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Preparation and in vitro characterization of the transdermal drug delivery system containing tamoxifen citrate for breast cancer
Adhyapak Anjana,Desai B
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2011,
Abstract: A matrix-type transdermal drug delivery system of tamoxifen citrate was developed by using a different ratio of eudragit-RL100, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC-K15), and ethyl cellulose (EC), by the solvent evaporation technique. The effect of the binary mixture of polymers with a penetration enhancer on the physical chemical parameters including, thickness, folding endurance, uniformity of drug content, moisture content, moisture uptake, tensile strength, and in vitro drug permeation were evaluated. The in vitro drug permeation studies were conducted by using modified Keshary-Chein diffusion cells through female Sprague Dawley rat skin using pH 7.4 phosphate buffer saline (PBS). The selected formulation′s stability studies were conducted as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines, and did not show any degradation of the drug.
COMPARISON OF HPLC AND HPTLC TECHNIQUES FOR DETERMINATION OF UMBELLIFERONE FROM DRIED TUBER POWDER OF IPOMOEA MAURITIANA JACQ.
Shreeda Adhyapak
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2011,
Abstract: Umbelliferone is a widely occurring phenolic compound of plant origin, for which many biological activities against chronic diseases have been reported. A comparative study of HPLC and HPTLC method has been developed for the quantitation of umbelliferone from dry tuber powder of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. Both the methods were validated for linearity, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), system suitability and accuracy in accordance with ICH guidelines. The accuracy of the HPLC and HPTLC method was checked by a recovery study conducted at three different levels and values of the average percentage recoveries for these two methods were found to be 97.90 and 98.90 respectively for umbelliferone. The study showed that both the methods are of similar efficiency, sensitivity and can be used for determination umbelliferone from dried tuber powder of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq.
Formation characterization and rheological properties of zirconia and ceria-stabilized zirconia  [PDF]
Arvind K. Nikumbh, Parag V. Adhyapak
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.27086
Abstract: Zirconia and ceria-stabilized zirconia (12Ce-TZP) were synthesized by the dicarboxylate coprecipitation technique such as fumarate, succinate, tartarate and adipate. The formation of these dicarboxylate precursors was studied by elemental analysis, thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The precursors were further decomposed at 650oC for 2 hours to form respective zirconia and ceria-stabilized zirconia. The composition of these oxides was checked by Atomic absorption spectrometer and Energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The structural and morphological characterization of these oxides was done by using X-ray diffraction analysis, surface area, scanning electron micrographs and particle size distribution analysis. These properties were found depending to great extent on the nature of the precursors. The zirconia and ceria-stabilized zirconia obtained from adipate precursor were found to be good for slip- casting. The slips (i.e., suspensions) of these oxides with different solid contents were prepared at different pH with distilled water and ethanol as dispersing agents, with and without deflocculant. The suspension rheological flow (i.e., variation of shear stress and viscosity with shear rate) was determined. The minimum viscosities were observed at pH = 10.16 for ZrO2- water and pH = 10.26 for 12Ce–TZP-water system. The slip, green and sedimentation bulk density were measured.
Zipping and Entanglement in Flagellar Bundle of E. Coli: Role of Motile Cell Body
Tapan Chandra Adhyapak,Holger Stark
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.052701
Abstract: The course of a peritrichous bacterium such as E. coli crucially depends on the level of synchronization and self-organization of several rotating flagella. However, the rotation of each flagellum generates counter body movements which in turn affect the flagellar dynamics. Using a detailed numerical model of an E. coli, we demonstrate that flagellar entanglement, besides fluid flow relative to the moving body, dramatically changes the dynamics of flagella from that compared to anchored flagella. In particular, bundle formation occurs through a zipping motion in a remarkably rapid time, affected little by initial flagellar orientation. A simplified analytical model supports our observations. Finally, we illustrate how entanglement, hydrodynamic interactions, and body movement contribute to zipping and bundling.
Modeling of Surface Waves in a Fluid Saturated Poro-Elastic Medium under Initial Stress Using Time-Space Domain Higher Order Finite Difference Method  [PDF]
Anjana P. Ghorai, R. Tiwary
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.43070
Abstract: In this present context, mathematical modeling of the propagation of surface waves in a fluid saturated poro-elastic medium under the influence of initial stress has been considered using time dependent higher order finite difference method (FDM). We have proved that the accuracy of this finite-difference scheme is 2M when we use 2nd order time domain finite-difference and 2M-th order space domain finite-difference. It also has been shown that the dispersion curves of Love waves are less dispersed for higher order FDM than of lower order FDM. The effect of initial stress, porosity and anisotropy of the layer in the propagation of Love waves has been studied here. The numerical results have been shown graphically. As a particular case, the phase velocity in a non porous elastic solid layer derived in this paper is in perfect agreement with that of Liu et al. (2009).
Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of Torsional Surface Waves in a Transverse Isotropic Elastic Solid Semi-Infinite Medium with Varying Rigidity and Density under a Rigid Layer  [PDF]
Anjana P. Ghorai, Rekha Tiwary
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.56083
Abstract:

In this paper, mathematical modeling of the propagation of torsional surface waves in a transverse isotropic elastic medium with varying rigidity and density under a rigid layer has been considered. The equation of motion has been formulated in the elastic medium using suitable boundary conditions. The frequency equation containing Whittaker’s function for phase velocity due to torsional surface waves has been derived. The effect of rigid layer in the propagation of torsional surface waves in a transverse isotropic elastic medium with varying rigidity and density has been discussed. The numerical results have been shown graphically. It is observed that the influence of transverse and longitudinal rigidity and density of the medium have a remarkable effect on the propagation of the torsional surface waves. Frequency equations have also been derived for some particular cases, which are in perfect agreement with some standard results.

Tweed's Diagnostic Facial Triangle for Nepalese Adults
Anjana Rajbhandari
Orthodontic Journal of Nepal , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/ojn.v1i1.9359
Abstract: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ojn.v1i1.9359 Orthodontic Journal of Nepal Vol.1(1) 2011: 11-15
Scattering states of a particle, with position-dependent mass, in a double heterojunction
Anjana Sinha
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1209/0295-5075/96/20008
Abstract: In this work we obtain the exact analytical scattering solutions of a particle (electron or hole) in a semiconductor double heterojunction - potential well / barrier - where the effective mass of the particle varies with position inside the heterojunctions. It is observed that the spatial dependence of mass within the well / barrier introduces a nonlinear component in the plane wave solutions of the continuum states. Additionally, the transmission coefficient is found to increase with increasing energy, finally approaching unity, whereas the reflection coefficient follows the reverse trend and goes to zero.
Classical Trajectories of the Continuum States of the ${\cal{PT}}$ symmetric Scarf II potential
Anjana Sinha
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1209/0295-5075/98/60005
Abstract: We apply the factorization technique developed by Kuru et. al. [Ann. Phys. {\bf 323} (2008) 413] to obtain the exact analytical classical trajectories and momenta of the continuum states of the non Hermitian but ${\cal{PT}}$ symmetric Scarf II potential. In particular, we observe that the strange behaviour of the quantum version at the spectral singularity has an interesting classical analogue.
Three Dimensional Confinement : WKB Revisited
Anjana Sinha
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: An alternate formalism is developed to determine the energy eigenvalues of quantum mechanical systems, confined within a rigid impenetrable spherical box of radius $r_0$, in the framework of Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. Instead of considering the Langer correction for the centrifugal term, the approach adopted here is that of Hainz and Grabert : The centrifugal term is expanded perturbatively (in powers of $\hbar$), decomposing it into 2 terms -- the classical centrifugal potential and a quantum correction. Hainz and Grabert found that this method reproduced the exact energies of the hydrogen atom, to the first order in $\hbar$, with all higher order corrections vanishing. In the present study, this formalism is extended to the case of radial potentials under hard wall confinement, to check whether the same argument holds good for such confined systems as well. As explicit examples, 3 widely known potentials are studied, which are of considerable importance in the theoretical treatment of various atomic phenomena involving atomic transitions, viz., the 3-dimensional harmonic oscillator, the hydrogen atom, and the Hulthen potential.
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