objective quality via coding gain, PSNR measures and subjective visual quality measure using both JPEG baseline image coder and an Embedded Zerotree Wavelet (EZW) coder. For comparison same test images for approximately same conditions and characteristics are used to measure compression ratio and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) for lower bit rates.
Role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia
Aditya Jain, Harikrishna Tandri, Hugh Calkins, David A Bluemke
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1532-429x-10-32
Abstract: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is a progressive cardiomyopathy primarily affecting the right ventricle (RV) and is characterized by fatty/fibro-fatty replacement with myocyte loss, ventricular arrhythmias of left bundle branch block pattern (LBBB) and right heart failure. Increasing evidence suggests that ARVD is a disease of desmosomal dysfunction. ARVD can exist in both sporadic and familial forms with the familial form showing a predominantly autosomal dominant inheritance pattern with variable penetrance. The exact prevalence is unknown, but it is estimated to be 1:5000 in the United States. The clinical onset of ARVD is often delayed to adolescence or early adulthood. It is more commonly seen in males and people engaged in athletics and competitive sports.ARVD accounts for up to 5% of sudden deaths in young individuals less than 35 years of age in the United States, and 25% of exercise-related deaths in Veneto, Italy [1,2]. The death rate for patients with ARVD has been estimated at 2.5% per year [3]. The main differential diagnosis of ARVD consists of right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) tachycardia, sarcoidosis, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, isolated myocarditis, adipomatosis cordis, mitral valve prolapse, non-coronary precordial ST-segment elevation (Brugada syndrome) and the Uhl anomaly, which is characterized by a paper-thin RV due to almost complete absence of myocardial fibers [4].The diagnosis of ARVD is based upon a set of major and minor criteria proposed by the Task Force of cardiomyopathies in 1994 [5]. The diagnostic criteria (Table 1) are based upon a number of diverse genetic, electrocardiographic, pathophysiologic, histopathologic and imaging abnormalities. Patients must have either two major criteria, one major and two minor criteria, or four minor criteria to be labeled as affected with ARVD.Important morphological patterns of ARVD manifestation include myocyte loss with fibro-fatty replacement of the ventricular myoc
Giant cell tumors of lower end of the radius : Problems and solutions
Dhammi I,Jain A,Maheshwari Aditya,Singh M
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics , 2005,
Abstract: Background: Giant cell tumors of bone are aggressive, potentially malignant lesions. Juxtaarticular giant cell tumours of lower end radius are common and present a special problem of reconstruction after tumor excision. Out of the various reconstructive procedures described, use of nonvascularised fibular autograft has been widely used with satisfactory functional results. Methods: Sixteen patients with a mean age of 20.2 years, with either Campanacci grade II or III histologically proven giant cell tumours of lower end radius were treated with wide excision and reconstruction with ipsilateral nonvascularised proximal fibular autograft. Host graft junction was fixed with intramedullary nail in 12 cases and DCP in last 4 cases. Wrist ligament reconstruction and fixation of the head of fibula with carpal bones using K-wires and primary cancellous iliac crest grafting at graft host junction with DCP was done in last 2 cases. Results: The follow up ranges from 2 - 5 years (mean 3.5 years). At last follow up, the average combined range of motion was 110° with range varying from 60-125°. The average grip strength was 39% in comparison to the contralateral side (range 21-88%). The average union time was 8 months (range 4-12 months). Sound union occurred in 5 months, where DCPs were used. There were 5 nonunions, one resorption of graft, 10 wrist subluxations (2 painful), one recurrence, 3 superficial infections, one wound dehiscence and one amputation. There was no case of graft fracture, metastasis, death or significant donor site morbidity. A total of 10 secondary procedures were required. Conclusions: Enbloc resection of giant cell tumours of lower end radius is a widely accepted method. Reconstruction with nonvascularised fibular graft, internal fixation with DCP with primary corticocancellous bone grafting with transfixation of the fibular head and wrist ligament reconstruction minimizes the problem and gives satisfactory functional results.
Femoral neck anteversion, acetabular anteversion and combined anteversion in the normal Indian adult population: A computed tomographic study
Maheshwari Aditya,Zlowodzki Michael,Siram Gautam,Jain Anil
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Abnormal femoral neck anteversion (FNA) and/or acetabulum anteversion (AA) have long been implicated in the etiogenesis of hip osteoarthritis (OA), developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), and impingement, instability and wear in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Since studies on the Indian population are sparse on this topic, the purpose of this study was to report the normal values of FNA, AA and the combined anteversion (CA= FNA+ AA) in Indian adults. Materials and Methods: FNA, AA and CA were prospectively measured in 172 normal hips in 86 Indian adults using standardized computed tomographic (CT) methods and this data was compared with the established Western values. Results: The median values and interquartile ranges were 8 o (6.5-10.0 o ) for FNA, 19 o (16.0-22.0 o ) for AA and 27 o (23.5-30.0 o ) for CA. AA and CA values were significantly (P< 0.05) lower in males, and there was also a trend towards lower FNA in males. Although a negative correlation was observed between the FNA and AA, this was not strong and may not be clinically relevant. Conclusion: When compared with the Western data, the FNA values were 3-12 o lower and the CA values were 3-5 o lower in Indian adults. The AA values were comparable, but were skewed towards the higher side. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical relevance of our basic science data in pathogenesis of OA, and to validate it in relation to hip surgeries like corrective osteotomies and THA.
Femoral neck anteversion: A comprehensive Indian study
Jain A,Maheshwari Aditya,Singh M,Nath S
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics , 2005,
Abstract: Background: The femoral neck anteversion has important implications. Since these values are not documented for our population, we undertook this study to define this for Indian population. Methods: FNA was calculated on 300 dry femora by the Kingsley Olmsted method, and prospectively on otherwise normal living adults by CT method (n=72 hips), by biplanar radiography (n=138 hips) and clinically (n=138 hips). Results: The mean FNA by CT was 7.4° (SD 4.6°) and more than 75% of cases were between 3.4° and 11.4°. The mean FNA by X-ray method was 11.5° (SD 5.4°) and more than 71% of cases were between 6.5° and 16.5°. The mean, clinically, was 13.1° (SD 4.6°) and almost 75% of cases were between 9.1° to 17.1°. The mean FNA on dry femora has been calculated as 8.1° (SD 6.6°) and almost 62% of cases were between 3.1° to 13.1°. The mean FNA on right side was statistically significantly 1.7° less than on the left side. Statistically significant difference between the sexes was found only by the dry bone method (F>M = 3°). Conclusions: Considering CT to be most accurate on living subjects, FNA in our study has been found to be 7.4° (SD 4.6°). It is 4 -12° lower than most of the western studies by all these methods. Readings are 4.1° higher by the X-ray method and 5.7° by the clinical method. Correlation and regression equations have also been formed between the various methods and the clinical method correlates better than the X-ray method to the CT method.
Reconstructive procedures for segmental resection of bone in giant cell tumors around the knee
Aggarwal Aditya,Jain Anil,Kumar Sudhir,Dhammi Ish
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Segmental resection of bone in Giant Cell Tumor (GCT) around the knee, in indicated cases, leaves a gap which requires a complex reconstructive procedure. The present study analyzes various reconstructive procedures in terms of morbidity and various complications encountered. Materials and Methods: Thirteen cases (M-six and F-seven; lower end femur-six and upper end tibia -seven) of GCT around the knee, radiologically either Campanacci Grade II, Grade II with pathological fracture or Grade III were included. Mean age was 25.6 years (range 19-30 years). Resection arthrodesis with telescoping (shortening) over intramedullary nail ( n=5), resection arthrodesis with an intercalary allograft threaded over a long intramedullary nail ( n=3) and resection arthrodesis with intercalary fibular autograft and simultaneous limb lengthening ( n=5) were the procedure performed. Results: Shortening was the major problem following resection arthrodesis with telescoping (shortening) over intramedullary nail. Only two patients agreed for subsequent limb lengthening. The rest continued to walk with shortening. Infection was the major problem in all cases of resection arthrodesis with an intercalary allograft threaded over a long intramedullary nail and required multiple drainage procedures. Fusion was achieved after two years in two patients. In the third patient the allograft sequestrated. The patient underwent sequestrectomy, telescoping of fragments and ilizarov fixator application with subsequent limb lengthening. The patient was finally given an ischial weight relieving orthosis, 54 months after the index procedure. After resection arthrodesis with intercalary autograft and simultaneous lengthening the resultant gap (~15cm) was partially bridged by intercalary nonvascularized dual fibular strut graft (6-7cm) and additional corticocancellous bone graft from ipsilateral patella. Simultaneous limb lengthening with a distal tibial corticotomy was performed on an ilizarov fixator. The complications were superficial infection ( n=5), stress fracture of fibula ( n=2). The stress fracture fibula required DCP fixation and bone grafting. The usual time taken for union and limb length equalization was approximately one year. Conclusion: Resection arthrodesis with intercalary dual fibular autograft and cortico-cancellous bone grafting with simultaneous limb lengthening achieved limb length equalization with relatively short morbidity.
Comparative modeling of 3-oxoacyl-acyl-carrier protein synthase I/II in Plasmodium falciparum– A potent target of malaria
Mukesh Yadav,Anuraj Nayarisseri,Girish Singh Rajput,Aditya Jain
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research , 2010,
Abstract: Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria is yet reigning against drug design community when itcomes to survival and defense. Continuous evolution and drug resistant character is foremost basis ofparasite’s versatility. 3-oxoacyl-acyl-carrier protein synthase I/II in Plasmodium falciparum is discovereddecisive in fatty acid synthesis machinery. Objectives of enzyme inhibition need structural characterizationfrom its 3D structure. In present studies molecular modeling of 3-oxoacyl-acyl-carrier protein synthase I/II isachieved using in silico comparative modeling. ICM Molsoft algorithm was adopted for comparativemodeling which provides an accurate and efficient module to build loops and side chains found non-identicalin sequence. Energy parameters fell in thermodynamically stability zone. Modeled structure revealedappreciable measures when validated. Ramachandran plot signified the present work undertaken throughconformational parameters (phi) and (psi) angles calculated from model with 83.2% residues in mostfavoured region. Further PROCHECK results confirmed acceptance of model through main and side-chainvalues. Root mean square distance of planarity found below 0.01. Beside some bad contacts, bond anglesand bond lengths confer qualitative part of work. Structure of 3-oxoacyl-acyl-carrier protein synthase I/II canbe important tool for structure based drug designing techniques to impel the search of new efficientinhibitors. Comparison of similar structures of parasite can further reveal mutational trends to study theirevolution patterns.
Large quality factor in sheet metamaterials made from dark dielectric meta-atoms
Aditya Jain,Philippe Tassin,Thomas Koschny,Costas M. Soukoulis
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.117403
Abstract: Metamaterials-or artificial electromagnetic materials-can create media with properties unattainable in nature, but mitigating dissipation is a key challenge for their further development. Here, we demonstrate a low-loss metamaterial by exploiting dark bound states in dielectric inclusions coupled to the external waves by small nonresonant metallic antennas. We experimentally demonstrate a dispersion-engineered metamaterial based on a meta-atom made from alumina, and we show that its resonance has a much larger quality factor than metal-based meta-atoms. Finally, we show that our dielectric meta-atom can be used to create sheet metamaterials with negative permittivity or permeability.
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